WWF_GT06177_ID315_CRA in mixed smallholder farming systems in KZN and EC. September 2021
WWF-Milestone 4: Third progress report and Provision
of learning and implementation support for CRA
practices using a Participatory Innovation Development
During this period, village-based learning groups,8 in KZN and EC respectively, have continued with their prioritized CRA
learning and implementation processes. The field cropping (Conservation Agriculture) was finalised, and in-depth crop
related data and yields were collated. The winter season was ushered in by a focus on micro-tunnels (30) and initiation of
micro poultry production businesses (100). In-depth monitoring has been undertaken for poultry production for 38
Participants have also been supported in their winter fodder supplementation experimentation processes (18), calf rearing
(21) and rabbit production (2). Participants have prepared their potato seed and fruit tree orders for September 2021.
Monthly farmers market stalls have been undertaken for 8 villages in Bergville and Ozwathini, involving 49 participants. An
overall income of R27,680.00 have been realized between end May and August 2021.Market exploration workshops have
been held in Ngongonini (SKZN) and 5 villages in the EC (Nkau, Mafube, Rashule Umngeni and Lufefeni). In addition,
collaboration with LMs in KZN (Umgeni, Ubuhlebezwe and Okhahlamba) has continued and arrangements are being made
with the Bergville Fresh Produce market as a venue for smallholder marketing.
Stakeholder engagement in the period has included co-convening of the Okhahlamba Multistakeholder Platform under the
Living Catchments Programme (SANBi), presentation of a case study in the 8th World Conference in Agriculture,
participating in a PAR process under Research for Climate Justice (UCT and Coventry University, UK), participation in KZN
Climate Council meetings and attendance of climate change learning webinars under the auspices of an EU Climate
Champions programme, among others.
Project No and Title
GT06177_ID315_ Climate Resilient Agriculture in mixed smallholder farming systems allows for
sustainable food and nutrition security and local incomes for the rural poor in the lower
Drakensberg foothills of KZN and the Eastern Cape.
Date of approval
6th October 2020
Start and end date
1st October 2020-30th September 2022
Project value
R3 000 000
Contractor’s name
Mahlathini Development Foundation
Project objectives
Increased productivity and resilience in the mixed smallholder farming system through
implementation of a basket of Climate Resilient Agriculture practices:
1. Work with existing CCA learning groups to scale up production in the short term within the
confines of the COVID-19 pandemic
2. Support a range of intensified food production activities; vegetable production, field cropping
and livestock integration
3. Improve social agency for value chain support (VSLAs’, bulk buying, local farmer centres
and local marketing initiatives)
Project outcomes
Outcome1 - Food and nutrition security athousehold levelfor poor, ruralhomesteads with
enough farming income to sustainably maintain farming activities in the short term
WWF_GT06177_ID315_CRA in mixed smallholder farming systems in KZN and EC. September 2021
1.Activity 1 - Learning group review and planning sessions to prioritize each participant’s most
appropriate basket of CRA practices to be implemented, within the present confined of the
COVID-19 pandemic and climate change
2.Activity 2 - Prioritize a basket of appropriate adaptive practices for the individuals and groups
involved within different thematic categories: Crops, livestock, water, soil and natural resources
3.Activity 3 - Provide learning and implementation support for the CRA* practices using a
Participatory Innovation Development (PID) approach
Outcome 2 - Development of social agency for community led local economic development and
social safety net Improvement of the natural resource base
4.Activity 1 - Build social and economic capital within each of the learning groups using
approaches such as Village savings and loans associations (VSLAs), farmer centres, small
business development and local marketing initiatives
5.Activity 2 - Set up a participatory monitoring and evaluation (PM&E) system for monitoring and
assessing the impact of the CSA practices on livelihoods and resilience.
6.Activity 3 - Use an iterative approach of farmer level experimentation and social learning to
build local adaptation and innovation capacity
Reporting period
October 2020- 22 January 2021
approved changes
Changes in
capacity to deliver
The last three months have been focused primarily on field cropping with Conservation Agriculture and livestock integration
activities. 112 Participants in KZN and 60 in Matatiele (EC), have implemented a range of practices including intercropping,
cover crops, short season maize varieties, use of two row tractor drawn planters, strip cropping, production of livestock
fodder and poultry feed, production of seed for OPV cover crops and legumes and crop growth and progress has been
We have also initiated the winter season activities around poultry (broilers, layers) and tunnel construction for intensive
organic vegetable production, both with provision of the materials and training.
We have continued with local marketing processes, both with organic produce market tables at central points, such as
pension days, hospitals and taxi ranks, and also with exploringoptions for community-based livestock auctions.
Table 1: Progress against specific outcomes and activities for the period June-September 2021
Progress (Milestone 4)
security at
1. Learning group review
and planning sessions
KZN: Ezibomvini, Stulwane, Vimbukhalo, Madzikane, Gobizembe,
Ozwathini, Spring Valley,Ngongonini, Ofafa
EC: Rashule Nkau, Mafube, Mzongwana (Lufefeni, Mngeni, Chibini,
Annual review sessions to assess progress and plan the 2021/22 planting
season in progress. Planning sessions held for poultry (broilers and layers)
and winter fodder supplementation. Initial review of marketing explorations
done in Bergville and Ozwathini and initial planning in KSZN and EC.
2. Prioritized baskets of
appropriate practises
Gardening: Tunnels, drip irrigation, mixed cropping, herbs and multi-
purpose crops
Livestock integration: Winter fodder supplementation and baling of hay.
Initiation of micro poultry enterprises (broilers and layers). Use of cut grass
for composting of poultry and livestock manure.
WWF_GT06177_ID315_CRA in mixed smallholder farming systems in KZN and EC. September 2021
3. Learning and
implementation support
Conservation Agriculture:
Seasonal reviews, learning inputs on mycotoxins, soil health and
water productivity
Livestock integration:
Poultry production learning workshops KZN and EC (x 9)
Continuation with calf rearing and buying and selling of calves and
weaners in Ozwathini
Cutting of veld grass for baling and winter feed supplementation
In depth poultry monitoring and individual mentoring
Tunnel construction training KZN and EC-, 30 tunnels
Drip kit construction learning workshops for each village where
tunnels have bene constructed (13)
agency for
LED and
social safety
1. VSLAs, business
development, farmer
Local marketing exploration workshops: Ngongonini (SKZN),
Naku, Mafube, Rashule, Mngeni and Lufefeni (EC)
Monthly farmers market stalls for 8 villages from Bergville and
Ozwathini: May-August 2021
Meetings with Umgeni (Pietermaritzburg), Ubuhlebezwe (Ixopo)
and Okhahlamba (Bergville) LMs regarding collaboration and
options for local marketing initiatives in their areas
12 VSLA’s in KZN; monthly mentoring and share out meetings
Workshops with VSLA committee members and groups x 2
regarding alternative approaches to bulk loan funds in VSLAs and
saving for inputs.
2. PM&E system and
CA yield monitoring, reviews and replanning, quantitative
sampling and analysis for soil health, water productivity etc.
Poultry monitoring for 38 individuals
In-depth record keeping of poultry orders and farmer contributions
In depth income monitoring for market stalls
Team review for local marketing process
3. Iterative PID approach
for improved adaptation
and innovation
CA review and learning sessions and soil sampling
Poultry management and feeding learning focus after initial
Re-orientation of marketing options and more intensive production
Progress overview.
CRA support for different activities is seasonal. During this period (May-September 2021) the following activities have been
The Conservation Agriculture (field cropping) activities were finalized for 172 participants and yield and production
summaries were undertaken.
Support for micro poultry enterprises have been given focus and a total of 56 participants have been supported
with broilers and 42 with layers. Learning workshops have been held in 8 villages. This activity is extremely
popular, as a quick win production strategy for income generation and demand has far outstripped our ability to
support smallholders.
Gardening (vegetable production) is traditionally a winter activity and 30 participants have been supported with
micro-tunnels and drip irrigation kits. Learning workshops have been held in 10 villages. A further 30 tunnels are
presently on order.
Livestock integration activities supported has been the cutting and baling of veld grass, baling of some of the
cover crop stover and supplementation of a selected number of livestock for participant farmers with nitrogen rich
WWF_GT06177_ID315_CRA in mixed smallholder farming systems in KZN and EC. September 2021
supplements for the winter period (LS33, Premix 450 and protein blocks). 18 farmers, all from Bergville have
volunteered for this activity. Support for intensive calf rearing with 21 participants in the Midlands has continued.
Discussions have been held regarding participation in local livestock auctions.
55 (75)
80 (48)
From the table above:
CA participants numbers 172. This large number was facilitated through support also from the Maize Trust and
the KZNDARD LandCare programme.
Tunnels are ordered in batches from Sociotechnical Interfacing. The initial batch of 30 have been constructed
from the kits provided, including bucket drip systems. A further 40 micro-tunnels are on order. Each is around
30m2 in size.
Demands for both broilers and layers has been high and much higher than budgeted for initially, thus the 57 micro
broiler production units and the 43 layer production units supported. Thus 100 participants have been supported
instead of the 50 participants proposed.
Demand for grass cutting, baling and winter feed supplementation has been quite low. This activity requires a
significant effort and change in the livestock management approach of farmers. 18 Smallholders, all from
Bergville have undertaken this activity.
