Phase 2 Milestone 4 Progress Report 3

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© 2017 The Association for Water and Rural Development
RESILIM-O:
Resilience in the Limpopo Basin Program
Olifants
MILESTONE 4: Progress Report No 3
Under the
Lower Olifants catchment
Agricultural Support Initiative (AgriSI)
30/11/2018
MILESTONE 4: PROGRESS REPORT NO 3
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Acknowledgements
The USAID: RESILIM-O project is funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development under
USAID/Southern Africa RESILIENCE IN THE LIMPOPO BASIN PROGRAM (RESILIM). The RESILIM-O project is
implemented by the Association for Water and Rural Development (AWARD), in collaboration with partners.
Cooperative Agreement nr AID-674-A-13-00008.
© Association for Water and Rural Development (AWARD)
P O Box 1919
Hoedspruit 1380
Limpopo, South Africa
T 015-793 0503
W award.org.za
Company Reg. No. 98/03011/08
Non-profit org. Reg. No. 006 821
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ABOUT USAID: RESILIM
USAID’s Resilience in the Limpopo River Basin (RESILIM) program addresses ongoing degradation in the river
Basin in southern Africa, where people face water shortages, increased floods, and declines in crop
productivity as climate change further stresses an already water limited region.
There are twocomponents to theprogram; one operating at a basin-scale (RESILIM-B, which is implemented
by USA-based Chemonicsand addresses similar issues at the scale of the four SADC member states that share
the Limpopo Basin (South Africa, Botswana, Zimbabwe and Mozambique) and a catchment-scale project
(RESILIM-O) thatIt is being implemented by the Association for Water and Rural Development (AWARD).
Both projects share the same overall objectives. You can find out more information on the RESILIM projects
on www.usaid.gov websiteand www.award.org.za.
The USAID’s RESILIM-O focusses on the Olifants catchment. The program aims to reduce the vulnerability of
people and ecosystems in the Olifants Catchment specifically, by improving how transboundary natural
resources are managed. By understanding the systemic causes of vulnerability, including climate
vulnerability, it is promoting new ways of thinking and acting to promote integrated water and biodiversity
management.
ABOUT AWARD
At AWARD, we recognize that the natural world’s resources are limited, and undergoing rapid depletion and
transformation. We know current practices of use and management are inadequate to deal with the changes
and challenges we are facing. We design practical interventions to address the vulnerability of people and
ecosystems, and merge considerations from both environmentaland social perspectives. Our approach
involves thinking across disciplines, boundaries and systems.
We are working with diverse peopleand institutions in the waterandbiodiversity sectors in the Olifants
River Catchment to understand the multiple vulnerabilities to change, including climate change. Along with
quality scientific contributions, our engagement in the socio-political context of the Olifants River
Catchment allows us begin tobegin to institutionalize integrated, resilience-based practices, providing a
foundation for robust development policy and practice in the in this river catchment, and beyond
1
.
The Olifants Catchment: An overview
The Olifants River Catchment falls within the Limpopo River Basin, which is part of an international drainage
basin that stretches acrossSouth Africa, Mozambique, Zimbabwe and Botswana. In fact, the Olifants River
contributes nearly 40% of the water that flows in theLimpopo Rivermaking it an important catchmentin
the system as a whole
2
.
1
AWARD: Annual Report.2016/2017 Financial Year. RESILIENCE IN THE LIMPOPO OLIFANTS.10/31/2017
2
As above
MILESTONE 4: PROGRESS REPORT NO 3
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AWARD, 2017.
At the heart of this catchment is the Olifants River, a vital artery that flows for 560 kilometres through
South Africa and into Mozambique, where it is known as the Rio dos Elefantes in Mozambique.
This mightyriver originates in South Africa’s MpumalangaHighveld, flowing northwards before curving in an
easterly direction through the Kruger National Park and intoMozambique, finally finding rest in the salty
water of the Indian Ocean near Xai Xai, just north of Maputo.
The main tributaries of the Olifants River are the Wilge, Elands, Ga-Selati, Klein Olifants, Steelpoort, Blyde,
Klaserie and Timbavati Rivers.
Along with its tributaries, it isone of the six major Lowveld river systems, occupying an area just short of
55 000 square kilometres. It traverses three provinces in South Africa; Gauteng, Mpumalanga and Limpopo.
About 3.5 million people live on the South African side of the catchment. In Mozambique, it flows through
Gaza Province, which is home to about700 000 people.
A system under change
Our catchment is the foundation of our livelihoods and development. Yet the river and associated natural
resources in the Olifants Catchment are under threat.
Unchecked pollution, inappropriate land resource use, weak and poorly enforced policies and regulations
and poor protection of habitats and biodiversity are degrading the Olifants atan alarming rate. What’s more,
the area is however under threat from factors such as mining for heavy metals, inappropriate land
management, rural sprawl and unsustainable use of natural resources. This affects the level of goods and
services provided by the ecosystem.
The diverse population groups living in the Olifants Catchment all have one thing in common; they rely on
the river and the catchment’s natural biodiversity for their livelihoods. This reliance can be direct or indirect.
Rural communities rely on it for things such as traditional medicine, grazing and browse, fuel, food and
housing materials. Some people in river-side communities harvestreeds, collect waterfrom the river for
MILESTONE 4: PROGRESS REPORT NO 3
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washing and drinking and use it for recreational and spiritual practices. Subsistence farmers in Mozambique
rely heavily on the catchment’s flood plains. There are also large mines and associated industries, large
scale agriculture and the wildlife economy, which all rely on a healthy, functioning river system. Often
people forget that what they do upstream affects people downstream, sometimes with dire consequences.
The catchment is our home and it is worth investing in its future. The work reported here is part of the
ongoing activities of the RESILIM- O project under the grant from USAID: Southern Africa.
Project partners
Mahlathini Development Foundation (MDF) is a small public benefit non-profit organization consisting of
rural development practitioners who specialize in participatory learning and action processes, sustainable
natural resource management and low external input farming systems, including afocus on rain water
harvesting, conservation agriculture, intensive homestead food production, food security,climate change
adaptation micro finance and enterprise development.
MDF designs and implements rural development programmes and training processes providing learning
processes for adults all the way from semi-literate farmers to post graduate university level. Wework in
partnership with government and non-government organisations alike. We are sensitive to and mainstream
where possible gender, disability and people living with HIV/AIDs
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Contents
Table of Contents
1 Executive Summary .........................................................................................................7
1.1 Progress for the reporting period...................................................................................7
2 Project Objectives ..........................................................................................................7
2.1 Overview of RESILIM-O Project objectives.........................................................................7
2.2 Sub-grant Project Objectives ........................................................................................7
3 Milestone Description.......................................................................................................8
3.1 Definition of milestone and purpose................................................................................8
4 Approach/ Process/ Activities............................................................................................9
4.1 Summary of activities .................................................................................................9
5 Progress and Results...................................................................................................... 10
5.1 Learning and mentoring............................................................................................. 10
5.1.1 BotshabeloMid season review and planning............. Error! Bookmark not defined.
5.1.2 Tunnel construction........................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
5.1.3 Innovations and Experimentation..............................................................36
5.1.4 Networking & collaboration.....................................................................40
5.2 Success and Challenges in meeting milestone. .................................................................41
5.3 Monitoring and evaluation.......................................................................................... 42
5.3.1 Garden monitoring (July-September 2018) ...................................................42
5.3.2 Indicators: Assessment October 2018..........................................................43
5.3.3 Project Life Change Questions:.................................................................44
5.3.4 Work Plan for next period (10 October- 15 December 2018)...............................46
6 Overall Progress of Project.............................................................................................. 46
6.1 Integration of milestone status.................................................................................... 46
6.2 Project risk and mitigation summary............................................................................. 47
6.2.1 Implementation risks and mitigation..........................................................47
6.2.2 Financial risks and mitigation...................................................................47
6.3 Project work not directly linked to the milestone............................................................. 48
6.3.1 Quantitative measurements.................................. Error! Bookmark not defined.
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1Executive Summary
1.1Progress for the reporting period
Continuation from reporting for Milestone 3Phase II:
Seasonal cluster review workshop
Organic mango production; field assessments and training (Sedawa, Mametja Lepelle, Turkey)
Expansion of organic herb and vegetable marketing process into Turkey
Delivery of fruit trees orders (Lepelle mangoes, citrus, litchis.)
Report backs on water issuesand borehole assessments (Lepelle, Sedawa)
Traditional poultry production training (all villages)
Learning revision workshops; Fenale and Botshabelo
Garden and tunnel monitoring; Sedawa, Turkey, Botshabelo, Mametja.
