Resilience Snapshots - Case Study for 6 Participants from Limpopo

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Resilience snapshots; Limpopo
6 participants from Sedawa and Turkey in Limpopo; Feb-March 2019
Learning and change
What have you learnt about dealing with CC and climatic extremes?
I have learnt that practices such as trench beds andtunnels provide good growth and yields, despite difficult weather
conditions. Also, these practices are cheap. Although it is initially a lot of work, the increased yields make a big
difference. We get more food than we did before and will now be able to continue farming
Tunnels also help in reducing heat and water stress in plants and this leads to much better production
Tunnels help in this extreme heat by protecting our vegetables from heat and pests. Climate smart practices enable us
to continue with farming activities even in this difficult climate change.
Having a tunnel and mulching inside the tunnel is the best in water management for irrigation.
Irrigation management, such as using drip kits help a lot as there is less evaporation and water is saved. It also saves
time.
Working with mixed cropping and crop rotation has decreased the incidence of pests and diseases, although there are
still problems.
Including more organic matter in the soil helps to hold water and to protect plants from heat stress.
Working with the five fingers principles [manage soil movement, manage soil fertility, manage water, manage crops and
manage natural resources) (tool) helps to keep in mind all different aspects to include in changing practices
Using liquid manure and mixed cropping means that I now do not need any other means for pest and disease control.
I have learnt about practices that will help me continue with farming activities even though water is a struggle and the
sun is too hot for any vegetable to survive in our environment, the little we have been given is better than nothing.
Leaving the soil exposed to heat and rain and turning over the soil to plough and plant has destroyed the soil making it
infertile and very hard. Improving the soil takes time, but makes a big difference in growth of crops.
I learnt to conserve water, by using grey water and mulching in my garden. I also learnt a lot on the importance of soil
health.
I have learned the importance of saving water and the conserving our soil.
I have experienced harsh weather with no rain and harvests using our traditional ways of farming, which affected our
livelihood as we had to buy all vegetables instead of growing them myself. Now I know how to deal with changes of
climate, since I met Mahlathini and AWARD, andthey taught us practices that changed my life. I don’t buy vegetables
that I need every day, I pick from my garden.
What is your experience regarding the impact of CC on your life?
Climate change has been hard on us, especially on our farming activities. Farming seems impossible in this condition,
especially with no rain. Being unemployed and relying on old age grant is even worse, as the head of the household;
farming makes it better because you farm for both consumption and making an income
Do you share your knowledge and experiences with the learning group or community
members?
Yes, I talk to my neighbours about the gardening practices, so that they can also try and revive their gardens
Yes I share my experiences and knowledge with community members at the workshops and my neighbours;by
telling them what we do and how the knowledge is helping us in terms of making things better
Yes I share my knowledge, especially with unemployed members ofthe community because I am making a living
and I don’t go hungry with my small garden
How do you share the knowledge gained with other members of your community?
Discussions at savings meetings, at the springs when we collect water
By inviting them to join us on our meetings and sharing experiences
Always have meetings where we invite community members to join and we share all knowledge and experiences
I invite people community members to attend meeting with us and also allow community members in my household
I share my experiences and knowledge learned from working with Mahlathini with the community and I also recruit
new members to join and learn like am learning.
I do visits community members selling them vegetables and share with them what I have learned and how it is helping
me, to encourage them to see what we are benefiting to better our finance and was of farming
What helps you to learn more about new innovations and information?
No
(N=6)
Comments
Listening to other farmers
experiences and experiments
5
By doing and experimenting in own
garden
5
Motivated by other farmers work
and experiences
4
This helps to motivate me to try out some of the ideas myself
Learning workshops
5
What new things have you added into your practices? How has it worked?
The shade net tunnels work very well to reduce heat and water stress and there are fewer pests. We have added
further shade- netting structures in our gardens
I have made my own version of a drip-kit using and old bucket and piping. This saves water and time
We dig small dams in our gardens during the summer months, so that the added water can penetrate into the soil and
there is enough moisture in the soil to grow our dryland crops such as maize, cowpeas, peanuts and sweet potatoes
Using manure and mulching in our traditional beds- the furrows and ridges has helped to increase crop survival and
yields
The tower gardens are very productive and this is a nice, clean way of using greywater, which is sometimes the only
water for gardening we have access to.