Note: farmers volunteer for and undertake specific CRA activities according to their interest and motivation. For each activity
there is a significant labour and financial commitment required from the farmers
Specific learning and mentoring activities have included:
No of
Poultry production:
Basics in management,
feeding and health
Conducted in 8 villages:
Ozwathini (18), Spring valley (9),
Ngongonini (11), Ezibomvini
(16), Stulwane, (22), Vimbukhalo
(7), Eqeleni (11) Nkau (10),
Mzongwana (18) and Rashule
(9). With follow up sessions and
Ngongonini: 30/04, 06/05, 01/06, 03/06
Madzikane: 06/05, 10/07
Spring valley: 03/06, 09/06,15/06,29/06,19/07
Nkau, Mafube, Rashule, Mzongwana: 07/05, 13/05,
27-27/05,06-08/07, 16/07, 20-22/07
Ozwathini:03/04, 06/05, 06/07, 16/07, 21/07
Mayizekanye: 06/05, 18/06, 19/07
Gobizembe: 18/06, 19/07
Vimbukhalo, Eqeleni, Stulwane, Ezibomvini: 28-
29/04, 04/06, 11/06, 23/06, 06/07, 20/07
Tunnel construction:
trench beds, mixed
Conducted in 10 villages:
Ngongonini (8), Spring Valley
(11), Nkau (12), Ozwathini (15),
Nkau: 13/05
Spring Valley: 19-20/05
Ngongonini: 26/05
WWF_GT06177_ID315_CRA in mixed smallholder farming systems in KZN and EC. September 2021
cropping, mulching,
Gobizembe (7), Mayizekanye
(6), Ezibomvini (13), Eqeleni (7),
Stulwane (16), Vimbukhalo (9)
Ozwathini:08/06, 15/06
Stulwane: 11/05, 13/05,01/06, 10/06, 29/06
Vimbukhalo 18/05, 07/07
Eqeleni: 02/06, 22/07
Ezibomvini: 24/06, 30/06, 23/07
Local marketing:
introduction workshops
Conducted in 5 villages:
Ngongonini/Nokweja (9),
Lufefeni (29), Nkau (16),
Emngeni (10), Rashule (20)
Lufefeni: 04/08
Nkau: 03/08, 12/08
Marketing planning:
logistics and progress
Conducted in 4 villages:
Ozwathini (19), Vimbukhalo (12),
Ezibomvini (19), Stulwnae (21),
Eqelni (13)
Ozwathini: 25-26/05, 01-04/06, 08-09/07
Vimbukhalo: 28/04
Ezibomvini, Stulwane, Eqeleni:05/05, 07/05, 08-
09/06, 09-10/07
Livestock feed
requirements, veld and
condition, nitrogen
supplement in winter,
haymaking, and baling
Conducted in 3 villages:
Stulwane (22), ezibomvini (16),
Eqeleni (11)
Stulwane:17/05, 02/07
Eqeleni, Ezibomvini: 07-08/07
Poultry monitoring Narrative report: Introduction
Support for poultry micro businesses, both broilers and layers has been provided between May and September 2021. This
has included learning sessions for 131 participants (3 in Matatiele, 2 in Midlands, 1 in SKZN and 2 in Bergville), subsidized
provision of inputs (day old chicks, point of lay hens, drinkers, feeders and medication) for 98 beneficiaries as well as
mentoring and in-depth monitoring for 38 participants in total.
The demand for this activity has been a lot higher than anticipated. Subsidization from MDF has been the following:
10 Day old chicks with 12,5kg of starter and grower mash and 1 drinker and 1 feeder per participant for broilers
10 Point of Lay hens with 25kg of layers mash and 1 drinker and 1 feeder.
Transport of these resources to farmers’ homesteads.
Farmers pay towards subsequent purchases of feed and further batches of day-old chicks and POL hens. MDF collates
these orders and delivers to farmers in consolidated batches, to coincide with already planned field trips. To date 8
participants have started on their 2nd batch of poultry production.
In general participants have learnt about rationing feed for both broilers and layers, rather than arbitrary or demand feeding,
to reduce wastage. With the low numbers of poultry, over-feeding reduces the profit potential dramatically. Around 35% of
participants are still over feeding to an extent where the profits for this quarter were lower than their input costs.
They have also learnt about proper housing and providing of bedding for their poultry, as well as lighting and heating
programmes for their broilers and have learnt about vaccination and vitamin boosters to improve flock health and reduce
1.1.1Financial summary
As of end July 2021 R138, 442 was spent on input support for poultry and farmers paid in R41, 395 towards their orders.
The budget assumed around 50 participants per annum. As transport and delivery is one of the major constraints in micro-
poultry operations in the rural areas, this type of subsidization has drawn participants in numbers. For the next rounds of
orders, bulk buying and local transport arrangements are to be explored.
Beneficiaries have mentioned that they are making a good income from their broilers and layers respectively and are
additionally supplying their households with eggs and meat. Around 44% of beneficiaries wish to further increase their flock
sizes, which presently average 27 per batch for broilersand 32 layers. Average monthly incomes from sales at pension
points, market days and farmgate sales are R1,113.08 (min -R1,387.50 and max R9,184.97) for broilers and R928.88 (min
WWF_GT06177_ID315_CRA in mixed smallholder farming systems in KZN and EC. September 2021
R105.00 and max R8,560.00) for eggs. Beneficiaries are 95% female, ranging between 23 and 79 years of age, with an
average monthly income of R2,007.15 per participant. See Annexure 1 for a detailed monitoring breakdown).
A few innovations were noticed among the participants. A few farmers in Ozwathini (Midlands) slaughter their own birds and
sell refrigerated and frozen chicken pieces at the market days. This value addition allows for higher prices and also for not
having to keep feeding the birds for periods of time after reaching their full weight. Continuing to feed broilersafter 6-7
weeks of age, substantially reduces profit potential as they consume a lot of feed just to maintain weight.
In Matatiele one of the young farmers separates any birds that are ill from the rest of her flock and has managed to
significantly reduce mortalities in this way.
In Bergville two different farmers made themselves moveable chicken pens- or “chicken tractors” to allow their flocksto
scratch and scavenge a little during the day.
Below is a summarized list of issues:
Not measuring the amount of feed per bird per day and over feeding in some cases
No disinfection measures in the poultry house- or not enough
Saw dust gets damp and birds get sick - not changed often enough or at all
Must have heat and light for increased growth- especially in winter
Keeping records of feeding, cost of feed, no of bags, etc.
Layers are getting sick
Buying feed is expensive and can be a problem.
Use dry manure and old blankets for as floor coverings, some use dry grass not sure this is goodenough
Not all broilers sold…Especially Vimbukhalo
Some participants vaccinated their chicks late and lost many, up to 35%
Feeding of day-old chicks - specific feeders would be nice
Transport costs for feed in Matatiele are exorbitant.
Figure 1: Matatiele Left, Nompumelelo Mbobo's innovation on chick feeder and drinker using milk containers. Centre, Nolast
Njokweni's chicks on warm horse manure inside a corner in her kitchen while she cooks. Right, Nteboheng Mahase's chicks in
a rondavel with a fire
WWF_GT06177_ID315_CRA in mixed smallholder farming systems in KZN and EC. September 2021
Figure 2 :Right:
Tamane from
Nkau (EC) with a
tray of her eggs
for sale. Far
Reight: Keneuoe
Thelejane, one of
the youth
members with her
newly started
layer initiative
Figure 3: Bergville: Left: Nothile
Zondi in Stulwane has managed her
broilers well and wishes to expand
her batches from 20 to 40 broilers.
Right: Nowkanda Dladla from
Ezibomvini has made bedding from
cut grass for her broilers.
Figure 4: Right: Chicken tractor made by
Khulekani Dalda from Stulwane and Far
Right: Nothile Zondi’s chicken tractor, also in
WWF_GT06177_ID315_CRA in mixed smallholder farming systems in KZN and EC. September 2021
Figure 5: Above Left: Nokhuthula Dube’s broilers with the heating light visible and Above centre and Right: Nompumelelo Buthelezi’s
layers and broilers. Both participants are form Ozwathini in the Mildands.
Figure 6: Right and
Far Right; September
Skhakhane has both
broilers and traditional
chickens in chicken
houses built to
purpose (Ozwathini,
Figure 7: Right: Housing
arrangement for Doris
Chamane’s layers and
Far Right: for Martina
Xulu’s layers, both from
Ozwathini (Midlands).
Gardening: Tunnels and drip kits
For implementation of vegetable production 30 mini tunnel and drip kits have been procuredfrom Socio-techincal
interfacing. A training was held in March 2021 to familiarize staff with the construction and tunnels and drip kits have been
implemented between May-August 2021.
Farmers volunteer for these tunnels. Requirements are that they need to be able to show that they have been active in
gardening, have a suitably fenced area for the tunnel and have access to water and labour to do gardening. In addition each
farmer is required to dig and pack 3 trench beds (1mx5m) , over which the tunnel will be built, prior to receiving a tunnel.
They are provided with learning in mixed cropping, mulching and irrigation for implementation in their tunnels. Participants
WWF_GT06177_ID315_CRA in mixed smallholder farming systems in KZN and EC. September 2021
have ordered and paid for seedlings for these tunnels and seed/seedlings of new and different types of vegetables and
herbs have also been provided to participants.
The tunnels have been put up as follows:
EC- Matatiele
Stulwane (5)
Spring Valley (2)
Gobizembe (1)
Nkau (3)
Vimbukhalo (5)
Madzikane (2)
Ozwathini (4)
Ezibomvini (2)
Mayizekanye (2)
Eqeleni (2)
For the 14 tunnels built in the Bergville area, a local group of youth were trained up to assist households in setting up the
tunnels and drip kits. Another 30 tunnels are on order to be put up in the next three months, primarily in Bergville and the
Tunnel construction requires several steps including:
Bending of conduit piping to make arches using a jig designed for the purpose
Sewing of netting panels, first to each other, then to the arches
Layout of the tunnel on the ground using the template
Making of the holes for the arches using the custom-made pipe
‘Planting’ the arches and then sewing on the netting
Burying of netting edges into the soil around the edges of the tunnel
Putting in the anchor ropes and standards and
Making up the drip kits to fit includingcutting of pipe lengths, making the of the string drippers and assembling
the bucket and lines.
The pictures below are indicative
Figure 8: Above Left: Trench beds being prepared for Ntombifuthi Mkhize (Stulwane, Bergville) and Right: Ensuring the correct layout
using the string template at Landiwe Dlamini’s homestead (Ezibomvini, Bergville)
Figure 9: Right;
Sewing netting onto
one of the arches
and Far-Right:
Putting up the arches
for the tunnel.
WWF_GT06177_ID315_CRA in mixed smallholder farming systems in KZN and EC. September 2021
Figure 10: Above Left and Right- Final sewing of the panels onto the arches and putting up the string and Y-standard anchors for the
tunnels as two different households. Not that the beds are planted to seedlings on the same day.
Figure 11: Above Left: One of the youth group members assisting with tunnel construction. Above right: Growing crops (spinach, onions,
Chinese cabbage, and cabbage in one of the tunnels.
Figure 12: Above
Left: Nombono
Dladla with her
(Ezibomvini), and
Top Right:
extended vegetable
garden. Bottom
Right: A tunnel
planted to cabbage,
mustard spinach,
spinach and spring
onions (Stulwane).
WWF_GT06177_ID315_CRA in mixed smallholder farming systems in KZN and EC. September 2021
Figure 13: Above Left: Tunnel in Ozwathini, showing a greater degree of mixed cropping and inclusion of herbs and Above Right: Tunnel
construction and bed preparation for Martha Mbongwe form Nkau (EC). Crops planted were mustard spinach, chinese cabbage, beetroot,
kale, rocket, fennel, lavender, parsley, cabbage, swiss chard, lettuce, broccoli, cauliflower, peppers, chillies, onions
Fodder supplementation
Here participants have been slowly and systematically cutting and baling grass using a brush cutter and the small manual
balers provided. Four fodder supplementation workshops outlining the livestock nutrition and feeding were held in Stulwae,
Eqelni, Ezibomvini and Vimbukhalo respectively in early July 2021. From these workshops participants undertook their
experimentation protocols, in terms of feeding supplements either separately or with collected stover and grass, as well as
bales for those who managed to cut. The grass cutting was affected by the social unrest, and althoughlate, isstill ongoing.
