that ‘exists when all people, at all times, have
physical, social and
economic access
sufficient, safe, and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs
and food preferences
an active and healthy life’ (FAO 2010).
The SA Basic
Food group for dietdiversity
score >6
Animal Protein
Bread and cereals
Fats and oils
Bean products
Coffee and Tea
Stats SA, 2013
Basic Food Basket
Min R 680/ person/ month
Canned fish
Chicken breasts
White / Brown bread
Tomatoes, cabbage, onions
Full cream milk
Sunflower oil
Peanut butter
Coffee and tea
The real ‘food basket’ of 30% of SA households
Nel & Steyn, 2002
Oldewagen-Theron, 2005
Schonfeldt , 2013
Composition of the
BFAD Poor person’s index
Maize porridge 532g cooked
Brown Bread 150g
Full cream milk 56g
White sugar 22g
Tea 2.5g dry tea
The 30% HH with the
lowest income
The dilemma: What is there to eat?
More than 60% people are food insecure, 20% experience moderate
hunger and 25% severe hunger (average from latest studies)
Macro nutrient
Micronutrient deficiency
Vitamin A
Lack of fruit and vegetables may have adverse nutritional
consequences with resulting micronutrient deficiencies such as vitamins
A and C, folate, magnesium, calcium, zinc and iron, as wellas a
suboptimal intakeof dietary fibre.
Lack of
sensitivity in
In the past agriculturefocused on energy provided
by food, 2100 kcal per person – national food
Provision of energy is provided without the intake
of critical nutrients
-Increase weight without length stunting
-Promote fat gain and obesity
-Restricts and retard physical development
-Restricts and retard cognitive (mental)
Retarded development and high incidence
of obesity manifests as prominent social and
economic burdens
A shift needed from quantity to quality
a variety or diversity of foods
available, accessible, utilised
and available all year
of nutrition
concepts to
No longer calorie and nutrient based
Work with 5 food groups and or
Food based dietary guidelines
Work within cultural food habits and preferences
Focus on diets of small children 0-5years
Focus on special dietary needs of common chronic
conditions; High blood pressure, diabetes and HIV/AIDS
Food based recommendations: Eat per day
1/2 green dishes
Vit A, Fe,
spinach, cabbage,
parsley, spring onion,
green peas,
1/2 yellow
Vit A,C, Fe,
Zn, Protein
yellow sweet potato,
pumpkin, carrot,
3 dishesStarch maize, rice, bread,
1 table spoonfats
oil, butter, margarine
Dietary Guidelines
These have been developed at a national level as the nutrition related messages that need to be
considered and are called the 10 food based dietary guidelines.
Enjoy a variety of food for more nutrients
Balance food intake and energy used
Be active (exercising, walking, working in the garden and sweat)
Eat regular meals (do not skip meals especially breakfast)
Make starchy food the basis of most meals ( white vs brown/wholewheat)
Eat plenty of vegetables and fruit daily, they are very rich in many nutrients
Eat beans, peas, lentils and soya regularly
Meat, chicken, fish, milk or eggs can be eaten daily (fatty vs lean or processed meat; take
aways; deep fried meat)
Use fats sparingly- animal vs plant oil, hard vs soft
Use less salt, too much salt can lead to heart problems
Drink clean safe water. Water replaces water lost (i.e. sweat, urine) during exercise.
If you drink alcohol, drink sensible- don't give children/don’t send children to buy alcohol
A range of vitamins and minerals are required for optimum health
(Vit A, B’s,C, D, E, K ……)
Minerals :Calcium, Iron, zinc, selenium,…….
Trace elements: Iodine and fluoride
Macro and micronutrient malnutrition
Micronutrient deficiencies are very common – chronic malnutrition
and stunting rather than severe malnutrition and wasting. (Look at
National food consumption survey results)
Nutrition Gap analysis
Participants are divided into groups of 7-10 members. They discuss and recordfor report
back in plenary (the larger group) the following topics:
What we eat every week
What we rarely eat
What we would like to eat but do not have access to and
What we feed the young children (ages 1-5yrs)
Special foods for sick and old people
Participants analyse their selection of different food groups and look at what they
eat regularly. They then offer suggestions of where they may be missing food types
that may provide them with a more balanced diet.
A list is made of the food types people would like to try and grow to augment their present range of
food types. Each individual puts their name against the food type they would like to include in their
homestead systems
Growing a healthy diet in an intensive home food
The Nutrition workshop
Stretching the benefits:
Food preservation, storage and preparation
The Nutrition Workshop:
1Local food habits, choices and nutrition concerns
2Compare it to the guidelines for good nutrition
This creates discomfort when there are significant
3Ideas how households can improve their situations
through their gardening practices and their food
preparation, preservation and storage processes.
4.The outcome of this process is a list, generated
with the households, of additional crops, fruit and
livestock production options to fill the nutrition
List of foods needed to provide
a more balanced diet (especially
forchildren< 5years).
This list was prepared by the
-Amadumbe (taro)
-Indlubu (jugobeans)
-Amatongomane (peanuts)
-Sweet potatoes
-Carrots, beetroot, spinach
-Lettuce, tomatoes
-Garlic, onions
-Meat: beef and chicken
-Fruit: apples, oranges, lemons,
pears, grapes, plums, peaches
My child needs a
variety of foods:
fruit to eat with
protein. Ican
grow these crops
to add to our
daily maize
porridge staples.
Nutrition w/s