Climate smart practices
Impacts and lessons learnt
Past Issues
Past practice
Present practice
Lessons
Drying fast,wilting
of plants, having to
irrigate often
Exposing the soil
Cover the soil by
mulching and
farming inside the
tunnel
Learned the
importance of
covering the soil and
good water
management
Poor quality
vegetables
Not fertilising the
soil and
disturbing the soil
Adding organic
material to the soil
and minimum soil
disturbance
I have to look after
my soil in order to
continue with my
farming activities
because I love
farming
Pest and disease
problems
Used ash -which
is only effective
for certain pests
Use liquid manure
made from weeds
and cow manure, I
also use mixed
cropping for pest and
disease control
We don’t need
chemicals to fight
pests and disease in
our garden as they
will affect our soil
and our health
Pest problems
Using blue death
Use liquid manure for
both soil fertility and
pest and disease
control
We can use organic
materials from our
household to treat
pests and diseases
without using
chemicals
Soil erosion
Turning the soil
when planting
maize and cover
crops.
Minimum soil
disturbance when
planting maize (CA)
I learned that I have
to conserve my soil,
always cover my soil.
Assessment of impact for CSA practices tried out using local indicators
-1 = worse than normal practice
0=no change
1=some positive change
2=medium positive change
3= high positive change
Name of practice
Soil
Water
Productivity
Labour
Pest and
disease
control
Cost and
maintenance
Livelihoods
Adaptation
1
Trench beds
2
2
2
-1
0
2
2
2
2
Tunnel (w trench beds)
2
3
3
-1
2
1
3
3
3
Mulching
1
1
2
1
2
2
1
1
4
Mixed cropping and crop
rotation
0
1
1
1
2
2
1
1
4
Tower garden
2
3
3
2
0
0
2
2
5
Planting basins
0
2
2
0
0
1
1
1
7
Raised beds, with mulch
1
2
2
1
0
1
0
1
8
eco-circle
2
3
2
-1
1
0
1
1
9
CA; w intercropping, legumes,
cover crops
3
2
3
1
1
0
2
2
1o
Using goat manure
(composted in a kraal)
3
1
2
0
1
0
1
1
Resilience snapshot
Resilience
indicators
Increase for
Limpopo
Increase for KZN
Comment
Increase in size of
farming activities
Gardening; 1%
Field cropping; 98%
Livestock; 6%
Gardening 18%
Field cropping 63%
Livestock 31%
Cropping areas measured, no of livestock
assessed
Dryland cropping has reduced significantly
due to drought conditions and infertile soil
Increased farming
activities
No
No
All involved in gardening, field cropping and
livestock management
Increased season
Yes
Yes
For field cropping and gardening- autumn and
winter options
Increased crop diversity
Crops: 21 new crops
Practices: 11 new
practices
Crops: 12 new crops
Practices: 8 new
practices
Management options include; drip irrigation,
tunnels, no-till planters, JoJo tanks, RWH
drums,
Increased productivity
Gardening; 120%
Field cropping: 15%
Livestock: 6%
Gardening 72%
Field cropping 79%
Livestock 25%
Based on increase in yields (mainly from
tunnels and trench beds for gardening
CA for field cropping
Increased water use
efficiency
45%
25%
Access, RWH, water holding capacity and
irrigation efficiency rated
Increased income
13%
13%
Based on average monthly incomes, mostly
though marketing of produce locally and
through the organic marketing system
Increased household
food provisioning
Vegetables; 7-
10kg/week
Fruit; 5-10kg/week
Maize- 20kg/week
Vegetables
7kg/week
Food produced and consumed in the
household
Dryland crops (maize,
legumes, sweet
potatoes); 5-
10kg/week
Increased savings
Not applicable
R150/month
Average of savings now undertaken
Increased social agency
(collaborative actions)
2
2
Learning groups and local water committees
Increased informed
decision making
5
5
Own experience, local facilitators, other
farmers, facilitators, extension officers
Positive mindsets
2-3
2-3
More to much more positive about the
future: Much improved household food
security and food availability
RESILIENCE SNAPSHOT
Date
February 2019
Province
KZN
Village
Bergville,
Midlands
6 participants across 3 villages (Ezibomvini, Eqeleni and Gobizembe)
Before (Size in