The table below provides a summary of the participants.
Name & Surname
Type of Supplements
Cows Feeding
Nothile Zondi
Dlezakhe Hlongwane
Khulekani Dladla
Thokozile Hlophe
Thulani Buthelezile
Premix 450
Sabelo Mbhele
Dombolo Dlamini
Thulani Dlamini
Sithabiso Manyathi
Simephi Hlatshwayo
Premix 450
Thulile Zikode
Lungile Dladla
Phumelele Hlongwane
Ntombenhle Hlongwane
Gebezi Zondo
Zibonele Sithole
Zweni Ndaba
Khosani Hlongwane
WWF_GT06177_ID315_CRA in mixed smallholder farming systems in KZN and EC. September 2021
From the table it can be seen that participating farmers undertake to feed specific livestock form their heard, usually those
who have small calves, are very thin, or are sick. The impact of the feeding will be monitoring using a body condition score
template and form.
Below are a few indicative photographs.
Figure 14:Stulwane. Right: Thulani Dlamini collecting cut grass form the veld for baling. And Far Right: Nothile Zondi making bales from
her cut and collected grass
Figure 15: Above Left: An example of an enclosure built for the grass bales. Above Centre: Khulekani Dladla set up a feeding station in his
kraal where he cut and carry leguminous stover from his CA fields and Above Right: Thulani Buthelezi , set out feeding bowls of premix
450, that his cattle ate together with the maize stover off his CA cropping fields.
Local marketing
The assumption is that through intensified and expanded CRA production, smallholder farmers can take advantage of a
larger local demand for food through linking into existinglocal marketing avenues such as pension pay out point, clinics,
schools and taxi ranks for example and setting up their own local marketing options.The concept has been twofold in terms
of discussing with the learning groups options for local marketing through a SWOT analysis and deciding on best bet options
to try out and to include youth consciously into this process. The idea was that youth could fulfil a logistical and support role,
WWF_GT06177_ID315_CRA in mixed smallholder farming systems in KZN and EC. September 2021
by setting up a marketing intermediary business for themselves. They would coordinate the farmers, their produce
availability, transport options and do some of the marketing themselves and in this way also provide an income for
This process was initiated and has been continued for Ozwathini and Bergville. After the initial round of farmers’ markets a
team review session was held (14 June 2021), led by the project’s external evaluator Margaret Jack. The report is attached
in Annexure 2. In summary these market stalls were much more successful than expected. Some assumptions made by
both the team and the farmers about what would and wouldn’t sell were not accurate. Given the initial success the markets
are to be continued and more effort was made to introduce this concept and start local marketing initiatives also in SKZN
and the EC.
Below is a summary of Farmers Markets conducted between April and July 2021. The August markets were all cancelled
due to the civil unrest in the province. Most rural pension pay-outs were cancelled and due to continued nervousness of
people in general, the markets were not held.
Summary of market incomes for Bergville: April- July 2021
No of
Produce; in order of sales
R2 419,00
Pork meat, dry beans, traditional mats, vegetables,
pumpkins, processed chilli, green maize, eggs
R1 580,00
Vegetables, pork meat, dry beans, dry maize, sweet
potatoes, pumpkins, incema, broilers
R11 527,50
Eggs, pork, sweet potato, mealie cake, broilers, beans,
R5 072,00
Pork meat, broilers, vegetables, pinafores, dry beans,
dry maize, processed chilli, vegetables
R3 415,00
Pork meat, vegetables, broilers, processed chilli, dry
R3 866,00
Bamshela -
Prok, bans, slaughtered chikcens, eggs, amadumbe,
potatoes, cabbage, swt potato, carrots, spinach,
avocado, pumpkins
R27 879,50
Note 1: Bergville vegetables include: Spinach, cabbage, mustard spinach, brinjals, tomatoes, onions, spring onions, green peppers
Note 2: Ozwathini vegetables include: Cabbage, green beans, broccoli, cauliflower, spinach, tomatoes, carrots, chillies, lettuce,
pumpkins. Fruit include Avocados, lemons and naartjies
Note 3: Bergville: Little to no sale of butternut, eggs, traditional craft, brooms
Note 4: Ozwathini: Little to no sale of pumpkins and dry maize
WWF_GT06177_ID315_CRA in mixed smallholder farming systems in KZN and EC. September 2021
Ozwathini is a reasonably densely populated rural community close to larger city centres such as Wartburg, Tongaat and
Pietermaritzburg. Here participants have had a lot more experience with marketing and exploring a range of marketing
avenues, shown in the figure below.
There have been a number of local marketing explorations:
1.The Ozwathini Farmers’ Association has been in talks with local businesses in a bid to forge business
relationships. Initially the group approached local businesses in Bhamshela to engage them in talks on how they
can work with local producers rather than using external suppliers. This exercise yielded no results, and the group
then organised a march in order to get the business’ owner’s attention which was slightly more successful as
some of the local shops agreed to work with local suppliers. Boxer however instructed the farmers to approach
their head office and apply there as that is their normal process. It is unclear where the relationship with local
suppliers is headed, as business owners can not be forced to take produce form specific people.
2.UMgungundlovu Municipality in partnership with DUT, and Government Departments came up with a concept of
launching Phakama Market as an effort to support smallholder and emerging producers in and around the city.
The idea was to set up the Market in Pietermartizburg with producers having individual stalls. A committee was set
up to facilitate this process, with MDF having been requested supply names of farmers with produce around
Swaymane and Ozwathini areas. The initial date of Phakama launch was the 19th of December but due to
unforeseen circumstances the date was pushed forward to the 19th of June. It still did not materialise as a result of
the rise in COVID-19 cases and also due to lack of communication between the stakeholders. As it stands it is
unclear when the Phakama launch will take place.
3.A farmers market stall at Bamshela- a small rural centre in the vicinity. Initially farmers were very sceptical but
were eventually persuaded to attempt thismarket. For the first eventin June 2021, 16 farmers participatedand
took home R11 528. This has now become a viable option
In preparation for these markets, farmers came together to discuss produce, packaging and also pricing. It was agreed to
set prices for all produce and not use the disparate prices for different farmers. The table below outlines the prices agreed
Name of Commodity
Extra Large
R 15.00
R 25.00
R 40.00
R 50.00
Very high
Green mealies
Per cob
Very High
R 10.00
Very high
havelocal coordinator
-Challenge with
prices beinglow at
-Fairly reliableand
most farmers depend
on this type
-Smaller market
-Muchless reliable
-Peoplehave a tendencyto buy
on credit,
-Many peopleinvolvedin
production, therefore high
-Jealousyis an issue
Local institutions have
alreadybeen infiltrated by
external suppliers
-Small percentageof
farmers suply these
-No formal agreements in
-Takeproducefrom individual
farmers from time to time
-Farmers in negotiations with
them to establish amore
formal relationship
-Phakamalaunch: still in
the pipeline
WWF_GT06177_ID315_CRA in mixed smallholder farming systems in KZN and EC. September 2021
20 litre bucket
10 litre bucket
5 litre bucket
R 150.00
R 70.00
R 40.00
Sweet Potatoes
20 litre bucket
10 litre bucket
5 litre bucket
R 120.00
R 60.00
R 30.00
5 kg
2 kg
R 130.00
R 70.00
Dry maize
10 kg
5 kg
Broilers (live)
Broilers (Slaughtered)
1 Bird
1 Bird
Eggs (tray of 30)
0.5 kg
Oranges &lemons
Pack of 4
Per fruit
R 5.00
R 10.00
R 10.00
Bottled Chillies
1 Bottle
Loose chillies
R 5.00
Green beans
1 head
1 pack
WWF_GT06177_ID315_CRA in mixed smallholder farming systems in KZN and EC. September 2021
Marketing was done mainly through social media, putting up of posters in different areas and word of mouth. This marketing
drive appears to have assisted markedly in sales and around R2,500.00 of produce was sold through the Whatsapp and
Facebook pages.
Participants also paid attention to presentation and packaging.
Figure 16: Right: Clockwise form Tope
left: Amadume in netting bags, lemons in
packets, trays of eggs, mealie breads,
beans in branded packets and nice large
WWF_GT06177_ID315_CRA in mixed smallholder farming systems in KZN and EC. September 2021
Figure 17: Above Left: A view of the herbs and vegetables , as well as different types of dry beans sold oat the July 7th Ozwathini Market
and Above Right: A view of the stall.
In Bergville farmers have agreed to keep their individual prices and no marketing has been done to date. As farmers here
have less contact with cities and less experience in marketing, they prefer to try and sell surplus of what they have grown for
their households. Here the market stalls, based at rural pension points have made between ~R1 600-R3 520/ market day,
still a very healthy sum and the markets have fared a lot better than expected.
Figure 18:Above Left and Right: The farmers’ market stall at Emmaus in June and July 2021 respectively.
A small analysis of the participantsfor the 4 markets conducted in Bergville to date indicate that 33 farmers across 4 villages
have participated. 95 of these participants have attended all 4 markets, 3% have attended 3 markets, 30% have attended 2
markets and 58% only 1 market. Participants havemade between R50 and R605 per participant per market. Reasons for
not attending all the markets are:
A few participants only had enough surplus to provide enough for sale for one market
A few participants did not sell anything on their first market and then did not come again. Also, those who made
very little, did not attend a second time
Arrangements have been made by participants to select one person per market to undertake the selling of Pork meat and a
similar arrangement will now be put in place for broilers, as more and more participants have broilers for sale.
WWF_GT06177_ID315_CRA in mixed smallholder farming systems in KZN and EC. September 2021
Collaboration with the Okhahlamba LM LED section has led to a joint agreement and initiative for use of the Bergville fresh
Produce market by MDF as a venue for sales for smallholder farmers. As the location of the market is awkward in terms of
access and as smallholders cannot sustain the quantities and continuity generally expected from fresh produce markets, this
venue will also be used working with the farmers market concept. A summary of the concept andactions is provided in
Annexure 3.
Strengthening of Innovation platforms and networks
The table below summarizes stakeholder interactions for the period (May-August 2021).
Local municipality
Okhalhlamba LM: Fresh produce market and
materials provision
Ubuhlwbezwe Agricultural task team
Local chicken abattoir visit
Phakama markets (Pietermaritzburg)
21/07, 28/07, 03/08, 27/08
25/05, 10/06
05/06, 19/06
SANBI Living catchment
Co-convening of Okhahlamba Multistakeholder
Forum with the INR.