Agroecology network meeting at University of Mpumalanga, Nelspruit
IMPLEMENTATION TEAM
MAHLATHINI: Erna Kruger, Sylvester Selala, Betty Maimela and Andries Maponya(intern)
AWARD: Cryton Zazu, Bigboy Mkhabela,
Note: Sylvester Selala resigned in October 2018. He is replaced by Betty Maimela and a new intern who
started in October Andries Lethabo Maponya
2Project Objectives
2.1Overview of RESILIM-O Project objectives
RESILIM-O is large multi-faceted, multi-stakeholder, cross-boundary programmeto reduce vulnerability to
climate change through building improved transboundary water and biodiversity governance and
management of the Olifants Basin through the adoption ofscience-based strategies that enhance the
resilience of its people and ecosystems through systemic and social learning approaches. The programme
has been running for four years and is being implemented byAWARD (The Association for Water and Rural
Development) with funding from USAID.
The Agricultural Support Initiative (AgriSI) was initiated as a sub-grant process within the larger programmed
towards the end of 2016. This initiative works specifically with climate change adaptation processes with
smallholder communities in both the middle andlower Olifants River basin. In the lower Olifants it is being
implemented jointly by Mahlathini Development Foundation and AWARD.
The Agricultural Support Initiative (AgriSI) addresses two of the RESILIM-O programme objectives directly:
i. To institutionalize systemic, collaborative planning andaction for resilience of ecosystems and
associated livelihoods through enhancing the capacity of stakeholders to sustainably manage natural
resources of the Olifants River Basin under different scenarios
ii. To reduce vulnerability to climate change and otherfactors by supporting collective action, informed
adaptation strategies and practices and tenable institutional arrangements.
2.2Sub-grant Project Objectives
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Sound agro-ecological practices for soilandwaterconservation (SWC) and the ability to self-organise and
act collectively are regarded as fundamental for building adaptive capacity and resilience to climate change.
Not only do agro-ecologicalfarming approaches require minimum external inputs which may be expensive
and increase dependency ifsubsdized –but they foster farmers’ sense that they can build sustainable futures
from local inputs and efforts. With knowledge aboutthe potential impacts of climate change included in
the learning journey, farmers can make purposeful decisions around practices such as seed saving and crop-
typeto plant. This approach supports livelihood diversification also fundamental for increased resilience
–through ‘value-added’ associated activities such as seedling production, tree nurseries and bee-keeping,
harvesting and processing of marula fruits into jam and other usable products.
The overall aim of the Agricultural Support Initiative is to enhance the resilience of the people and
ecosystems in selected villages (5-8) in the Lower OlifantsRiver basin, usinga systemic social learning
approach, exploring the question:What are you learning about the socio-economic and biophysical
characteristics of your environment and how these are changing and how are you able to respond to that?
The overarching objective of this work is to provide support for increased adaptive capacity and resilience
to the effects of climate change for households involved in agriculture in select communities of the Olifants
River Catchment through:
-Improved soil and water conservation and agro-ecological practices for increased food security
-Livelihood diversification and supplementation through alternative climate resistant production;
-Increased community empowerment as a result of self-organisation and collective action.
-
3Milestone Description
3.1Definition of milestone and purpose
Each milestone and progress report indicate activities under the broad themes of learning and mentoring,
introduction to innovations and experimentation, collaborative work and networking undertaken during
the reporting period.
The table below summarises these activities against the milestone and indicate achievement of these
milestones.
Table 1:SummaryofdeliverablecompletionunderMilestone4: 10October-15December2018
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Activities
planned
Completed?
Expected
outcomes
Completed?
Verification
documenta
tion
Completed?
Reference
Learning &
Mentoring:
In all 6
communitie
s each 2
days
Learning &
Mentoring:
-Learning
sessions;
*Fruit production
and traditional
poultry
production
training for all
groups
Gardening
revision
workshops;
Fenale,
Botshabelo
C
-Learning groups;
learning sessions
(Sedawa, Mametja,
Botshableo, Turkey,
Lepelle, Willows, Oaks,
Fenale)
C
Progress report
on outcomes
including the
following
documentation:
1. Photos &
photo
diaries
2. Farmer work
plans
3. Garden
monitoring
4. Monthly
assessment
s
5. Cluster
activity
records
6. Event
materials,
attendance
registers
C
1. Photos in
reports andAll
photos saved in
directories and
kept by Erna
2.Farmer work
plans are
recorded in the
garden monitoring
forms
3. 44 Garden
monitoring forms
across six villages
4. In this report
5.Appended to
this report
6.Appended to
this report
Introduction
to
innovations
and
experiment
ation:
-Individual
farmer
experimentation,
garden
monitoring.
-Tunnel
implementation
C
- Garden monitoring
conducted for 29
participants across 4
villages, including LF’s
-Monitoring of tunnel
implementation across
3 villages
C
C
C
Networking:
1. Local
facilitator
networking
2. Open
days, cross
visits
3. Review
and
planning
sessions
-Networking;
Agroecology best
practise
workshop
-Cluster network
session; Impacts
of activities
-Organic
marketing
initiative
C
-Workshop held in
Nelspruit on 22nd
November
Seasonal cluster review
session in October 2018
Expansion of organic
marketing to Turkey
C
C
C
C
4Approach/ Process/ Activities
4.1Summary of activities
This section gives an indication of activities undertaken during the reporting period to achieve the
outcomes for this period, time spent and people involved.
Table 2: Summary of activities for the reporting period October-December 2018.
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DATE
DESCRIPTION OF ACTIVITY
Time
WHO WAS
INVOLVED
2018/10/01-
10/10
Milestone 3 report
5 days
Erna
2018/10/01-05
Seasonal Cluster review workshop all villages;
mango producers field assessment visit
5 days
Betty, Erna, Sylvester,
Anri, Nelson, Geoff,
Cryton, Bigboy
2018/10/08-12
Setting up tunnel experimentation for 15 participants
across 3 villages, sorting out chameleons and
weather stations
5 days
Betty, Sylvester
2018/10/15-19
Fruit tree order deliveries, herb sales, monitoring
5 days
Betty, Andries
2018/10/22-26
Garden monitoring, (turkey, Sedawa, Botshabelo,
Mametja, herb grower workshop, turkey, herb and
veg sales
5 days
Betty, Andries
2018/10/29-
11/02
Organic mango production training at HH (4 days),
herb sales
5 days
Betty, Andries
2018/11/05-09
Tunnel implementation monitoring
5 days
Betty, Andries
2018/11/12-16
Gardening practices revision workshops, monitoring
of chameleons and set up tunnel experimentation for
this season
5 days
Betty, Andries,
Sylvester
2018/11/19-23
Agroecology best practise workshop, poultry
production training, marketing review meeting with
HH and Hlokomela
5 days
Erna, Betty, Andries,
Sylvester, Mazwi,
Khethiwe.
2018/11/26-30
Tunnel monitoring, mini workshops to review water
issues progress, Turkey, Sedawa, weekly marketing
process and planning workshops. Milestone 4 report
5 days
Betty, Andries, Erna
2018/12/03-14
Monitoring and weekly marketing process
10 days
Betty, Andries
Sylvester: 20 days, Erna: 20 days, Betty: 55 days Andries: 45
5Progress and Results
5.1Learning and mentoring
Learning processes conducted are summarised in the table below
Table 3: Summary of learning sessions conducted: October-December 2018
Village
Date
Activity
No of
participants
Comments
Lepelle, Sedawa,
Mametja
2018/10/02,29-
02
Organic Mango
production
training with
Hoedspruit Hub
10,29
-Field visits to
Lepelle and Sedawa
to assess mango
production and issues
with trees
-4 day training
including a visit to
Bavaria estate
Lepelle,
Sedawa,Botshabelo,
Mametja, Fenale,
Willows, turkey
2018/10/04
Seasonal cluster
review session
75
Review of season,
report back on
tunnels and
experimentation,
water issues and
organic marketing,
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planning for
upcoming season
Turkey
2018/10/23
Herb growers
workshop with
new participants
in turkey
26
Betty provided follow
up training in herb
production and
marketing for the two
learning groups in
Turkey
Fenale, Botshabelo,
Sedawa, Mametja
2018/11/16,17
Gardening
practices revision
workshops
9,16
Review of gardening
practices for those
groups who requested
All villages
2018/11/20,21
Poultry
production
training
42,44
Focus on traditional
poultry and production
of poultry feed at
household level
5.1.1Seasonal cluster review workshop
Date of workshop: 04 October 2018 (75 participants)
5.1.1.1Agenda: Peer review and planning for the CSA innovation development programme
(AgriSI) in the LowerOlifants.