sqm)
Now (Size in
sqm)
Comment:
Percentage
increase
Increased in
farming (Size)
Gardening
76
93
18%
Field cropping
1400
3767
63%
Livestock
22
32
31%
Trees and other
resources
4
4
0%
Y/N
before
Y/N
now
Comment:
Increased
diversity in
farming
Gardening
1
1
Most participants undertake
activities in all four farming
categories
Field cropping
1
1
Livestock
1
1
Trees and other
resources
1
1
Management
and practices
before
No
before
No
now
What has
changed; new
crops
What has changed; new
practices
What has
changed; new
management
Increased
diversity (1)
Gardening
raised beds;
use of ash and
kraal manure
1
4
Kale, Chinese
cabbage,
carrots,
mustard
spinach,
Coriander
mulching, trenches,
seedling production,
more crops, tower
gardens, eco circles,
raised beds, planting
basins,
RWH (JoJo tanks
and drums),
greywater and
organic
gardening,
tunnel, drip
irrigation,
Field
cropping
traditional
planting of
maize
1
4
Maize, beans,
cowpeas, Lab-
Lab,
sunflower,
sunn-hemp,
millet,
potatoes,
sweet
potatoes
CA, intercropping,
legumes, cover crops,
rotation
Livestock
extensive
foraging
1
1
sunflower,
maize
Feeding of poultry -
crushed maize and
sunflower
Types
BEFORE:
Quantity (KG,
No)
NOW:
Quantity
(KG,No)
Percentage
increase
(Amount in
kgs/tonnes,
10,20,50kg
bags/containers,
no of meals (for a
family)
Increased
productivity
Gardening
Spinach
7,8
15,3
49%
Cabbage
5
8
38%
Potatoes
10
20
50%
Carrots
0
10
100%
Green pepper
0
30
100%
Chinese cabbage
0
8,5
100%
Chilli
5
7
29%
Onions
5
8
38%
Beetroot
4,3
11,3
62%
Kale
0
15
100%
Mustard spinach
0
30
100%
Coriander
0
30
100%
Field cropping
Maize
99,3
257,8
61%
Beans
4
16,8
76%
Cowpea
0
5
100%
Livestock
Chickens
15
20
25%
Increase
Access
Inc RWH
Inc water
holding
incr water
productivity
(irrigation)
SCALE
Increased water use
efficiency (incl RWH,
water holding, water
access, water
productivity)
1
1
2
1
0= same or worse than
before; 1= somewhat
better than before, 2=
much better than before
Income
before (ave
monthly in
Rands)
Income now (Ave
monthly in Rands)
Comments
Increased livelihood
security (income)
1433
1650
Food types (staples,
veg, livestock, fruit)
Quantity/
week (kg)
No of
times/week
(1-7)
Sales/week
(in Rands)
Comments
Increased
livelihood
security
(Household
provisioning and
food security)
Maize
20
7
0
6 of 6
Veg (Spinach, chillies,
green pepper)
10
5
225
2 of 6
Veg(spinach, chinese
cabbage, tomato
10
3
0
6 of 6
Veg (beetroot, chilli)
1
1
0
6 of 6
Chicken
2
2
0
1 of 6
Pigs (kg of meat)
10
1
2500
1 of 6
Cattle (no sold/yr)
1
10000
1 of 6
Fruit
1
1
1 of 6
Income options
Before
Income options
Now
Comment;
name new
options e.g.
which crops,
etc
Scale
Increased
livelihood
diversity/options
1,4
1,3,4
Small incomes
from farming
now possible
1=social grants; 2=
remittances; 3=farming
income;4= small
business
Amount per
month Before
Amount per month
Now
Use of savings
Scale
Savings (safety,
security,
achievement)
0
R150
2,3,4
1=food; 2=household
use; 3=education; 4=
production; 5=other
Yes/no Before
Yes/no Now
Comment
Increased
growing season
Gardening
0
1
Now grows crops in
winter in garden and
fields
Field cropping
0
1
Livestock
0
0
Trees and other
resources
0
0
Activities in
groups Before-
name
Activities in groups
Now
E.g. savings, church,
learning groups, coops,
farmers associations,
work teams, selling,
inputs, farmers centres,
water …
Collaborative
actions/social
agency
Stokvel
VSLA
Learning group
Information
used to choose
activities Before
Information used
to choose activities
Now
e.g. Other community
members, learning in
groups, written info,
radio, facilitators,
extension officers, etc
Informed
decision making
Own experience
Own experience
Extension
officer
Extension officer
Learning group
members
Local facilitator
Facilitator
Rate your
mindset Before
Rate your mindset
now
SCALE:0=less positive
about the future; 1=the
same; 2=more positive
about the future; 3=much
more positive
Positive
mindsets
0
2-3
Much improved
household food security
and food availability.