Climate Smart Agriculture PES

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Climatesmartagriculture
Appropriate, well facilitated, site specific basket of options for water
management and climate change adaptation
Community
based
monitoring-
usingtraffic
lights!
SEDAWA,
Mmetja,
Oliphant's
Basin,
Limpopo, April
2017
Mulching,
mixed
cropping,
drip
irrigation
Banana
basins,
nurseries,
diversion
ditches,
swales
Local water
management
systems,
greywater
management
and use
Rainwater
harvestingand
storage options
Erosioncontrol soil andwater
conservation techniques
Small livestock
integration-
fodder
production,
cut andcarry
systems,hay,
bedding….
Custombuilt
tunnelsfor
increased
productivity
Climate
control,
water
productivity
Local
community
based
facilitation
withvisual
aids and
demonstrati
ons
Stakeholderinvolvement, planning,
dissemination, research agendas
Conservation
agriculture-
dryland
cropping;
grain-legume
intercropping,
rotations,
cover crops
CA optimisation
and awarenss
raising. SFIP
GrainSA; KZ, EC,
Limpopo 2013-..
Partnership: MDF, KZN DARD, Lima RDF, Siyazisiza Trust,KwaNalu, StratAct,
Ubuhlebezweand Mtshezi Municipality
Villages savings and loans assocations and organised farmers
organisations and cooperatives to work within the whole value chain;
inputs- production- storage- marketing.
Horizontal scaling model starting with a nodal village in each area and
expanding within and between villages:
2013: 3 Villages EC and 3 in Bergville (total trial participants: 50)
2014: 7 villages EC, 9 villages Bergville (Total trial participants: 100)
2015: 8 villages EC, 10 Bergville, 2 Nkandla (total trial participants: 210)
2016: 8 Villages EC; 2 Midlands, 17 Bergville
Local capacity - Farmer volunteers, local facilitators, farmer centres (for each
node surrounded by 3-5 villagesclose by for equipment and input provision
awa production advice)
Description of Model and Process
Farmer level experimentation
Year 1: Predefined with the research team:
Choice of planting method; hand hoes, hand planters,
animal drawn planters
Year 2: Choices and options within the same overall design:
Different varieties maize (white yellow, OPV, hybrid)
Different varieties and types of legumes
Early planting
Manure and fertilizer combinations
Targeted fertility regimes and pest control measures
Year 3 +: Own design of experiments by participants :
Intercropping vs crop rotation options
Summer and winter cover crops
Mulching
Organic options
Different herbicide and pesticide spray regimes
Different planting times
As well as options for year 2.
Incremental change in yr 1,2,3
Minimal soil disturbance
Soil cover
Diversity
Clockwise: Animal drawn no
till planter. ‘Weeding
wheel’.Matracca jab planter,
MBLI planter
Below: Planters
Conservation Agriculture: All three principles
Soil cover
Below: A 3year old CA plot with developing cover Far right: A
ploughed plot with no soilcover
Left: Assessing soil cover, Mulching…..
Conservation Agriculture: All three principles
Runoff muddy (195mm)
Runoff clear (42mm)
Minimal soil disturbance
Soil cover
Diversity
- Intercropping close
spacing for canopy and
weed control
- Cover crops; summer
and winter relay
cropping and single block
plantings
Right: Maize (PAN 6479)
and bean (Dolichos)
intercrop Smephi
Hlatshwayo - Eqeleni
Conservation Agriculture: All three principles
3-4 years: Reduced need for herbicide no spraying on
trial plots this season
Increased organic matter, reduced fertilizer requirements
- No basal fertilizer applied- only top dressing
Reduced runoff
Increased yields and diversity
Bergville_Case studyMphumelele Hlongwane- Ezibomvini
t/ha
2016
2017
Maize (Control)
-CA
7,8
9,7
Maize Trial CA
- combined
6,93
8,3
Beans
0,25
1,81
Sunflower
0,3
0,8
EXPERIMENTS: Inter- cropping, crop
rotation, legumes, scc, wcc
Runoff plots: CA (1,1mm/event) vs
Conventional control (3,1mm/event)
Infiltration: Ca (247mm/hr) vs
Control (50mm/hr)
Soil health:
SOLVITA; CA (68ppmC) vs CA Control
(63ppmC) moderate to high, limited need
for N, Ideal state of biological activity and
adequate organic matter
AGGREGATE STABILITY: CA (55) CA Control
(33) -higher aggregate stability for the
plots with crop diversification-highest for
inclusion of scc mixes and Lab-Lab
% OM: CA average (3 ,47%), Veld
Baseline (2,5%) accumulation of organic
matter in CA plots-now higher than veld
baseline benchmark
9-30kg/ha of immediate release N in the
soil in CA plots valued at a saving of
R320-R530/ha of N now supplied through
cropping practices that build soil health.