This is a yearly event to review progress, tackle issues and broadly plan for the year going
forward for the learning groups involved. It also involves showcasing present successful activities
and community level discussion around issues and possible solutions.
TIME
Facilitator
Activity
Resources
9:00-9:30am
ERNA
Introduction; review of five fingers and general
comments for this season -
PP: data
projector, chords,
screen
9:30-10:30
SYLVESTER,
BETTY
Small groups to work on practices they are using
under each of the five fingers and report back to
plenary
Newsprint, kokis
10:30-11:00
ERNA
Compare this to the list of practices introduced
in the trainings and add these to the lists
PP presentation
11:00-12:00
ERNA,
SYLVESTER
Plenary for traffic lights, no of participants
implementing and also comments on these
practices (How much to they help)-
12:00-1:00pm
ERNA
Presentation on experimentation and
measurements
Discussion on herb growers and how that is going
Pp presentation
1:00-1:45pm
SYLVESTER,
BETTY
Small groups discuss experimentation and
practices for the next 6 months (summer season)
and make a list (with names of who will do
those) and report briefly to plenary
Including succession and continuity planning for
herb and veg sales.
Including new ideas… poultry…
Newsprint, Kokis
Announcements: Mango production training 29-31
October 2018
2:00-3:00pm
Christina
Visits to households
3:00pm
LUNCH
5.1.1.2General comments
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Report back from Ukuvuna cross visit
15 Participants from these groups attended a 3 day cross visit to the Ukuvuna learning sites in
Sekhukhune. Report backs were made by Alex Magopa and Christina Thobejane.
They talked about
Tree propagation using cuttings. This method is used if you want particular tree type and do not
have seeds. It works for oranges,naartjies, peaches, grapes and roses. This is an in situ method
where growing medium is tied onto the desired small branch and it is left there for around 3
months until roots are formed, before the branch is cut away from the tree.
Use of tobacco for pest control. A brew is made from the young leaves only as the older leaves are
too strong. It has been noted that the older leaves are tougher and thus harder to extract the
active ingredient from and that tobacco should not be used on crops from the same family such as
tomatoes and potatoes.
An easy way to plant and harvest potatoes; is digging a ditch and planting the potatoes in there
and then filling this ditch as time goes along. It reduced the need for time consuming ridging
activities.
Youth are involved there, and it would be important to encourage our youth here also to do
farming
We can start having poultry, so that we can use the manure in the garden and for compost and
liquid manure instead of having to buy manure
Many different herbs were shown and are being grown; including yarrow (for stress relief),
comfrey (for bones and liquid manure), parsley, coriander, wild mint (Mabele Mabutswa for pest
control), Wild Dagga,Geranium.
A lot of different things were learnt as their gardens are full of different kinds of crops. However,
we now have a market for our crops, which they do not.
They build seed houses, that they insulate on the inside using old egg boxes and they place old
sugar cane on top of the roof. A gutter is installed and the run-off collected. This sweet water is
used as a kind of liquid manure on the gardens. This sugar water will provide for very sweet fruit
from fruit trees.
Mixed cropping; alternate rows of Lucerne and vegetables this is for soil fertility and also saves
water. Lucerne is very deep rooting and thus it can find water in the soil and does not need that
much watering.
Flowers can be planted for pest control in between vegetables; they also attract birds and bees,
which are needed for pollinating crops.
They also shared on the issue of livestock integration feeding them from the garden and using
their manure in the garden- like a cycle. This was a highlight for us.
This visit encouraged us to put more effort into our farming, even if we do not have much water. Some
farmers there see farming as a full time job- they are busy in their gardens every day for the whole day.
Mr Malatjie asked that these participants try out some of the ideas, so that our learning groups can also
learn these techniques in that way and also that they share some of the seeds they were given.
One of the fruit seeds that they brought with, were strawberry seedlings which they bought from one of
the farmers they visited who specialises in planting strawberries. Trona Morema, planted them inside her
tunnel, where she made a shallow trench bed that she built using cement bricks. See the picture below
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Mango production household visits
A few participantsinLepelle and Sedawawere visited by Jeffery Tshishonga, afarmmanager at Landman
Group the commercial Mango estates (Bavaria), so that he could give them advice on mango tree
management and also check on issues with deficiencies, pests and diseases. Thisinformation will also be
useful in designing the upcoming Organic Mango Production training, organised through the HoedspruitHub
for the (29-31 October 2018).
Report backs from the participants visited by Jeffry Tshisonga highlighted inputon pruning both water
shoots, and excessive branches to ensure that all flowers have access to sunlight. Thiscan increase fruiting
substantially. Also, the tips of the branches that bearfruit are pruned in winter to stimulate more fruiting
branches. He emphasised that pruning shears should be used for straight clean cuts and not the pangas
people have been using. He spoke to irrigation and suggested they build basins around their trees to allow
for around 200-400l of irrigation in one go. Watering like thisneeds to be done once a week or bi-weekly.
Also, the leaves that fall form the trees should not be swept away but placed around the tree as mulching.
Spraying for powdery mildew needs to be done when the trees are flowering. There are fungicides that are
not too harmful thatcan be used as powdery mildew is very common.A few of these fungicides are
acceptable under organic mango production systems.
Review of CSA practices
Here small groups made lists ofpracticesfalling into the five finger categories (water management, soil
management, crops, soil fertility and soil health and natural resources). These practices were then assessed
fortheir effectiveness orimpact; participants indicting who is using thepractice and comments were made.
The traffic light system of assessment of implementation was used (red none or very little); (yellow-can
be improved) and (green- good implementation.)
The table below summarises this exercise
Practice
Implementation
No of
people
(N=62)
Comments
WATER MANAGEMENT
Mulching
23
Saves water, suppresses weeds
Furrows and
ridges
9
Make sure you allow the grass to grow before you
turn the soil. Helps control soil pests
Banana basins
13
Prevents water run-off, provides fertility and
water for the trees as you add leaves and compost
before planting the trees
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Roof water
harvesting
50
Tanks for storage not enough, so this does not last
long and does not work in the dry season. We use
this water for drinking
Underground
tanks
2
Very expensive and have now been dry for a long
time as there has been no rain. Holds 24000l, but
even that was not enough to use for gardening
Stone bunds
15
Reduces erosion and holds water
Diversion diches
4
This helps to control and increase the amount of
water that goes into the garden
Small basins
18
Provides some extra water for the crops planted.
SOIL MANAGEMENT
Use feedbags to
make ridges
2
Control soil erosion
Plant grass on
bare soil
0
Good idea, but no-one is implementing this. Can
use lemon grass, black oats for example, this
planted grass prevents weeds from growing
Contour planting
9
We are more aware of this now and are doing this
in the larger fields
Plant trees
around the fence
and yard
9
For wind protection; Not much planting of trees
now, due to drought, but it is known to be a good
idea. Plant any kind of no fruiting tree to protect
the fruit trees in the yard.
CROP MANAGEMENT
Correct timing of
irrigation
7
Early mornings or late afternoons- this reduces
stress and wilting
Planting sweet
potatoes
15
Works well on ridges and furrows and works even
in these hot, dry conditions but needs some
watering
Tunnels (shade
houses)
10
These work extremely well and all participants are
interested
Bulbinella
3
To trap water and is used for medicinal purposes
(introduced by MDF)
Using organic
pest control
remedies
15
Chilli and aloe and liquid manure works well. Not
many pests seen
Liquid manure
10
Use black jack leaves, chicken and goat manure
works well
Keep loosening
the soil
27
Traditional practice ( in fact not recommended
for soil health and soil structure-causes
compaction, and capping)
Drip irrigation
10
Helps to use less water and save the water
especially if mulching also used. Plants grow well
Use of herbs in-
between veggies
21
This is now becoming common practices. It helps
for pest control, water management
Trench beds
28
They make a big difference good looking crops,
big and healthy
Shallow trenches
16
Easier than trenches with a similar result. Can be
done on larger areas
Compost
4
Labour intensive, not enough water
Use of manure
62
We all now use manure and understand that the
soil needs to be fed
NATURAL RESOURCES
Less cutting of
trees
62
We are all aware and trying to save the trees
Minimising veld
fires
62
We are all aware and are not burning veld
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Planting of
indigenous trees
26
We are all aware and are doing this on a small
scale in our yards
Presentation of experimentation results
A power point presentation was given (attached) that outlines the results of the experiments in the tunnels
(trench beds inside and outside the tunnel and also furrows and ridges outside the tunnel). It was shown
how the water productivity is much higher inside the tunnels and also how this is substantially increased is
deep watering and mulching is used. A cost benefit analysis showing the amount of profit possible for a
tunnel was also shown (R900 for 3-4 months), using spinach as an example.