20/05, 15/06, 19/07
8th world Congress on
Conservation Agriculture
Bern Switzerland 21-23 June 2021.SESSSION:
Experiences and Investments in Conservation
Agriculture and Sustainable Mechanization for
Smallholders in Africa (23rd June). Case study II:
Conservation Agriculture Innovation Systems Build
Climate Resilience for Smallholder Farmers in
South Africa. Erna Kruger, Mahlathini Development
Farming for Climate Justice
Participatory research support process through
UCT and Coventry University, UK. Subgroup on
solidarity economies, led by Tema Mathebula from
MDF, in Ozwathini
23/07, 28/07, 03/08, 10/08, 24/08
ESS research - WRC
UKZN research in ecosystem services mapping
supported by MDF
01/07, 07/07, 11-12/08, 17-19/08
Climate champions capacity
building webinars
EU funded Innovative partnerships for change
programme. Attend webinar series. 3-4 staff
members: Erna Kruger, Michael Malinga,Mazwi
Dlamini, Tema Mathebula
29/07, 05/08, 12/08, 26/08, 19/08,
02/09,09/09 and 16/09
KZN Climate change and
Sustainable Development
This is an initiative of the Premiers Office. MDF is
one of a few CSO representatives Michael
25/05, with monthly meetings after
Agroecology garden
Premier’s Office
08/02, 09/01
For the Village Savings and Loan Associations (VSLAs) an exploratory process has been put in place to tailor these groups
more towards being able to support productive activities. New models need to be developed for these groups to be able to
accommodate larger production loans, more savings and longer saving cycles. Led by Mr Nqe Dlamini from StratAct, we
have had 2 internal workshops to develop potential scenarios and have also conducted village level scenario development
workshops: 2 in SKZN (Ngongonini, Madzikane) and 2 in Bergville with representative from the 12 VSLAs. The launching of
bulk loan fund VSLAs is now in place. Two bulk loan funds, one in Ngongonini and one in Bergville will be set up tp pilot this
model. See Annexure 4 for the updated and finalised constitution of these bulk loan funds.
In addition, MDF and StratAct have been exploring a concept we have called ‘Bottom-up food supply chains”. The concept
involves piloting a bulk food buying framework for VSLAs along the lines of traditional Stokvels, where the VSLAs manage a
bulk buying system for a list of prioritized goods and also decant and sell on productsto other community members. This is
to be done in conjunctions with MDF-StratAct who will assist with setting up the system, sourcing goods and the
transportation systems. See Annexure 5 for an outline of the concept.
WWF_GT06177_ID315_CRA in mixed smallholder farming systems in KZN and EC. September 2021
For the past four months work has continued, despite enhanced difficulties in the broader environment including the higher
poverty rates in rural areas, increased prices for food and agricultural supplies, and difficulties in supply for some agricultural
commodities such as layers and broilers, as well as bonemeal and seedlings. This situation has been exacerbated by the
civil unrest in the province in July 2021.Many local shopping and banking options for rural communities in the small towns
have been decimated, leading to much higher transaction costs for the rural poor.
In addition, COVID-19 is continuing almost unabated in these communities, as there is reluctance from this sector of the
population to be vaccinated and a rather loose appreciation of social distancing, wearing of masks and sanitization. In this
context single mother with children and some olde people with little to no social support are the most vulnerable. They
require immediate and direct support, which is not possible under the auspices of this programme and is not being provided
by the state.
Expenditure has been compiled up until the end of August2021
1.Staff cost: Staff costs are substantially higher than the budgeted amount for this period. This was compensated for
by reducing the 3rd party and externalevaluation fees for this period.
2.Operating expenses: Expenditure on this budget item is slightly lower than the allocated amount for this period by
around 185. A new batch of 40 tunnels is however on order and this small discrepancy will cover a proportion of
those costs.
3.Overall expenditure for the period of May- August 2021 has been 1,8% higher than the allocated funds.
Below is a summary of the Financial report.
WWF_GT06177_ID315_CRA in mixed smallholder farming systems in KZN and EC. September 2021
8WCCA: Bern Switzerland 21-23 June 2021.SESSSION: Experiences and Investments in Conservation Agriculture and
Sustainable Mechanization for Smallholders in Africa (23rd June). Case study II: Conservation Agriculture Innovation
Systems Build Climate Resilience for Smallholder Farmers in South Africa. Erna Kruger, Mahlathini Development
The financial report excel sheet is attached as a separate document: WWF_Financial report_GT06177_ID315_CRA KZN-
EC_20210917. Documentation for explaining full expenditure summaries is available on request.
Planned actions (Milestone 5)
security at
1. Learning group
KZN: Ezibomvini, Stulwane, Vimbukhalo, Eqeleni. Madzikane,
Gobizembe mayizekanye, Ozwathini, Spring Valley, Ofafa
EC: Nkau, Rashule, Mafube, Mzongwana (Lufefeni, Mngeni,
WWF: GT06177 FinancialreportDate: 30August 2021Milestone 4
Project BudgetFull Year
2Oct 2020-17
Sept 2021
A - OPENING BALANCER3 000 000,00R1 431 975,00R562 500,00R423 285,02R985 785,02R446 189,98
Cash receivedR1 016 350,00
Otherincome(interest, FX
B - TOTAL income + o/balanceR1 016 350,00R1 431 975,00R562 500,00R1 016 350,00R1 016 350,00R415 625,00
1Staff costsR585 600,00R585 600,00R458 385,00R284 735,58R743 120,58-R157 520,58
2Third party feesR221 700,00R221 700,00R104 521,32R50 800,00R155 321,32R66 378,68
3Travel and SubsistenceR215 850,00R215 850,00R169 202,26R46 647,74R215 850,00R0,00
4Capital Asset costs
Operating expenses;
R592 342,00R592 342,00R235 956,40R295 136,20R531 092,60R61 249,40
6Meetings / Education / TrainingR0,00
Project Promotion/
Communication/Printing /
8Project Evaluation by 3rd partyR44 000,00R44 000,00R14 107,50R44 000,00R0,00
C - TOTAL EXPENDITURER1 659 492,00R1 659 492,00R968 064,98R691 427,02R1 689 384,50-R29 892,50
D – CLOSING BALANCER1 340 508,00R1 340 508,00-R405 564,98-R268 142,00-R703 599,48R476 082,48
Reported YTD
This quarter
Actuals (May-
(YTD) Actuals
Forecast minusYTD
Actuals (=Variance)
WWF_GT06177_ID315_CRA in mixed smallholder farming systems in KZN and EC. September 2021
2. Prioritized baskets of
appropriate practises
CA: Implementation of 2nd round of experimentation including
intercropping, multi-species cover crops, fodder production, strip
cropping and crop rotation.
Gardening: Tunnels, drip irrigation, mixed cropping, herbs and
multi-purpose crops
Livestock integration: Winter fodder supplementation
experimentation process, next round of calf rearing, to sell as
weaners or yearlings.
Poultry production: Continue monitoring for 50 participants cross
KZN and EC.
3. Learning and
implementation support
Tunnel construction and intensive homestead gardening. .
Construction of a further 40 tunnels
Poultry production; broiler and layer management
agency for
LED and
social safety
1. VSLAs, business
development, farmer
Marketing exploration workshops continuationand monthly
farmers market stalls
12 VSLA’s in KZN; monthly mentoring
St up Bulk loan fund VSLAs and initiate bottom-up food supply
2. PM&E system and
Production and progress monitoring system design and
3. Iterative PID approach
for improved adaptation
and innovation
Seasonal reviews for field cropping and implementation for winter
production cycle with participating learning groups and planning
for farmer level experimentation
Complementary information, including photographs.
1.Poultry monitoring summary sheet: August 2021
2.Team review of local marketing process
3.Bergville farmers’ market: Concept and planning
4.Bulk Lona Fund VSLAs: Constitution
5.Bottom-up food supply chains concept
WWF_GT06177_ID315_CRA in mixed smallholder farming systemsin KZN and EC. September 2021
AreaVillageName and Surname
Ave mhly
activities LG VSLA Start dateNo
Feed/ bird/
day (kg)
Total batch
feed (kg)
Feed costs
Other inputs. E.g.
med, sawdust,
Total input costsSalesProfitStart dateNo
Feed/ bird/
day (kg)
feed (kg)
Feed costs
inputs. E.g.