(10)
M + B
(5)
LL
Control plot
(8)
M + B
(6)
M +LL
(3) M + SCC
+WCC
Contro
l plot
(9)
M + CP
(7)
M + CP
(4)
M + B
(2)Sunn
hemp,
millet and
sunflower
(1)
M + B
Legend: M Maize; B Beans; CP Cowpea; LL Lab Lab; SCC summer cover crop WCC
winter cover crop
Bergville_Case study_cont
MEASURABLE CHANGES
PRACTICES:
-Reduced tillage (linked to time.. 1yr,2yrs, 3yrs etc),
-Increased soil cover (5-10%, 10-15%, 15-25%)
Increased diversity (1crop, 2 crops, 3 crops, >3 crops -intercropping or
crop rotation),
Improved social organisation (learning groups y/n, collective work
groups y/n, , Cooperative y/n)
Increased access to finances (savings groups y/n, savings and loans for
inputs y/n)
LEADING TO:
Increased production/yield (compared to controls)
Improved livelihoods (increased food supply y/n, increased income
y/n)
Increased carbon (tricky to prove; tests variable depending on
weather, timing, depth of tests- …)
Reduced erosion/run-off/increased infiltration (Quite a mission to test
but benchmarks possible)
Improved soilstructure (also not easy to measure or show but
definitely positive over time)
Improved soil health (overallshowing positive trends but a lot of
variability between years)……
PES options
Use opportunity costs
to determine level of
payment,
Funding period; long
term funding instruments
avoid R&D and pilot
project design
Average Maize price 2017:
R2 500/ton
Break even yield:
3,9 t/ha
Average yield:
1,4 - 4,2t/ha
Average price sugar beans;
R8 000/ton
Average yield 0,8-1t/ha
Costs of inputs
CONSERVATION AGRICULTURE PLOTS, KZN 2016
-2017
0.1= Ha PLOTS
Events
CostCosts (1ha)-2015
Costs (1ha)
2016
INPUTS
ha
lit / kg
( R / kg,l)
Seeds
-
maize (PAN 6479)
25
1
104
R 195,00
R 216,45
Seeds
- drybeans (PAN
148 or
Gadra)
75
1
42,6
R 159,75
R 177,32
Fertilizer MAP
250
1
9,2
R 230,00
R 255,30
Fertilizer LAN
150
1
5
R 75,00
R 83,25
Lime
1000
1
1
R 100,00
R 111,00
Pesticides (
Decis Forte)
0,1
3
875
R 26,25
R 29,14
Herbicides: Roundup
3
2
109
R 65,40
R 72,59
Herbicides: Dual Gold
1,2
1
250
R 30,00
R 33,30
Summit/surfactant
0,2
1
296
R 5,92
R 6,57
Input costs per 0.1 ha
R 887,32
R 984,93
Input costs per 1 ha
R 8 873,20
R 9 849,25
We need more
than 4 tons/ha
maize to make a
profit
30% of input
costs in a semi-
commercial
foodsecurity
setting works!