A presentation was also done on theorganic marketing ofvegetables and herbs. Participants explained to
the group how the process works and some results of incomes made and specific crops sold were presented.
Hoedspruit Hub has tried out a number of different avenues for marketing each with their own positives
and negatives
Market
Requirements
Local restaurants and health
shop
Small quantities, can deal with some variability of crops, but
quality must be good
Veggie boxes; facebook page
Medium quantities; quality must be good, required regular
supply and lots of different crops
Supermarkets (Lebamba,
PicknPay)
Larger quantities; lower price, continuity of supply is absolutely
crucial
Friends and individuals
Small quantities, will more likely take what is available,
Saturday farmers market and
boot car sales
Tested dried herbs and pesto as well as vegetables. Small
quantities need good quality and regular supply.
It was discussed that these were all an initial testing of the market in Hoedspruit and that the farmers’
desired market of supermarkets could in fact be the most difficult and least rewarding as they want
contracts, large and continual supply and pay less. At the moment farmers are getting high prices as
produce is sold as organic and directly to consumers.
Crops with a HIGH demand: flat leaf parsley, basil, onions, spinach, beetroot, green beans, sweet
potatoes
Crops with GOOD demand (smaller quantities): curly leaf parsley, coriander, fennel, cabbage,
Crops with LOW demand: local tomatoes (the buyers do not like the variability in size and shape of
the tomatoes)
New crops to focus on: baby marrows, carrots
Suggestions for more participants to come on board (at the moment 10-15 participants only)
There has to be quality control at the village (learning group) level before produce is taken to the
market.
Planting intervals are important;so you have to plant regularly and not wait for everything to be
harvested before planting again. We need to set up planting calendars for all the groups
Protect the market by providing good quality and sticking to the requirements (borehole water for
washing, correct weights and packaging
Each village must make a plan -types of herbs and vegetables
Number of people
oSedawa: 13
oLepelle: 2
oTurkey: 9
oFenale: 5
oMametja: 5
oBotshabelo: 3
A contact person was chosen for each village who will ensure availability lists are made for the
village and that the orders are prepared and delivered on time at the right places
MILESTONE 4: PROGRESS REPORT NO 3
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Name and Surname
Village
Phone number
Mogofe Mabiletse
Turkey
0724151686
Julia Maneneng
Patricia Ngobeni
Lepelle
0717006817
Tronah Morema
Mametja
0799107186
Joyce Mafologele
Mametja
0799849098
Lucy Seemole Malepe
Botshabelo
0760158315
Planning for upcoming year
Below are summarised points related to group discussions for future activities. A general point was made
that due to the continued lack of access to water, that the groups would focus on small intensive
gardening activities. People are focussed on making more trench beds as well as raised beds with organic
matter as these are the best practices for now. There was a plea made to not forget about the issue of
livestock however.
1. Water issues: Turkey also wants to be
part of this process and discuss local
options and potentials
2. Underground RWH tanks: given the
difficult conditions there is a large
interest in underground tanks; but
funding would need to be found to do
this. 24 People made requests
3. Conservation Agriculture: Given the
continued dry conditions in the area a
group decision was made to focus this
activity on the fields of individuals who
have some irrigation. Experimentation
with diversification of crops (including
legumes) as well as some fodder production options are to be considered. There are (9-12
individuals). Crops requested: sorghum, cowpeas, jugo beans and runner beans
4. Organic herb and vegetable marketing:This process has now been piloted and is to be expanded
into 5 of the 6 villages. Each learning group will set up their own internal process for managing
production, orders and deliveries
5. Indigenous poultry production: training and support on breeds and local level feed production for
indigenous poultry. Training set up for 19-20 November
6. Lucerne: introducing mixed cropping with Lucerne into the gardens
7. Strawberries: these wereseen in Sekhukhune and people would like to try them
8. Revision workshops: These are important as new people come on board all the time and older
participants can take part to assist in the learning and mentoring.
9. Handouts:were again requested.
Announcements
6 October: Borehole survey and siting with Raymond Vonk, in Sedawaand Mametja.
29-31 October: Organic Mango production training; 15 participants form Lepelle and 5 each for
Turkey, Sedawa, Mametja. 19-20 November: Indigenous poultry and broiler production training 2
workshops with groups of interested participants from all participating villages
22 November: Agroecology workshop- Nelspruit
5.1.2Herb GrowersWorkshop; Turkey
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The organic marketing system has been expanded to include turkey more coherently. A workshop was held
for 26 participants on 23rd October 2018, to induct them into the system and discuss planting calendars,
delivery options and produce quality.
The Agenda was as follows:
Introduction
Herbs, uses and production
Planting in their gardens
Discussion on record keeping
Hoedspruit Hub market
What kind of market HH is running
Who are our clients
Size of the market
What kind of herbs and vegetables are we selling
How do we weigh the herbs using a scale
Water
Where are we getting your water
What kind of water must be used to wash the herbs and vegetables
Logistics
Weekly orders
The meeting place for collection
Who delivers the herbs and vegetables to Hoedspruit Hub
How do you contribute for transport
SUMMARY OF THE WORKSHOP
During the Cluster review workshop at Sedawa on the 04/10/2018, there was a presentation of the herb
market focusing on the progress and how much people have made within two months. Mr Malatjie
requested that this process be formally extendedinto Turkey.
Participants needed some reminders about the names and uses of herbs they had been planting through
the AgriSi process; uses are both culinary and medicinal
Mostly farmers have never kept records and are not aware how long it takes from planting to harvest. The
importance of keeping these records was emphasisedas they need to learn how long it takes, so that they
can plan how often and when to plant their different successions of herbs.They also need to record how
much they harvested over what period of time.
Hoedspruit Hub market
The understanding is that the smallholders can supply small quantities and that this supply is likely to
come in batches for now, rather than being consistent and continuous. It is understood as well that quality
may vary. Hoedspruit Hub is assisting in the marketing process by finding different customers who need
different herbs and vegetables. Examples are:
Restaurants including Blue Mountain, Hat and Creek, Sleepers and the local health shop
Lebamba Supermarket
Pick and Pay
Individuals in Hoedspruit; through a veggie box scheme advertised on Facebook
Weekly farmers’ markets
MILESTONE 4: PROGRESS REPORT NO 3
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The market is still being developed and thus things can change at short notice; this includes prices, sizes
of bunches and packaging, depending on who the buyers are. A list is made of what farmers have to offer
and this is presented to the customers. The customers then choose what they want to buy. In the process
we can also find out what they prefer and what crops they would like that we as farmers are not yet
growing
Table 4: A list of the herbs and vegetables currently being sold and the weight and price of these crops
Herb/vegetables
Kg
Price
Coriander
100g
R20,00
Parsley flat leaf
100g
R20,00
Parsley curly leaf
100g
R20,00
Basil
100g
R20,00
Rocket
100g
R20,00
Fennel
100g
R20,00
Lemon grass
100g
R20,00
Mint
100g
R20,00
Brinjal
Per kg
R15,00
Sweet-potatoes
Per kg
R25,00
Spinach
Twenty leafs
R18,00
Round tomatoes
Per kg
R15,00
Onion
Per kg
R15,00
Cabbage
Per kg
R20,00
Beetroot
Per kg
R15,00
Spring onion
100g
R20,00
Baby marrow
Per 350 g
R20,00
Green beans
Per350 g
R20,00
Participants were shown how to use the scale by Mmatshego and Betty to ensure that they do the correct
thing. Firstly, we harvested curly leaf parsley from Sarah Mohlala’s garden
and washed the parsley then weighed 100g of curly leaf parsley.
Right and far right:
Mmatshego
demonstrated how to
harvest, wash and weigh
a 100g bunch of curly
leaf parsley.
Water for gardening and washing produce
Participants explained the challenges that they are facing when coming to water. They do get their water
from the municipality borehole once a week in some sections; other sections rely on spring and borehole
water. They also used to pay a local person, who had reticulated pipes from a local spring, but he was
unreliable and even with paying R70/ per month,there was often no water. They have now stopped this
arrangement. Most are buying water or asking from neighbouring households, to water their gardensand
for household consumption.
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Participants held a meeting before this workshop to discuss how they can copy what Sedawa has started to
get their own water and not rely on municipal water for farming.They decided to set up smaller groups
according to their sections to collect monies for setting up a borehole for each section. Both the sub-
groups agreed to contribute R500,00 per household towards having borehole water. The contributions will
start from the first of November 2018 till the 31st of January 2019. They decided on borehole water also
because then there would be no question about water quality as water reticulated from local springs can
be contaminated.