Total input
No of eggs/
Sales/ quarterProfit /quarter
MidlandsOzwathiniDoris ChamaneF66 2000
Layers, broilers, potatoes, maize, calves, veg
YN5/6/2021 30 1 0,09120 R780,00R90,00R870,00R3 190,00R2 320,00 5/6/202119 1 0,21120 R780,00 R180,00R960,00432 R2 160,00R1 200,00
MidlandsOzwathiniMartina XuluF67 3000
Layers, potatoes, pigs, calves, goats, veg
YN5/6/2021 39 10,158180,12R1 170,78R180,00R1 350,78912 R4 560,00R3 209,22
MidlandsOzwathiniNdabezinkhulu MiyezaM69 4000
Layers, potatoes, pigs, cattle, veg
YN5/6/2021 20 00,5 300 R1 950,00R180,00R2 130,00480 R2 400,00R270,00
MidlandsOzwathiniAaron NkomoM622500 Layers YN5/6/202120 0 0,25150 R975,00R180,00R1 155,00480 R2 400,00R1 245,00
MidlandsOzwathiniJabulile BhenguF672000 LayersYN7/19/2021 20 0 0,1590 R585,00R0,00 R585,00480 R2 400,00R1 815,00
MidlandsOzwathiniNomabo ZondiF654500 LayersYN7/19/2021 20 00,2 120 R780,00 R0,00 R780,00480 R2400,00R1 620,00
MidlandsOzwathiniNtombizodwa HlopheF65 4500
Broilers, layers
YN7/19/2021 210 1 0,021739 R11 302,54R0,00R11 302,54R25 080,00R13 777,467/19/202120 0 0,25150 R975,00R0,00 R975,00480 R2 400,00R1 425,00
MidlandsOzwathiniDolly MvelaseF571000 Broilers YN7/19/202120 1 0,21180 R1 170,00R0,00R1 170,00R2 280,00R1 110,00
Midlands Ozwathini
Nompumelelo Buthelezi
F55 3500
Broilers, layers
YN7/19/2021 110 3 0,07360 R2 340,00R680,00R3 020,00R12 840,00R9820,007/19/2021250 2 0,08600 R3 900,00R180,00R4 080,005952 R29 760,00R25 680,00
MidlandsOzwathiniNokuthula DuboF552000 Broilers YN7/19/202120 2 0,33270 R1 755,00R180,00R1 935,00R2 160,00R225,00
MidlandsOzwathiniMariam Mhlong0F792000 Broilers YN7/19/202120 0 0,20180 R1 170,00R180,00R1 350,00R2 400,00R1 050,00
MidlandsOzwathiniSeptember SkhakhaneM452000 Broilers YN5/6/202111010 0,05 225 R1 462,50R3 801,00R5 263,50R12 000,00R6 736,50
MidlandsGobizembeLindiwe ZondiF42 2500
Layers, potatoes, maize, veg
YN5/6/2021 20 2 0,1478 R507,00 R0,00 R507,00432 R2 160,00R1 653,00
MidlandsMayizekanyeNtombi ShanduF49 2100
Broilers, maize, veg
YN5/6/2021 10 0 0,52234 R1521,00R40,00R1 561,00R1 200,00-R361,00
BergvilleEzibomviniZodwa ZikodeF55 1500
Broilers, maize, pigs, veg
YY5/12/2021 30 1 0,0795 R617,50R90,00R707,50R2 900,00R2 192,50
BergvilleEzibomviniCabangani HlowngwaeF451000 LayersNYR0,005/15/2021 10 0 0,2575 R487,50 R180,00R667,50240 R1 080,00R412,50
BergvilleVimbukhaloSibongile MpuloF63 1500
Broilers, maize
YY6/3/2021 30 1 0,14110 R715,00R90,00R805,00R2 900,00R2 095,00
BergvilleVimbukhaloCebisile HlongwaneF241000 LayersNYR0,006/23/2021 10 0 0,50150 R975,00R975,00 240 R1 080,00R105,00
BergvilleStulwaneKhetabahle MiyaF60 5500
Maize,broilers, cattle, goats, veg
YY5/6/2021 30 0 0,50675 R4 387,50R4 387,50R3 000,00-R1 387,50
BergvilleStulwaneZawani SitholeF23 2500
Maize, pigs, broilers, traditional poultry
YY6/2/2021 20 6 0,14110 R715,00R715,00R1 400,00R685,00
BergvilleStulwaneNondumiso SgubuduF221500 Broilers NY6/3/202120 0 0,14110 R715,00R715,00R2 000,00R1 285,00
BergvilleStulwaneZinhle ButheleziF28 1000
Maize, Broilers
NN6/3/2021 20 1 0,0795 R617,50R617,50R1 900,00R1 282,50
BergvilleEzibomviniThengani DubazanaF601500 Broilers YY6/3/202130 9 0,16105 R683,28R683,28R2 100,00R1 416,72
BergvilleEzibomviniNombono DladlaF57 2000
Maize, livestock, broilers, veg
YY5/7/2021 30 0 0,14110 R715,00R715,00R3 000,00R2 285,00
6/26/2021 40 0 0,14252 R1 638,00R1638,00R4 000,00R2 362,00
Bergville Ezibomvini
Ntombenhle Hlongwane
F51 1000
Maize, Broilers
YY5/7/2021 30 1 0,17118 R769,08R769,08R2 900,00R2 130,92
BergvilleVimbukhaloNomtandazo ZunguF54 1700
Broilers, tradi poultry
NN5/27/2021 30 0 0,16216 R1 404,00R1 404,00R3 000,00R1 596,00
BergvilleEzibomviniHlulekile NdlangisaF591000 LayersNN5/15/2021 10 0 0,130 R195,00R195,00 240 R1 080,00R885,00
BergvilleEzibomviniPhumelele HlongwaeF42 3000
Maize, broilers, layers, livestock, pigs, veg
YY6/3/2021 40 2 0,21359 R2 334,15R2 334,15R3 800,00R1 465,85Own20 0 0,21126 R819,00R819,00 480 R2160,00R1 341,00
BergvilleVimbukhaloTshitsana ndabaF691500 Broilers NN5/27/20213012 0,19 154 R1 000,35R1 000,35R1 800,00R799,65
BergvilleVimbukhaloThakasile NdabaF411500 Broilers NN5/27/20213012 0,27 219 R1 421,55R1 421,55R1 800,00R378,45
BergvilleVimbukhaloKhosi HlongwaneF54 1000
Broilers, maize
YY5/6/2021 30 7 0,21217 R1 412,78R1 412,78R2 300,00R887,23
BergvilleVimbukhaloZweni NdabaF55 1000
Broilers, maize
YY5/7/2021 30 4 0,19222 R1 444,95R1 444,95R2 600,00R1 155,05
BergvilleEqeleniSmpeho HlatshwayoF65 2000
Broilers, mazie, goats, veg
YY5/12/2021 20 1 0,26214 R1 389,38R0,00R1 389,38R1 900,00R510,63
MatatieleNkauNompumelelo MboboF55 2000
NN5/6/2021 18 2 0,27194 R1 263,60R40,00R1 303,60R2 400,00R1 096,40 5/6/2021420,2112,6R81,90R81,9048 R216,00 R134,10
MatatieleNkauMalebone BoboreF612000 Broilers YN5/6/202117 0 0,17130 R845,33R845,33R2 550,00R1 704,68
MatatieleNkauNolast MjokweniF53 5000
Broilers, veg
YN5/6/2021 12 1 0,0945 R289,58R30,00R319,58R1 650,00R1 330,43
MatatieleMartha MbongweF60 2000
Broilers, veg
NN5/6/2021 20 3 0,17130 R845,33R50,00R895,33R2 550,00R1 654,68
MatatieleNokuphiwa TamaneF41 1000
Maize, potatoes, broilers, layers, veg
YN5/6/2021 14 1 0,19111 R722,48R35,00R757,48R1 950,00R1 192,53 5/9/202112 0,2175,6 R491,40R491,40288 R1 296,00R804,60
SKZNNgongoniniThokozani KheswaF45 2000
Maize, broilers, ve
YY5/6/2021 10 0 0,1254 R351,00R351,00R1 000,00R649,00
3629 15
No 38 F95%111182 1029R53 104,35R63 445,65494 8R15 752,58R41 799,42
LG 76%
Ave income
R2 161,5450,5
VSLA 39% Age 53,46NO 38 NO 15
ve no of birds/farmer
ve no of birds/farmer
16% Mortality 7% Mortality 2%
No who can't afford intpus for 2nd batch
No who can't afford intpus for 2nd batch
Ave batch income
R1 669,62
Ave monthyl income
Ave monthlyR1 113,08
Participant information: Poultry monitoring August 2021
WWF_GT06177_ID315_CRA in mixed smallholder farming systems in KZN and EC. September 2021
PRESENT: Margaret Jack, erna Kruger, Mazwi Dlamini, temakholo Mathebula, Michael Malinga, Nontokozo Mdletshe,
Nkanyiso Mzobe, Lungelo Buthelezi and Nqe Dlamini
Working together with smallholder farmers to create local marketing opportunities and processes for farmers to sell their
excess produce to improve their livelihoods and to generate broad awareness of this (including with the community so they
come and buy), get youth and missing middle involved, improve local food diversity.
Actions to date
Systems in place for preparation and for how it works on the day local market stalls at strategicpension pay out points that
are village based, or small local towns and centres. It was really successful and everyone has learned. Farmers are
encouraged and we learned that there is a market. Marketing (social media, posters,pamphlets) was thought to work.
Delivery of veg in PMB by MDF staff is a problem too labour intensive.
1. What was supposed to happen?
With this project, farmers will have more produce and do not know what to do with that so they need more customers
Farmers selling produce
Check whether there are clients for MDF farmers, reliability of customer base, and local markets
To assess the relationship between supply and demand in the area farmers are assuming that if it is not the formal
economy, it is not worth the time and effort,so we are making small steps to see whether we can meet local demand
before going to bigger markets
Improve awareness of local farmers selling their produce at local markets and generating income locally multi-
stakeholder process awareness includes people from the community, AFRA, extension officers, local municipality
Farmers are selling at pensions points (PPs). Some of the village- based pension points are small, so income potential
is not that high. Many people go to the town pension points instead.
Try and include youth to take on the marketing and logistics of gathering produce and selling
Include the missing middle (those participants between 45-65years who have little to no access to social grants).
Improving local food diversity and nutrition there is good quality food in your community
Covid response last year people could not move around so this was an effort to sell close to homes.
In summary: Creating markets for farmers to sell their excess produce to improve their livelihoods, demonstrating to them
that it is possible to bulk sell, generate broad awareness of this (including with the community so they come and buy), get
youth and missing middle involved, improve local food diversity.
2. What actually did happen?
In initial stages, there was some reluctance because of previous experiences marketing had not worked previously
It was hard to get farmers to respond enthusiastically.
Farmers also limited themselves initially in terms of what they were producing, thinking there were no markets. E.g. on
our market day broccoli, cauliflower and spinach sold out very quickly and they had to go and fetch extra. Now they
want to plant more.
In Bergville we went to the market with 3 bakkie loads and returned only 1 bakkie load of produce. It means around 60-
70% of produce is sold at each market, which is great.
Preparation met in villages, brought youth to see how we operate our marketing mentioned we wanted youth to go
around villages to see who has what and buy it. Some youth came and they saw what happenedon the day they are
interested and now they want their own gardens.
WWF_GT06177_ID315_CRA in mixed smallholder farming systems in KZN and EC. September 2021
Leading up had lists of who was bringing what, some pulled out closer to the time. Youth invovlement was an idea
not yet. Before the market, called meetings with all farmers and they said what they have. Pumpkin, maize and all non-
perishables brought to the agreed upon central point the day before. On the day, collect from there and now include the
perishable veg, meat, eggs etc. to ensure veg was freshly picked. Some driving around to pick up the fresh produce.
Each farmer chooses their own prices for their produce. MDF staff do the admin, nametags with name and price on
each piece, this goes into a central container the moment the item is bought and at the end of the day all tagsare
counted, to work out earnings for each farmer. This is linked to the producelist. In this way farmers know and receive
what they have earned on the spot and also have their unsold produce returned to them. For each village, one person
is chosen who looks after earnings and produce for those who did not attend on the day. Farmer volunteers came on
day (five or six) more or less one from each village and they arranged that they are responsible for whose money
they will deliver and return unsold produce.
Four villages working with people can see how they can make money. Farmers arelearning too in Berg, they are
Thus far, the process has worked well.
Marketing meeting with the farmers, got a list of what all farmers had available, packaging, cash boxes, name tags
needed for the day, had a pricing discussion as farmers have diff prices have to sell 12 maize or a dozen eggs for
one standard price. So, in Midlands agreed upon prices were set for the different products. Looked at most common
price and fairness of this price. Day before, according to list, we collected non-perishable produce. When we arrived at
the house, we labelled the produce right then. Fresh produce on the day and labelled.
At the market, had a book where we wrote all sales with each farmer’s name. Adding and counting was done and
money distributed on the day
Counting the money was difficult some over and some under
Expected to make R2,500-R3,00 and made over R8,000
Got a spot that was not in the busiest part of town (Midlands), afraid that people would not come because it was not
where the payout was underestimated the logistics, people started buying before set up was over. Visible from main
road people did come
Marketing through posters, pamphlets for farmers to distribute, and social media turn out v successful.Loud hailer did
not come
Social media people could order and buy about 20% of the income in this way. MDF is Ubering the veg and
delivering in PMB
Created a pot of knowledge called in different stakeholders who became part of it local municipalities following what
is happening
Youth from AFRA helped with the logistics on the day. They were enthused, seeing the farmers making money
We learned that there definitely is a market and potential for growth in the area.