They also selected members for thewater committee:
Chairperson: Michael Magobatlou
Vice chairperson: Mogofe Elias
Secretary: Mabiletse Mogofe
Treasurer: Angelina Malatjie
Logistics
People committing to the marketing process:
1. Michal Magobatlou
2. Sarah Madire
3. Norah Tshetlha
4. Elizabeth Mogatla
5. Sarah Mohlala
6. Mabiletse Mogofe
The group choseMabiletse to coordinate the market and
communicate with Betty and MDF. Participants will call or sms
her to let her know what they have in their gardensand how
much. Mabiletse will forward a summary with thenames, types
of herbs and vegetables and quantities on a Monday morning to Betty.
The collection point will be at Mabiletse’s home in Turkey 1. Mr Malatjie is to assist if there is a need.
They suggested joining the Sedawa group in terms of transport, as doing this jointly will decrease transport
costs.Thus,the produce will be taken from Turkey to Sedawa and then everything will be added together
and takento the Hoedspruit Hub.Participants agreed on paying Mabiletse’s transport and her airtime.
Mabiletse will also distribute the money,afterthe 15% contribution of transporthas beendeducted by Betty.
The agreed on planting the following herbs:
Rocket
Basil
Parsley curly leaf
Parsley flat leaf
Thyme
Fennel
Lemon grass
Participants prefer planting using seedlings instead of seed because:
The seedlings are already a few weeks old and need less effort, time and water to grow.
You harvest sooner than when you sow seeds.
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The only concern that farmers raised is that seeds are cheaper than seedlings, but Norah
Tshetlha explained that seedlings might be expensive but she managed to get herself 200
seedlings of curly leaf parsley for R15,00 in Tzaneen, thus 75c per seedling. Not all suppliers
of seedlings are this cheap, but at that price it is definitely worth planting seedlings instead of
seed
5.1.3Organic Mango Production training
This consisted of two processes:
1. A household visit by Jeffrey TShishonga Mango Estate Manager for Bavaria to assess the situation
and provide adviceand troubleshooting for the smallholder farmer participants.
2. A 3-day training workshop held at the Hoedspruit hub.
5.1.3.1Household visits
On the 2nd of October 2018 Mahlathini and Hoedspruit Hub, accompanied by Jeffrey TShishonga a farm
manager at Landman group, conducted household visits in Lepelle and Sedawa.
George Sebatane (Lepelle)
George has 42 peach mangos and one grafted mango tree. The trees were planted by his late father in 1969.
From all these trees George only harvests around 24 crates per year, to be sold in bulk for achar and juice.
His yields should be higher given the general good condition of his orchard and the availability of water.
George has cut back some branches on his trees. He was given specific advice by Jeffrey on how best to do
this pruning, to ensure that the sun can reach all flowering branch tips on the trees. If this isnot done
fruiting isreduced and this also increases the incidence of powdery mildew in the trees. This disease was
noticed on a number
of George’s trees.
Right: A picture of
George’s mango
orchard where he, Neil
and Anri are listening
to Jeffrey.
Far right: A view of
George’s irrigation
furrows, leading here
to a small nursery of
mango seedlings.
Jeffreyalso pointed
out the Girly fly from
the same farm, which affects the leaves and flowersleading to dark spot
on the flowers, where infected flowers drop fromthe tree. George was
advised to use a spray of diluted milk as a fungicide.
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Shakes Seerane (Lepelle)
We also visited Shakes Seerane in Lepelle. He planted
mango treesin his back yard andhe also has a farm where
he has planted fruit trees; mangoes and bananas.
Right: Mango trees in Mr Seerane’s back yard. These trees are
pruned every year after harvest, to allow the sun to reach allow
the branches increasing yield,and were considered to be in
prime condition by Jeffrey.
Above left to right: Mr Seerane’s orchard, a closer inspection of some of the mango trees and a fruit fly found in the
orchard.
In all,he has planted 56mangotrees; 1 Langes, 5 Tommy and 50 Sugar. He planted these trees in 2016.
During the visit Jefferycommentedthat the trees should be bearing fruits now, but they haven’t started,
which might be because Mr Seerane has been over irrigating his trees. He uses drip lines and microjet
sprinkles, which provide around 50l of water /hour, meaning these trees get around 450l/ day as the
irrigation is left on for the whole day. The idea is to stress the trees alittle in winter (through not irrigating)
to increase fruit set, otherwise vegetative growth will be favoured.
We also found Natal fruit fly in his farm.Fruit flies cause direct damage by puncturing the fruit skin to lay
eggs. During egg laying bacteria fromthe intestinal flora of the fly are introduced into the fruit. These
bacteria cause rotting of the tissues surrounding theegg. When the eggs hatch, the maggots feed on the
fruit flesh making galleries. These provide entry for pathogens and increase the fruit decay, making fruits
unsuitable for human consumption’ https://www.infonet-biovision.org/PlantHealth/Pests/Fruit-flies.
He also advised Mr. Seerane with respect to pruning and suggested that he cutsout the two central
branches in each tree, which grow straight up and become dominant, shading the rest of the tree.
MILESTONE 4: PROGRESS REPORT NO 3
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Josephina Malepe (Sedawa)
She planted 24 mango trees in her household garden:4 Peach, 12 Kent, 7 Indian and 5 Fish mangoes.She
sells to the local community. The major problem encountered was that she doesn’t water the trees enough,
leading to a decrease in production as the trees drop their fruit when too dry.
Right: The group clustered under one of Josephina’s mango trees discussing watering and pruning options
Mpelesi Sekgobela (Sedawa)
She hasplanted 30 trees ofmangoes in her householdgarden; amixtureofTommy, Kent, Sensation and
‘Fish’ mangoes. In her case pruning has been a little too drastic and she was not to cut on the branch collars
(which is a swelling that forms around the base of the branch that forms where the branch and trunk tissue
meet. These are the areas on a tree that initiate the callus
growth to protect the wound created by the cut).She was
also advised to water the treesand build small dams around
the trees to avoid water run-off during watering.
There was some incidence
of blossom malformation
on Mpelesi’s trees(the
disease is known tocause
abnormal flower, leaf and
shoot growth).
The farmers were happy
and thankful for the
knowledge that was
shared. One belief that was held in the
communitythat was dispelled in this session is
that pruning after harvesting reduces yield in
following seasons.
5.1.3.2Organic Mango production training
at Hoedspruit Hub
A three-day training course was offered to 27
participants from Lepelle, Sedawa,
Mametja and Turkey, including Betty
and Andries at the Hoedspruit Hub from
29-31 October.
Right: Anri from Hoedspruit Hub addressing
the participants during the Mango
production course
5.1.3.2.1 Day 1
1. Overview of programme
2. Organic mango production in
Africa its challenges
3. An introduction to soil structure
and soil fertility management
4. How to make compost (theory)
5. Proper establishment of the mango orchard
PRUNING
-Remove water shoots; from the base and
centre of the tree
-Cut large branches out of the middle of the
tree that shade other branches
-Ensure that all flowering branches receive
sun-to provide dappledshade on the
ground
-Use cutting sheers-not pangas to cut
branches
-Cut back the flowering tips after fruiting in
June-July
-Cut a branch at a spot just after the branch
collar, so that new growth can happen
FLOWERING
-Occurs around August.
-Flowering can be induced
by stressing trees in
winter-no watering June-
July otherwise the tree
will provide new growth
rather than flowering from
the growing tips
MILESTONE 4: PROGRESS REPORT NO 3
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6. Introduction to proper maintenance of mango trees
Framers outlined their expectations as being; learning how to increase their production, interested in
knowing how marketing works, pests and disease management, compost making, kinds of manure used for
improving soil fertilityand learning about pruning and grafting.
Farmers shared their challenges as primarily being a shortage of water, bad soil and lack ofmarkets to sell
their mangoes.
Organic mango production in Africa
Challenges of agriculture in Africa: Most farmers think farming mangoes is easy but it is not, because there
are a number of challenges that you might encounter as a farmer, including;
Poor quality
Pests and disease problems
Poor management
Postharvest losses
Anri also explained that, even though they are offering the training in organic mangoproduction,there is
as yet not an established market for organic mangoes. This is being explored with Bryanston Market that
sellsorganic fruit. Anri explained to farmers that Africa has challenges in agriculture. The first challenge
that they all knew was climate change, which leads to low soil fertility, limited access to safe and
sustainable inputs, shortage of land, low yields and limited access to reliable markets.
Characteristics of the best agricultural system: Farmers were asked what they think contributesto having
thebest agricultural system in your farm. Most of the farmers said you have to first make sure that you have
fertile soil and that you have knowledge about the crop you are growing.
Organic farming differs from traditional farming in thatit relies on non-chemical inputs by implementing
the following practices such as inter-cropping, crop rotation, green manure, compost and biological pest
control) to maintain soil productivity, soil fertility and control pests. In other words, we look after nature
and nature looks after us.
Introduction to soil structure and soil fertility management
Farmers were taught about types of soil structureandsoil erosion. The group was already well versed in
these concepts through their interactions with Mahlathini. Under the importance of organic matter, they
were taught about the structure of organic matter. The picture below was used to explain and show
farmers what the structure looks like using a microscope.
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Above: Soil structure, including organic matter as seen under a microscope
Farmers explained that they have been taught aboutthe importance of organic matter,that but they have
never thought it could also help their trees.
Three steps of organic soil fertility management
-Step 1: Soil and water conservation; e.g. stone packing, mulching, irrigation basins, water furrows
-Step 2: Soil cover; mulching cover crops and green manures
-Step 3: Organic supplements; liquid manure andplant teas.
How to make compost
Nelson taught farmers on day one in class how farmers can make their own compost instead of buying
fertilizers, which are not organic. He also taught them about the importance of investing in compost
production. Compost in their garden is a balanced fertilizer(source of NPK), it improves the soil fertility
in the long-term, destroys diseases on crop residues and weed seeds in the heating phase and it also
suppresses soil borne diseases.
Materials you need for making your own compost
Crop residues
Animal manure(not fresh)
Green plant material
Ash
Algae
water
How do you make good compost?
You can use different methods to do your compost; some people prefer to dig pits in the ground and fill
materials layerby layer, mixing dry material, green material, athin layer of top soil/ashes and cattle
manure. This is then watered and finally covered with grass or banana leaves. Trench beds are another
example of this. The most usual way is to make a heap/pile.
Compost will go through three phases of decomposition; first the heating phase where bacteria develop,
second, the cooling phase, where fungi develop and small animals begin habitationand third, the
maturing phase where humic acids form.
Air
humus
Soil mineral
Organisms
Water
MILESTONE 4: PROGRESS REPORT NO 3
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5.1.3.2.2 Day 2
Review of day 1:
We learned about using compost that you made for yourself around the mango tree to improve soil
health and as a result get good quality mangoes.
We learned aboutbalancing three elements to have good compost; sun, water and air.
We also learned how to make our own compost instead of buying compost.
Learned how to grow mango tree using mango seeds. Firstly, after eating you clean the pip and
dry it for five days. Secondly,before planting you cut open the shell of the pip and place the cut
side face up, with the flat surface facing down. This is done so that when the seed starts to grow,
it will shoot straight out of the soil instead of looking for direction.
We also learned about spacing mango trees when planting in your farm.
Learned about pollination and the importance of bees in our garden.
Learned about pruning and the importance of pruning a tree.
Making compost (practical)
Firstly, it was explained why we had all the materials and why it is important to make your own compost
for your garden.
Then the process was started; Firstadd dry materials, then wet or green materials, then ash and finally
and organic activator.Mix the activator with water in a 500ml bottle which was cleaned, then shake for 15
minutes, then transfer to a 20l bucket with water. Finally using a funnel, we apply the activator liquid as
the last step in the layering. If the activator is not available then one can use cow, goat and chicken
manure (not wet manure).
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Above: Pictures showing the compost making site and box designed to hold the compost, as well as a pile of manure
to be used
The pictures above show the sequence of making
compost; dry material, then wet material, then
ash and the activator and finally water.
Practical pruning demonstration
This was done by Jeffery, a farm manager at
Landman’s group. He firstly explained what
pruning is -It is cutting back of a tree to
increase production and yield.He also
explained that we don’t prune small trees
after the initial formative pruning; we only
remove new small branches to shape up the
tree and for the tree to focus its energy in growing. With larger trees, structural pruning is undertaken;
we cut or prune the tree to allow the sun to reach all the branches of the tree, which will help in
increasing production. We only prune a tree after harvest.
He continued by showing farmers how to graft trees. Grafting of mango trees consists of transferring a piece
of mature orfruitbearing treeto a separate seedling rootstock. First you have to look atthe size of the
tree you want graft, so you can find the right size wood bud for it. The wood bud can be wrapped and
refrigerated for twotothree days and used, but he advised that we use fresh wood buds. When grafting you
wrap the joined wound with a tape in a manner that no air or water can affect the wound. You will keep
the wrapped tape until it removes itself to ensure successful propagation.
Right: Jeffrey explaining and demonstrating pruning.
He alsoadvised farmers on the kind of mangoes that will grow well with the kind ofenvironmental conditions
their facing, which was Kiet mango. This was good news for them since the market prefers Kiet, Kent and
Tommy mangoes.
Improving flowering and fruit formation
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-Young grafted trees may flower withintwo years; fruit formation shouldbe avoided because it affects
the growth of the tree. Flowering should be permitted in the fourth year.
-Keeping the orchard clean by removing all ripe fruits and weeds aroundthe trees.
-Mango trees are sensitive to climatic variations; low temperatures at night and dry climateimprove
flower formation.
-You can practice smudging,which is a practice of smoking moist organic material (grass or leaves) under
the tree before flowering to induce flowering. Smudging is done towards dry season when mango trees
are ready to flower(July-August).
-Smoking materials can be mixed with aromatic herbs like lemon grass or lantana
Water management and saving
How do I ensure best use of rainwater?
Irrigation water is kept at minimum in order to allow for effective use of available water
resources, as an organic farmer to ensure best use of rainfall water and water harvesting,
they can use the following; planting in pits, contour ridges, furrows and stone-lines. This
will also help reduce erosion.
Establishing a diverse cropping system.
Mulching to prevent the soil from being washed away and protecting it from the heat -
reducing water loss through evaporation.
Pest and disease management
The most destructive mango pests are the mango seed weevil and the mango fruit fly, which was
found in Shakes Seerane’s orchard Lepelle.
Mango seed weevil and mango fruit fly
During the larval stage, it does more damage as it burrowsthrough the flesh into the seed, where
it will feed until fully mature inside the seed.
When it matures it tunnels through the flesh, leaving a hole on the fruit skin which will be an
entry for fungal infections.
The pest can spread into clean areas through the movement of infested fruit for propagation or
consumption.
Mango seed weevil can be managed by;
Continuously monitoring your orchard for any infected trees or fruits. Regular fruit scouting
during fruit growth.
Ensuring good orchard sanitation
Applying sticky bands when the tree starts flowering.
Can plant certain herbs in your orchard like dill, parsley, cosmos, sunflower and marigold or
you can introduce natural enemies.
5.1.3.2.3 Day 3
Organic certification and marketing
Participatory guarantee systems
Nelson taught farmers about PGS (participatory guarantee system), since farmers explained that for
now,they can afford to pay for an inspector to certify their products, since they will need
certification to access the market.
Participatory Guarantee System isa locally focused quality assurance systems. They certify
producers based onactive participation of stakeholders and are built on a foundation of trust, social
networks and knowledge exchange.
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He also explained why the certificate carries access to the market. Firstly, it ensures that everyone
in the organic supply chain adheres to the organic regulations, it also confirms that the product
carries an organic label,
PGS isan affordable inspection process, as most is done by the group itself, which reduces inspector
fees.
A PGS is formed by agroup of farmers, consumersand retailers together,to ensure that farmers
adhere to organicregulations. Inspection will be done once a year
Site visit to Mango Nursery
Farmers dida site visit toBavaria Estatemangonursery with Andy and Emile taking us through the orchard.
Andy took the farmersthrough a process of grafting. Firstly they normally use Saber mango as arootstock
and graft with any type/variety (Kiet, Kent or Tommy)
Right: Farmers in the
Bavaria Estate mango
nursery Far Right:
Andy explained the
process of grafting,
while one of the
farm workers
demonstrated the
process
One rootstock of
Saber can be
grafted with different varieties of mangoes.
The picture below is an example of one rootstock grafted with different varieties of mangoes.
Above left: The rootstock has been grafted with three different varieties; Piva, ZIII and NanDocMai.
Above Right: This shows a point where the rootstock was joined with the fruit bearing scion
From the nursery we moved to the compost site behind the nursery.
Right; The Estate’s composting site where all the leaf litter and other organic waste is collectedto be used in
compost made for the orchards
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From the compost site we wentto the mango tree site, to see the kinds of mango trees theyare growing,
how the trees are pruned, ways of irrigation and to also look at how sanitation is done.