Selling together works for farmer, it offers an opportunity to have a diverse range of products customers can buy all
their groceries at one point. The variety of produce was a good selling point.
Another good selling point is the visual presentation of the stalls; with the tables, gazebos, banners and well-presented
We and they are encouraged and now want to plan better. Farmers are now starting to have production plans.
We were surprised how popular pork meat was, as well as chicken portions and frozen meat. In Bergville, farmers are
now coordinating who will slaughter for each market day.
In summary: Systems in place for preparation, for how it worked on the day, it was really successful and everyone has
learned. Farmers are encouraged and we learned that there is a market. Despite not having a great spot, customers came.
Marketing (social media, posters, pamphlets) was thought to work. Delivery of veg in PMB by MDF staff is a problem too
labour intensive.
3. What would you do the same
Participatory manner of the market - first meeting in prep get v reliable data about what is available and make
decisions about whether the market is on or not. MDF teamwork and post mortems
Keep accurate records of what farmers bring, write down and label each item as it is brought
Have one central collection point rather than MDF going to each homestead
WWF_GT06177_ID315_CRA in mixed smallholder farming systems in KZN and EC. September 2021
We would do it again so that we begin to build a good reputation for quality and affordability of the produce
Marketing strategy use more social media platforms, already have a page on FB. Have more posters and pamphlets.
Digital posters really worked, did increase the sale for Midlands compared to Bergville where there is less access social
Midlands villages are far, using Bamshela as central point was good
Labels for fresh produce
Branding set up and banners made people curious
Counting and dividing money on the day
Involving farmers in counting transparency
Farmers need the money on the day so they can buy more seedlings and other inputs and it can build trust
AFRA youth helped us they asked to be invited again
Planning meetings are important. It is good that farmers confirm what they have themselves and together. Teamwork in
MDF is also important as the process is logistics heavy. Also do mini-reviews to improve on each round. As an
example, in Bergville broilers were initially put in a tub and were wet and dirty. Then a small cage was constructed and
just this change in presentation increased sales of live broilers substantially.
How the marketing day was an opportunity for farmers to network and buy each other’s produce and support each
other, learning about new stuff, eg herbs
Cooked food available
Continue on pension day? Yes, because money is available. If people grow more, need to consider where else but for
now, that is fine
Southern KZN Pension days are good as there is expendable cash. In SKZN however these are not really village
based- so we would need to go to the larger centres- such as Ixopo, Highflats etc.
Midlands Bamshela want to do a trial run to see if it possible to do a market day round 15th when nurses and
teachers get paid. Competition around here is steep. Wanted to try the local hospital but a lot of vendors already there.
Also thought of home or area deliveries during lockdown
Bergville can we also do it more often than once a month. Difficulty is balancing the time for logistics, someone who
focuses specifically on this. Produce is there.
Use of environmentally friendly packaging, no plastic or as little as possible.
In summary: Good preparation and labelling is essential, and farmers need to be involved and do the counting. Do it on
pension days again. Consider whether to do it more often, given the costs involved. There is produce that needs to be sold.
4. What would do differently?
During planning we ruled out certain foods for the market, included madumbis, sweet potatoes, beans. Try not to base
everything on our assumptions, as we thought only 5kg of these but sold much more. Ideas about supply and demand
assumptions did not play out on the day
Pre-set up way of recording what farmers bring and how sales tags that get pulled off the produce instead of
everything written in the book.
Midlands in terms of counting and records had one person doing that, need at least two, one writing, one collecting
Have a line of people they were all talking at once and it was hard to record sales and prices
On the day, found weevils in the beans, and a farmer had cut out part of a cauliflower that was rotting need quality
checks for food that is brought in the morning so that farmers do not get a bad reputation
Bought brown paper bags with stickers for branding, close to town people want things a bit shinier than in rural areas
Ask customers what they want
Social media and deliveries offer delivery central collection point in PMB or pay get Mr Delivery to do this or the
customer Ubers it
Costs MDF a lot threepeople, three days, transport. Not sustainable in the long-term. It is an investment in Berg,
farmers are getting keen and maybe in future, they will do it themselves. Farmers are doing a lot of work themselves
In Bergville there is one young person with transport Thalenthe Khumalo, who is now keen and also producing. This
is a good opportunity to make the transport arrangements more local.
Resist the temptation to pick up all the cabbages for each person, it needs to be sustainable
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Mahlathini Marketing Wing conceptualise it better with systems and measure progress
Continuity and planning and production
Proved that local marketing is a lot more possible than we thought
Keep an eye on the experimentation so that MDF works out how to do the marketing and then hand it over to farmers
and youth. The problem will be transport. Need creative ideas on this. MJ: Mr Delivery bikes and drivers? Too small.
Ozwathini farmers interested in value-adding like sauces and jams.Also branding for that
In summary: Get prep and market day systems more set up and streamlined. Do the branding. It might need a dedicated
marketing wing that takes over all this work, which is to understand what it takes to bulk sell and then hand it over to farmers
to some degree.
Southern KZN and Matat
SKZN have worked with learning groups and there is potential for the produce. Selling is word of mouth only, no farmers
doing bulk selling, have not had the time to get that going. Areas are far apart, so putting villages together for this is difficult.
Look at using Ixopo. Can work with the LED section of the Ubuhlebezwe Municipality for transport and support (Nqobile and
Mr Mkhize- the manager). Madzikane is in Creighton far from Ixopo and under another LM NDZ. Will need to explore
options there- none are presently available.
Some participants are socially and politically involved and dominate the groups -they want huge markets and do not want to
stand at a table. Ambition outweighs their production. Area dominated by one farmer and no-one else gets much.
Matatiele not much was possible at a village level but need to investigate. Pension day is very busy in the town queues in
every shop. This is more sheep and wool than veggies. No low hanging fruit here. Explore Meat Naturally options
auctions. Small abattoirs for poultry to sell frozen chicken and pieces. Erna: Try this type of marketing there (village based
stalls) before we say it will not work there. And at village level people will save money from going into Matat. Opportunities
for marketing have been cornered by people who are not our farmers many undercurrents going on. Matat haves and
have nots are really divided, really poor people who live really far from Matat. Village by village and have amarketing
discussion, make our decisions from that. In Nkau for example there is a local supermarket, that can be a selling point and
where pension days are held.
Actions and suggestions
Good preparation and labelling is essential, and farmers need to be involved in all aspects, including the counting
of money. Do it on pension days again. Consider whether to do it more often, given the costs and logistics
involved. There is produce that needs to be sold
Get preparation and market day systems more set up and streamlined. Do the branding. It might need a dedicated
marketing wing that takes over all this work, which is to understand what it takes to bulk sell and then hand it over
to farmers to some degree
SKZN: Look into market stalls in the towns (Ixopo, Highflats.) and involve LED sections of the LMs. Consider
market-based stalls for the small growers as an opportunity
.Matatiele: Do the village-based marketing workshops to tease out any local options although pensions there are
all done in town.
Explore options for livestock: Meat naturally for local livestock auctions and small poultry abattoirs as options. Also
explore local butcheries as options for slaughtering and dressing meat for local markets
Try mid-month markets closer to PMB, where civil servants are paid and compare with pension days.
Explore delivery options in PMB and also in small centres
Explore local transport options in a more concerted way.
Consider setting up a ‘wing” in MDF, to focus this work as it is labour intensive and needs consistent focus.
Focus on production planning for markets
Focus on value adding and branding in Ozwathini- as there is a specific interest there.
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The Bergville fresh produce market, built around 7 years ago, is presently severely under-utilized. It is intended to provide
an avenue for marketing of local smallholder farmer produce and as such the LED section of the Okhahlamba Local
Municipality (OLM) and the present market agent, Elitecrop have agreed to a collaborative effort with Mahlathini
Development Foundation (MDF) to explore options for use of this infrastructure in the short and medium term.
MDF is a non-profit agricultural support organization for the rural poor focusingon mixed smallholder farming systems and
Climate Resilient Agriculture and supports around 250 smallholder farmers in the Emmaus area of the Amangwane Ward in
field cropping, livestock production and vegetable production. These smallholders can typically supply small quantities of a
diverse range of produce and are presently being supported to run market stalls at rural pension payout points. Farmers
have expressed an interest also to beable to sell in Bergville itself. It is appreciated that this is a very small sub-section of
the smallholder farmers in the region and the market as a public facility needs to be much more broadly accessible.
The concept
For the moment MDF is open to workingin the fresh produce market space to provide opportunities for marketing both for
smallholders supported by MDF and other smallholder and emerging farmers in the region, initially on a very informal basis,
given that one of the major drawbacks for the market as a walk-in site is it’s location, being quite far removed from the center
of town.
The concept is to work with all stakeholders supporting smallholder production in the Bergville region, such as the OLM,
KZNDARD and locally active NGOs, with local buyers of fresh produce in the town and with smallholder farmers and farming
groups to set up and develop a Farmers’ market based at the Fresh Produce market premises.
Initially, a once event will be planned, inviting all interested smallholders to bring their produce, set up ‘stalls’ and sell directly
to the public (with their own packaging and prices), to ascertain the potential viability of this idea. The OLM has offered the
use of the facilities at the market free of charge. The market is to be well advertised in local and social media and through
printing and distribution of flyers to all shops in the town.
This event will also allow for promotion of the work of the OLM, KZNDARD and local NGOs through a running slide show
alongside the market. Surveys will be conducted with both sellers and buyers to get a better impression of potential demand
and supply for this market.
Depending on the outcome of this Farmers’ Market, future, more regular markets will be planned.
Planning Meeting
A conceptualization and planning session for the farmers’ market is to be held at the OLM offices on themorning of Friday
27th August. This meeting will include all support organizations, smallholder representatives and a few agribusiness
representatives. Invites are to be prepared and sent out by the LED manager, Ms Hlengiwe Ndaba.
At this meeting a number of issues will be discussed including attendance at the farmers’ market, produce to be sold,
logistical arrangements, layout and presentation, administrative support on the day, as well as advertising.
Frist farmers’ Market
This is planned for Friday 1st October 2022 from 9am to 1pm
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Financial Advisory and Intermediary Services Act (FAIS), 2002, (Act Number 37 of 2002) requires formal registration of
financial institutions with the responsible authority for them to operate. Section 7(1) in particular requires all financial
advisors to be fully compliant in order to render financial services to the members of the public. However, Section 7(1) and
Section 44(4) of FAIS Act exempt Burial Societies and Stokvels from licensing to be ableto render financialservices to, or
on behalf of its members in respect of its members (Government Gazette Number 36316 of 2 April 2013, and Financial
Services Board (FSB) Notice Number 43 of 2013).
For the purposes of alignment, Village Savings and Loans Associations (VSLAs), or Savings Groups and similar self-
regulating financial institutions will embrace a definition of a Stokvel.
Financial Advisory and Intermediary Services Act (FAIS), 2002, (Act Number 37 of 2002) defines a Stokvel as a groupof
natural persons amongst who a common bond exists and joined together to form a group of a savings scheme of rotating
credit scheme that; consists of members who have pledged mutual support for each other towards the attainment of specific
objectives; relies on self-imposed regulations to protect the interest of its members; and where the activities of a group or
scheme are designated by the Register of Banks as activities that do not fall with the meaning of the “business of a bank”;
establishes a continuous pool of capital by raising funds by means of the subscriptions of a, or contributions by members,
and where the aggregate value of capital does not exceed R100 000 per annum; and provides for members to share in
profits and to nominate management.
Stokvels are allowed to accept money from its member of which there exists a common bond for a number of objectives
such as funeral insurance, advance of education of members or dependants of members, establishment of a business by a
members, development of a community to which members belong, and by way of receiving interest of a dividend on their
respective contributions or subscriptions.
This constitution provides a set of fundamental principles according to which a Bulk Loan Fund that is established by
farmers and their associations is governed and operated.
1.Name of a Stokvel
The name of this Stokvel is Ikusasalethu Bulk Loan Fund (BLF) Village Savings and Loans Association (VSLA), and
herein referred to as the “BLF-VSLA”.
2.1. This VSLA is established by 18 members and each contributing once-off lump sum of R000 per annum to the Bulk
Loan Fund that shall only be accessible to members of the BLF-VSLA.
2.2. The total value of the Bulk Loan Fund is R000 at the start of the first cycle.
2.3. The term of the BLF-VSLA shall be 5 (five) years.
2.4.The BLF-VSLA shallenter into a binding agreement with Mahlathini Development Foundation (MDF) for MDF to
provide capacity building, training and business coaching to the BLF-VSLA.
2.5.The BLF-VSLA shall be governed and operated by the Management Committee.
2.6.By resolving and signing this Constitution, all members agree that this Constitution becomes a legal and binding
document that can be used by the BLF-VSLA in the Court of Law to recover monies owed to the BLF-VSLA.
3.1.This VSLA shall operate from: Ngongonini, Nokweja Settlement, Ixopo, KwaZulu-Natal.
3.2. The postaladdress of the VSLA is: P.O. Box X, Ixopo, 3376.
4.Aim of this BLF-VSLA
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The aim of this BLF-VSLA is to help smallholder farmers that are participating in the Climate Resilient Agriculture (CRA)
programme which is supported by Mahlathini Development Foundation NPC to bulktheir Loan Fund. The goal of the VSLA
is not to “trade” money or run a “loan shark” scheme. Broadly, the goal of this BLF-VSLA is to build a bigger (bulk) Loan
Fund that member-farmerscan use to finance their farming business enterprises. This Bulk Loan Fund will be used by
farmers who are members of the BLF-VSLA for the following activities:
4.1. Starting and/or expanding a business enterprise
4.2. Buying production inputs and/or trading stock
4.3. Buying or hiring of production equipment
4.4. Buying materials to build production infrastructure
4.5.Participate in the food supply chains by buying food products in bulk and distributing to members
4.6.In addition, the BLF-VSLA may use the fund to participate in the food supply chains by buying food products in bulk and
distributing to members and their families on profit basis. Profit earned through this activity shall be re-invested into the
income generating activities of the BLF-VSLA.
5.1. Members ofthis BLF-VSLA are drawn fromexisting VSLAs in the same village.
5.2. Membership is constitutedby people that participate in the Climate Resilient Agriculture (CRA) programme which is
supported by Mahlathini Development Foundation NPC are allowed to membership to this BLF-VSLA.
5.3. Each member shall signa code of conduct and pay an annual membership fee once her or his membership is
5.4. Each member is allowed to register and introduce one (1) proxy to the BLF-VSLA in a saving cycle.
5.5.A proxy shall not participate in the discussion of the BLF-VSLA nor take loans on behalf of the absent member.
Participation of a proxy shall only be limited to the repayment of loans.
5.6.Now new members shall be allowed to join the BLF-VSLA after it has been established. Thismeans that no new
member shall be allowed to join at the start of the second year.
5.7.Members shallbe eligible to resign from the BLF-VSLA. However, they can only receive their contribution back (1)
month after the annual general meeting.
6.Management Committee
At the start of a savings cycle, the BLF-VSLA shall elect a Management Committee which will be constituted by the
Chairperson, the Records Keeper (Secretary) and the Treasurer. These officer bearers shall be known as the Officers of the
BLF-VSLA. The term of the Management Committee shall be 3 (three) years, after which the BLF-VSLA shall elect the new
Officers of the BLF-VSLA. Duties and responsibilities of the Officers of the BLF-VSLA are presented below.
6.1.Chairperson; whose responsibilities are:
To chair all meetings of the BLF-VSLA.
To ensure that rules of the BLF-VSLA are followed.
To ensure that all voices in the BLF-VSLA are heard and respected.
To be the mouthpiece of the BLF-VSLA.
To have signing powers with the secretary and the treasurer.
6.2.Records Keeper; whose responsibilities are:
To chair meetings in the absence of the chairperson.
To develop and update the membership register of the BLF-VSLA.
To record and keep accurate financial records and minutes of the BLF-VSLA. Copies of all transactions shall be made
available to MDF at the close of each meeting.
To maintain communication and to make sure that MDF and all members are informed of all activities of the BLF-VSLA.
To have signing powers with the chairperson and the treasurer.
6.3.Treasurer; whose responsibilities are:
To keep accurate account of all the BLF-VSLA’s finances and to present records of transactions from the bank and
from the members.
To deposit money with the bank.
To announce closing balances at the end of each meeting.
To have signing powers with the chairperson and the secretary.
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7.Change of Management Committee
7.1. The term of office of the Management Committee shall be 3 (three) years. However, members can change the
leadership before the end of their term.
7.2. 60% (sixty percent) of members of the BLF-VSLA can present an item for discussion for change of leadership at least
2 (two) months before the meeting.
7.3. Leadership structure canbe changed if there is a majority vote.
8.Monthly BLF-VSLA Meetings
8.1. VSLA meetings shall be held on monthly basis.
8.2. All members of the VSLA are obliged to attend all VSLA monthly meetings. At worse, a minimum of one-third of the
members will be required for a meeting.
8.3. Non-members of the VSLA shall not be allowed to sit in the meetings unless on invitation by the Management
8.4. Only proxies may be allowed to sit in the meetings.
8.5. Members shall book the loans at the end of each monthly meeting.
8.6.Collectively, all the members of the VSLA shall approve the loan amount requested by the borrower.
9.Special Meetings
9.1. Special meetings will be called when necessary by the Management Committee.
9.2. A specialmeeting shall be called by two-thirds of the members to wind up this VSLA.
10.Annual General Meetings
10.1.There shall be 1 (one) annual general meeting.
10.2.The purpose of the annual general meeting shall be:
10.2.1.the presentation and adoption of the Chairperson’s report,
10.2.2.the presentation and adoption of a financial report by the Treasurer,
10.2.3.amendments of the constitution, and
10.2.4.strategic plan for the new financial year.
11. Fund Distribution Meetings
11.1.Loan fund shall not be dissolved or shared-out.
11.2.Only the interest that have been generated over a period of 3 (years) can be distributed.
11.3.A resolution to distribute interest shall be taken from the third annual general meeting.
11.4.Each member’s portion shall be transferred electronically to the bank account of a member.
12. Resolutions
12.1.Each member shall have one vote.
12.2.A resolution shall be passed by simple majority, that is, 51% of members present at a meeting.
12.3.However, two-thirds of votes shall be required to dissolve the BLF-VSLA, and only at a Special Meeting called for
the purpose of winding up the BLF-VSLA.
12.4.All voting shall be by a show of hands, unless a member requests a secret ballot.
13.Annual Membership Fee
13.1.Each member shall pay R000 as a non-refundable joining fee.
13.2.Annualmembership fee shall be used for the administration and operation of the BLF-VSLA.
14. Financial Contributions
14.1.Lump sumcontributions shall be made at the start of each financial year as follows:
14.1.1.First Year (Establishment): R000
14.1.2.Second Year: R000
14.1.3.Third Year: R000
14.1.4.Fourth Year: R000
14.1.5.Fifth Year: R000
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14.2.Lump sumcontribution can be adjusted at the annual general meeting.
14.3.The lump sum contributions shall establish a Loan Fund.
15. Progressive Loans
15.1.Only progressive loans shall be granted to borrowers. This means that a borrower shall receive an amount that is
required to pay for a specific activity or equipment of a business, and this loan shall be linked to the operations and the
needs of a business and shall increase with good repayment record.
15.2.The BLF-VSLA shall grant loans based on the pricing schedule of a specific commodity to be produced.
15.3.Only the following business loans shall be prioritised:
15.3.1.Livestock: Broilers, egg layers and calves
15.3.2.Grains: Maize and dry beans
15.3.3.Vegetables including potatoes, sweet potatoes and amadumbe
15.3.4.Buying of materials for improving production infrastructure
15.3.5.Buying of production equipment
16. Loan Terms
16.1.Members shall not be forced to take out loans.
16.2.Maximum/large loans shall be capped at R5 000.
16.3.No new loan beyond the maximum of R5 000 shall be granted to a borrower.
16.4.Loans shall be increased by member’s lump sum contribution each year.
16.5.The flat interest rate shall be calculated at 20% per annum.
16.6.A borrower shall be granted 2 (two) months payment holiday.
16.7.The loan term shall be 8 (eight) months including the payment holiday.
16.8. A 9th (ninth) month can be granted to a struggling borrower to settle her/his debt.
16.9.A 5% (five percent) late payment fee on the outstanding balance shall be levied.
16.10.In the event where the borrower is unable to settle her/his debt within 8 (eight) months, the BLF-VSLA shall further
allow the borrower to settle her/his debt within 1 (one) month where the total debt is greater than the value of her or his
contribution. Where the contribution is greater than the debt, the BLF-VSLA shall use borrower’s contribution to settle
the debt.
16.11.A member who has used her/his contribution to settle the debt shall be given another chance to replenish her/his
own lump sum contribution to be on par with other members.
16.12.No loan shall be granted to an absent member, even if an absent member has sent a proxy to the meeting.
17. Banking
17.1.The VSLA shall open and operate a bank account with a reputable bank.