Far Right: Emile
used a soil auger
to show how drip
irrigation saves
water, as it
provides water
directly to the
roots of the tree.
The soil is mosit
underneath even if
it looks dry on top.
Right: Our learners
at the end of the
training session
well informed and
enthused for their
organic mango
production
5.1.4Organic herb and vegetable marketing process
This process has continued. A number of different marketing options have now been tried, including
setting up of a Facebook page for Hoedspruit hub to do the weekly order of organic boxes and also farmers
markets.
Above left: the Hoedspruit Hub Facebook page and above right; Nelson and friend manning the stall at the farmers
market on the 6th of October 2018. Hoedspruit Hub was selling all coriander, parsley flat leaf, parsley curly leaf,
fennel, lemon grass, basil and pesto (made from parsley and coriander) at the market. The market went very well;
they managed to sell 75% of the herbs and 100% of the pesto.
Progress with marketing has been very positive and a number of new participants have been brought on
board. The herb and vegetable marketing group has also now been formally set up in Turkey (see section
5.1.2 above). Below is a table outlining the sales in October-November 2018.
Table 5: A record of herbs and vegetables sold in the organic marketing initiative with Hoedspruit Hub: August-
November 2018
MILESTONE 4: PROGRESS REPORT NO 3
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Date
Herbs
No bundles
Price
Amount
Total
2018/08/17 to2018/09/28
R10 118,00
2018/10/05
Parsley flat leaf
15
R20,00
R300,00
Parsley curly leaf
45
R20,00
R900,00
Brinjal
10
R15,00
R150,00
Lemon grass
4
R20,00
R80,00
Cabbage
3
R20,00
R60,00
Basil
7
R20,00
R140,00
Beetroot
18
R15,00
R270,00
Spinach
6
R18,00
R108,00
Tomatoes
10
R15,00
R150,00
Fennel
3
R20,00
R60,00
Sweet-potatoes
18
R25,00
R450,00
Green peppers
9
R11,00
R99,00
R2767,00
2018/10/12
Green pepper
4
R11,00
R33,00
Parsley flat leaf
17
R20,00
R340,00
Parsley curly leaf
13
R20,00
R260,00
Mint
2
R20,00
R40,00
Spring onion
1
R20,00
R20,00
Cabbage
4
R20,00
R80,00
Basil
10
R20,00
R200,00
spinach
21
R18,00
R378,00
Tomatoes
5
R15,00
R75,00
Fennel
5
R20,00
R100,00
Sweet-potatoes
7
R25,00
R175,00
R1668,00
2018/10/19
Parsley flat leaf
20
R20,00
R400,00
PParsley curly leaf
5
R20,00
R100,00
Spring onion
20
R20,00
R400,00
Brinjal
6
R15,00
R90,00
Rocket
4
R20,00
R80,00
Basil
22
R20,00
R440,00
Round tomatoes
9
R15,00
R135,00
Spiach
8
R18,00
R144,00
Cabbage
2
R20,00
R60,00
Sweet-potatoes
7
R25,00
R175,00
R2024,00
2018/10/26
Coriander
6
R20,00
R120,00
Parsley flat leaf
25
R20,00
R500,00
Parsley curly leaf
10
R20,00
R200,00
Rape
1
R15,00
R15,00
Lemon grass
10
R20,00
R200,00
Cabbage
4
R20,00
R80,00
Basil
14
R20,00
R280,00
Beetroot
5
R15,00
R75,00
Baaby-marrow
9
R20,00
R180,00
Spinach
9
R18,00
R162,00
Tomatoes
11
R15,00
R165,00
Spring onion
17
R20,00
R340,00
Fnnel
3
R20,00
R60,00
Sweet-potatoes
14
R25,00
R350,00
Rocket
8
R20,00
R180,00
R2887,00
2018/11/02
Rocket
12
R20,00
R240,00
Parsley flat leaf
32
R20,00
R640,00
Parsley curly leaf
15
R20,00
R300,00
Lemon grass
10
R20,00
R200,00
Cabbage
3
R20,00
R60,00
Basil
7
R20,00
R140,00
Baby marrow
6
R20,00
R120,00
Spinach
6
R18,00
R108,00
Thyme
18
R20,00
R360,00
Fennel
3
R20,00
R60,00
R2248,00
2018/11/09
Parsley flat leaf
27
R10,00
R270,00
Parsley curly leaf
10
R10,00
R100,00
Pepper
4
R11,00
R44,00
Baby marrow
6
R20,00
R60,00
Thyme
12
R10,00
R120,00
Fennel
1
R10,00
R10,00
Basil
3
R10,00
R30,00
Beetroot
5
R15,00
R75,00
MILESTONE 4: PROGRESS REPORT NO 3
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Spring onion
4
R10,00
R40,00
Spinach
5
R18,00
R90,00
0nion
4
R15,00
R60,00
Brinjal
8
R15,00
R120,00
Sweet-potatoes
4
R25,00
R100,00
Green beans
3
R20,00
R60,00
R1239.00
Total sales
R21 855,00
The table indicates an income of aroundR21855,00 for a period of three months. This equates to an
average income for each participant of ~R500/month from their sales of herbs and vegetables.
5.1.4.1The marketing system
At themoment around 15farmers are involved. Each group(Sedawa, Botshabelo andTurkey)harvests,
washes and packs the orders that were listed on the Monday and confirmed by Thursday, on Friday mornings
and deliver this toChristina in Sedawa. She travels by taxi to Hoedspruit hubto deliver the produce to
Nelson, who inspects and counts it and then pays cash for the produce, according to an invoice produced by
MDF.
Checking of quality is made once it is delivered at the Hoedspruit Hub, by Nelson, Betty and Christina.
Christina then distributes the monies to each farmer on her return home. This system is working well at the
moment, although we are aware that there is not enough of a paper trail. Each farmer is not aware of what
they will receive until they are given the cash andthis means that opportunities for money going missing
are being created. At the moment we are working on a system of management and control that would be
appropriate.
The initial agreement with Hoedspruit Hub (HH) was that they would buy all the herbs produced and then
sell it on i.e. they take the risk as the “middleman”. As the farmers have produced a lot more herbs than
expected, this process has resulted in a reasonably substantial loss for HH in unsold herbs. This totalled
around R8500 by mid- November. For the vegetable sales, it has been based more directly on what can be
sold, as the list ofavailable produce, made on a weekly basis, is used to garner orders and on Thursdays
farmers are informedhowmuch to harvest and pack. It is likely that the latter process will be used for herbs
in the future as well.
5.1.4.2Changes in the market
Hoedspruit Hub started working together with Hlokomela, so they can supply Hlokomela with our
fresh produce to LebambaSupermarket. As this is a retail market the prices have now changed
from R20 to R10 per bunch of herbs. This tends to create confusion
among farmers as it is hard for them to appreciate why they get paid
differing amounts every week. Also, for Hlkomela, the herbs do not
need to be packaged separately, but can be provided without packets.
Right: Herbs packaged in pacekts for the veg boxes and other markets and just placed
in bunches alongside for the Hlokomela/ Lebamba market.
Quality is also a major concern, as farmers are not familiar with the
standard that Hlokomela will be looking for. Although we have worked
with the quality issues on an ongoing basis, the requirements for
Lebamba supermarket are slightly more stringent than before, as
produce now sitson a shelf, rather than going directly in a box to a
customer.
Delivery dates have also changed, as Hlokomela delivers to Lebamba on
Friday mornings, and all fresh produce they will be buying from
Hoedspruit Hub have to be weighed again and packaged to be delivered
to Lebamba. Thus delivery for the Hlokomela/Lebamba market need to
be made to Hoedspruit Hub on Thursdays and not Fridays.
MILESTONE 4: PROGRESS REPORT NO 3
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For the first delivery for Hlokomela we had Gavin from Hlokomela checking all the produce, and advising
us on harvestingand packaging processes for this new market.
Right: Gavin from Hlokomela showing us how to pick thyme Christina from Sedawa and Anri from Hoedspruit Hub are
watching the instructions closely
5.1.4.3Challenges
Farmers started complaining about
the percentage contribution for
transport; most of themthink 25% is
too much given that we have
managed to save close to R1195.30
from the contributed percentage
from each farmer who sold their
fresh produce. It was decided to
decrease the percentage to 15% from the 26/10/2018. This amount that has been saved is used for
transport costs on anongoing basis and there was agreement to ensure that this fund is always kept
in the “green”. In November farmersagain tried to negotiate the transportprice down, nowto 10%,
this would not be a tenable amount as transport costsa minimum of R300/ week. A different system
may need to be considered.