17.2.Signatories to the bank account shall be the 3 (three) Officers of the BLF-VSLA.
17.3.The money in the BLF-VLSA shall be deposited into a bank account in the name of the BLF-VSLA.
17.4.Each member shall present a bank account to the BLF-VSLA.
17.5.Members shall be encouraged to repay their loans through the bank.
18. Code of Conduct
18.1.No member will use the name of the BLF-VSLA for personal businesspurposes or personal gain.
18.2.All members must abide by this Constitution.
18.3.Rules of the BLF-VSLA shall be developed and updated collectively from time to time.
18.4.Each member must conduct him or herself in a socially acceptable manner in all meetings.
18.5.Members must dress in a socially acceptable manner.
19. Key Benefits
19.1.Other than savings and access to short-term credit, other benefits shall be agreed uponby the full membership of
the VSLA at the annual general meeting.
19.2.Benefits as well as methods of distribution may be amended from time to time.
19.3.Alterations to benefits will be agreed upon by way of group vote.
19.4.If a member passes away, any money they is owed will go to her or his estate.
20. Winding Up/BLF-VSLA Closure
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20.1.All borrowers must settle their loans before the meeting scheduled for winding-up the BLF-VLSA.
20.2.Any extra funds and assets of the BLF-VSLA shall beshared amongst members according to each member’s
contribution to the BLF-VSLA.
20.3.Liability and debts shall be shared equally in the BLF-VSLA if such debt is made by the BLF-VSLA.
21. Amendment of this Constitution
21.1.Two thirds of votes of the members of the VSLA are required to amend this constitution.
21.2.Amendments to this constitution must be announced 2 (two) months prior to the meeting.
21.3.No proxies shall be allowed to participate in the amendment of this constitution.
22. Declaration
We, the undersigned, and the members of this VSLA, hereby accept this constitution.
Signed at ......................................................on this ..........day of ..............................20.........
Full Names of Member
Identity Number of Member
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Bulk buying of groceries is common amongst African communities especially those that live in under-served settlements.
Stokvels have been used for decades as the main vehicle to conduct mainly bulk buying of groceries usually at the end of
each year. Grocery items are shared equally amongst group members or are shared proportionally to member’s
The purpose of this short document is to unpack the concept of “Bottom-up Food Supply Chains” and to propose a simple
food bulk buying framework (and procedure) that is to be used by Village Savings and Loans Associations (VSLAs) that are
supervised by Mahlathini Development Foundation (MDF). Essentially, a participating VSLA would establish a demand for
specific consumer products and/or services and would then establish points and mechanisms of distribution for buyers to
collect goods and/or access services.
Drawing from stokvel practice, VSLAs are becoming very popular in South Africa. This phenomenon involves a group people
with identifiable bonds, be it social, geographical or work bonds contributing money towards acommon and specific
purpose. In other words, members of a group pool money together and build a group fund that is used for purchasing a
number of consumer products. A stokvel practice is seen as the most appropriate framework that promises a possibility for
people found at the lowest ladder of the economy to participate meaningfully in food supply chains.
This concept involves piloting bottom-up food supply chains with the existing VSLAs that are currently supervised byMDF.
These groups will be coached to transform into distribution hub of consumer products to be bought by both members and
non-members of the group.
This concept involves providing convenience to access to consumer products at affordable prices while generating profits for
the group. A group would identify and prioritise goods that are in high demand in their respective communities (and
specifically, their neighbourhoods). This means that customers who are non-members of a group should be able to collect
products easily from the closest point of distribution. For instance, a customer can either use a wheelbarrow of something
similar to collect what s/he has bought.
Obviously, the first buyers of products shall be members of a VSLA. They would agree to buy few products such as maize
meal, rice, cooking oil, dry beans, etc. and distribute goods proportionally to each member’s order and payment. Buying
products like maize meal, rice, etc. for decanting purposes will be promoted. This process will be repeated for few months
before non-members are recruited to join. This period should give every team player time to adjust the model to the level
that it can run with minimal support from MDF/StratAct.
Note on Decanting
Not so long ago general dealers in rural areas and townships used to decant basic products such as maize meal, rice, flour,
sugar, dry beans, cooking oil, paraffin and many others. Decanting had a few benefits. These include;
Product was affordable to the struggling families. For instance, a family could buy 2KG of rice instead of 5KG or 750ML
of cooking oil instead of 2L.
General dealers’ ability to higher their profit margins.
Transportation costs were reduced.
Both the customer and the shop owner were winners!
Decanting is largely practised by smallholder farmers. COVID-19 and the recent unrest in KZN have triggered the need to
re-look into alternative food supply chains. Decanting has been proposed by few stokvel/VSLA groups.
Transaction Infrastructure
A VSLA will need to operate a bank account for this process to happen with minimal frustrations. A constitution and
proper management committee structure would need to be established (and constitution signed) mainly for the purposes
of governing and operation a
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group as well as meeting the expectations of the bank.
A VSLA will also need to purchase and use mobile payment accepting
machine as their point of sale (POS). Obviously, this mobile payment
accepting machine would be linked to their bank account. All buyers
(customers) would use their VISA cards to pay for their goods. This
machine should be able accept SASSA (social grant) cards. No cash
payment will be accepted, but only cash-less transactions!
A VSLA will request a debit cardfrom their bank which will only be restricted to a mobile payment accepting machine
owned by MDF/StratAct. This means this debit card will only be restricted to one transaction only, that is, group-
MDF/StratAct payments. And for security reasons, this debit card will not be able to withdraw cash; to swipe at any other
retailers other than DMF/StratAct and that their bank account will not allow debits to go through. A group will have 2 (two)
options for making payments to MDF/StratAct. First, it will be cell-phone banking and second, physical payment usinga
mobile payment accepting machine. Both these methods of payments will be restricted to MDF/StratAct transactions only.
Members of a VSLA will be happy to know that their debit card is useless outside the relationship they have with
MDF/StratAct. The greatest benefit for this is that the group will not attract transactional costs such as taxi fares to the bank.
There will be no need to collect cash from members and to physically deposit it in town. This is an added security measure.
A group would need to purchase a mobile payment accepting machine. MDF/StratAct will pay 50% of the cost of this
machine. The cost of payment machines range from R400 to R1500 in South Africa. The bank will provide advice as to the
most efficient and trouble-free machine that we can use. At this time, we would like to recommend that we use a commercial
bank. The main features of few commercial bank stokvel accounts are summarised below.
A minimum of R50 to R100 is required to open an account by 3 (three) elected officers of a management committee
who will be signatories of the account.
A signed constitution and a resolution electing the 3 (three) officers to be signatories of the bank account.
Identity documents of the signatories of the account.
Proof residence to the signatories of the account (not alder than three months).
Back Office Administration
MDF/StratAct will be responsible for building institutional infrastructure for the groups to participate in the bottom-up food
supply chains programme. This includes supporting groups to draw up their constitution, rules of participation, operating
procedures, opening and operating, bank accounts, placing orders, distribution, etc.
There will be one delivery of goods per month. All deliveries will be made at the end of each month so that stock is available
for people that get their salaries at the end of the month and social grants at the beginningof the month.
The first order must be paid by the money a VSLA alreadyhas. This means that money for the first order must be collected
at the meeting of a VSLA. MDF/StratAct will also take the risk of placing an order on the promise that a group will deposit
payment before a delivery is made.
After the first order, all transactions will be done through the cell-phone and/or the mobile payment accepting machines.
Bulk buying framework will be constituted by the following activities:
Step 1: Clarification Meeting
A clarification meeting should be held with prospective groups. The main purpose of the clarification meeting will be to start
a process of building institutional infrastructure that is required for bottom-up food supply chain programme to happen.
Presentations and discussions in the clarification meeting should include, but not limited to the following:
Benefits drawn from participating in bulk buying programme, e.g. saving on transportation costs; getting goods on
discount, adding of an income generating stream, etc.
Institutional infrastructure that is required, namely, the constitution, rules of participation, code of conduct, management
committee (3 officers), record keeping, etc.
WWF_GT06177_ID315_CRA in mixed smallholder farming systems in KZN and EC. September 2021
Explanation of bulk buying procedure, from establishing bulk buying groups, prioritisation of products, making
payments, placing orders through to making deliveries.
Confirmation if groups want to participate in the food bulk buying programme.
Prioritisation of strategic products. For instance, priority products will allow the bulk buying practice to get traction on
the group. More products will be added as the demand of other products grows.
Methods of payment. It is highly recommended that no cash payment for groceries will be made to MDF/StratAct. A
mobile payment accepting machine, e.g. Yoko Neo can be used to accept cash-less payments. And for this, a group
will be required to operate a bank account. Only taxi fares for the representatives of the group may be paid in cash.
Amount to be contributed towards transport costs and taxi fares for representatives of the group to open the bank
account and to do other transactions.
Central delivery site (household).
Outcomes of this meeting
A template to register members of the group that want to participate is populated during this meeting.
List of priority products (weights and brands)
Date for induction workshop for the constitution, rules of participation, systems, etc.
Step 2: Initial Induction Workshop
A draft constitution, rules of participation (code of conduct), beneficiation framework, etc. are presented and discussed
in detail.
Election of 3 (three) officers of the Management Committee.
List of prioritised products.
Outcomes of this induction workshop
Constitution and aligned governance and operation documents (instruments) are adopted.
Names of officers of the Management Committee.
The name and location of the bank for the account is established.
Decision to buy payment machine is made.
Date for opening a bank account is established.
A group is allocated a reference number by MDF/StratAct for transaction purposes
Step 3: Placing of Order Meeting
Members that registered to participate during the induction meeting for the purpose of paying their contribution.
Each member pays her/his contribution for groceries and for transportation into the bank account of the group.
Representatives record payment accordingly.
Group makes payment using cell-phone banking.
Outcomes of this meeting:
Members pay their contributions for groceriesand for transportation.
Order is made with MDF/StratAct.
Delivery site is identified.
The management committee is authorised to make payment to MDF/StratAct.
Step 4: Administration of Order
On receipt of payment, MDF/StratAct will place the order with the supplier. A date, time and place of delivery will be
confirmed immediately after placing the order.
Step 5: Delivery of Order
No house to house deliveries will be made. The entire consignment will be delivered to one site where all buyers will be
there to witness the delivery and to take their groceries. MDF/StratAct will present receipt of payment note as well as a
delivery note to the group.
Main Operating Forms
The following templates/forms will be used as part of institutional infrastructure.
1.The constitution, rules of participation (code of conduct)
2.List of members
3.Order form
4.Confirmation of payment/EFT (MDF/StratAct)
WWF_GT06177_ID315_CRA in mixed smallholder farming systems in KZN and EC. September 2021
5.Delivery note (MDF/StratAct)