Another challenge we experiencing is that farmers want to sell, even when they know that the
quality of their produce is sub-standard. They want to take a chance just in case. Then, however
they become upset when their produce is rejected for sale and this also places pressure on the staff
at Hoedspruit Hub, Christina who has to inform them and also the clients wholose trust in the
process. Farmers have been informed on many occasions of thisdifficulty, but continue to chance
their luck. Thefurther problem is that for organic produce it is known that small visualdefects are
more likely and in formal markets this is compensatedfor by increased pricing of the class A produce
and in trying to find alternative markets for the class B produce. This is not really an option for an
operation of this small scale.
Right: Picture of a rocket leaf taken during a quality
check. There are too many small holes in the leaf for
sale purposes. This problem was encountered with all
the rocket submitted for sale during that week.
MILESTONE 4: PROGRESS REPORT NO 3
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5.1.5Poultry production training
Two, one day learning workshops were held; one in Turkey
(2018/11/20) and one for Sedawa, Mametja, Botshableo,
Willows and Fenale (2018/11/21). A total of 86 participants
attended these sessions.
Here issues of housing, feeding, poultry health and different
breeds were discussed. In addition, the groups went through
a budgeting exercise for broilers and layers and different
feeding schedules and regimes were presented.
Below small snapshots of the information presented and
discussed are outlined.
Feeding Chickens
Chickens are the same as humans; they also need a balanced diet which will allow them to grow to their
full potential. Herbs such as Comfrey, Fennel, and Thyme etc play an important role in the diet of the
chicken. Grains like sunflower are also needed to balance the diet. But the most important part in chicken
feed is the protein which they get from grubs. Grubs are required for body fat and they are a very good
source of protein. It’s like a full meal e.g. pap, meat and spinach or cabbage.
If hens eat their own eggs, it is a sign that they are not getting the right nutrients, not enough calcium
and not enough protein. Although it is recommended that egg shells are crushed and used in the feed, this
can actually promote the practices of eating eggs and so grit and seashells are used instead.
Commercial feeds such as grower and finisher are used for broilers and layers. The three- phase feeding
that includes post finisher is done to clear out the vaccines and other additives in the feed prior to
marketing
For commercial production and working with broilers and layers one has to stick very strictly to the timing
and feeding, so that the broilers can be ready after 5 weeks and layers are able to lay on average 1
egg/hen/day. If this is not done, the very small profit margin in poultry production can be lost. It is also
advisable to keep at least 100 chickens at a time for commercial production. Working with smaller batches
is generally not profitable
Below is a table of costs.
ITEM
COST
100 1st Grade Chicks per box(including ND&IB
sprays and chick box)
R740
MILESTONE 4: PROGRESS REPORT NO 3
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2 phase feeding programme
0-21 days starter
22-36 days finisher
37-42 post finisher
R360 x 2=R720
R340 x 5=R1700
R320 x 1=R320
3 phase feeding programme
0-14 days starter
15-36 days grower
37-42 days finisher
R360 x 1=R360
R340 x 3=R1020
R340 x 3=R960
R320 x 1-R320
Drinker
R62 x 3=R186
Feeder
Day old
R40 x 3=R120
2 phase feeding
R3046
3 phase feeding
R2966
Housing
Chickens are very sensitive to
diseases. They need to be kept in
a clean environment and be
provided with clean drinking
water daily. They also need to be
kept warm/cool depending on
weather. So rondavels, or shaded
areas are a good place to keep
them. It is also possible to keep
them in moveable arcs or chicken
tractors, as this way they can
scratch and feed on bugs and also
fertilize the soil for you while
being moved regularly to a new
area that provides food and a
clean environment for them. This
dramatically reduces the
incidence of mites and ticks on
poultry
MILESTONE 4: PROGRESS REPORT NO 3
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The groups also built chicken tractors as a part of the learning process
Right and far right;
Chicken tractors being
constructed in turkey
and Sedawa respectively.
Chicken tractors of
this size can house
around 10 chickens.
Take care to only have
1 rooster in any one enclosure. If there are more, they compete and may kill chicks that are born.
Health
A session was also spent on discussing poultry diseases and how to control these. The main way of
controlling diseases is vaccination. In terms of prevention, one needs to remove sick chickens as soon as
possible from the rest, as diseases generally are spread between the birds.
Below is a vaccination chart and schedule so if day olds or other birds are bought one has to ensure that
these vaccinations were done. Some vaccines are added to the drinking water to avoid having to inject the
chickens. Vaccinations are important for indigenous chickens as well, even though they arehardly ever
done.
AGE
VACCINATION
ROUTE
Day 1
Marek
IB/ND Hitchner B1
Subcutaneous
Spray
Day 7
ND-IB-MG (Mycoplasma) (0.1ml)
Subcutaneous
Week 3
Gumboro Precise
Water
Week 4
IB H120
Gumboro Precise
Water
Water
Week 6
ND la Sota
Spray
Week 7
ND-IB-MG (Mycoplasma) (0.1ml)
Subcutaneous
Week 8
Pox
Deworm
Wing Web
Water
Week 12
ILT
Eye Drop
Week 14
IB/ND Hitchner B1
Deworm
Spray
Water
Breeds
MILESTONE 4: PROGRESS REPORT NO 3
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A short discussion on different poultry breeds for different purposes was also done The advantage of dual-
purpose breeds is that they are good meat and egg producers. They are generally slow growing, similar to
indigenous breeds, but produce better than traditional poultry and can be a profitable process, especially
if feed is produced for them rather than bought
5.1.6Gardening practices revision workshops
Two workshops were held, one in Fenale (2018/11/17), with 9 participants and one for Sedawa, Botshabelo
and Mametja (2018/11/16)with 16 participants.The intention of theseworkshops was to workthrough
practices introduced in previous learning sessions to bring new members on board and to provide a revision
for those already in the groups. Issues of implementation and adaptation were also discussed. More
experienced group members shared their knowledge and experience with the newer members.
The following agenda was covered in both sessions:
Bed design (Deep trench beds, tower garden, eco-circle, shallow trench beds)
Soil fertility measures/ techniques (use of manure, liquid manures and teas)
Soil movement control measures/ techniques (stone bund, stone lines, diversion furrows)
Experimentation (this was discussed in relation to experiments involving tunnels)
Options for field cropping this season (Trying CA)
Irrigation techniques (use of salty water for irrigation, deep watering, drip irrigation)
Natural pest and disease control
FENALE
Below isa summary of some of the points of discussion and adaptations made and suggested by participants:
Soil erosion control measures havenot beenused, as there has been little to no rain and participants
only do these when they see a need. It was mentionedhowever that the diversion ditches that were
made in the workshops and then planted tosweet potatoes work very well and much better than
the furrows and ridges participants are more used to.
MILESTONE 4: PROGRESS REPORT NO 3
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Deep trench beds have been tried by most participants, but due to the shallow and rocky soils in
Fenale participants requested different options. Raised beds in this situation make a lot of sense,
using the same principles as for deep trenches, but just going up instead of down. It wasalso
discussed that it is not a good idea to just add soil to “sinking” trench beds – there is some settling
that occurs over time as the organic matter decays; adding more organic matter isa much better
idea than just adding more soil
Eco-circles, shallow trenches and tower gardens have not been implementedsince training and
participants needed reminding of how these practiceswork. Eco-circles do not work well if the crops
are planted too far away from the central ‘watering bottle’. Also, the bed needs to start out being
very well irrigated, so that the daily or weekly top ups in the bottle can keep the soil moist-
otherwise the beds end up drying out. The situation for tower gardens is similar.
With liquid manures, participants tend to use this as an alternative to other fertility options, even
though it is meant to be an additional practice. Using more and fresher manure for making the brews
shows a definite improvement.
A discussion on types and freshnessof manure followedthe traditional practice is to use old manure,
but there is very little nitrogen or phosphorus in manure that has been exposed to the sun for long
periods. The use of fresher manures from kraals that includes urine and also for composting manure
was re-introduced.
Participants remembered the pest and disease control brews well and could introduce those to new
members in detail
Drip irrigation has been tried to good effect bySarahNyathi. The water inthe area is however salty,
leaving a white residue on the drippers that clogs them. Participants asked for an alternative or
solution to this problem
Deep watering was discussed and an experimentation process for this was introduced. Participants
still try todo small amounts of watering in the mornings and evenings and try to spread the water
across all their beds. This practiceis counterproductive and leads toeven greater waterand heat
stress in the plants.
Even though it is likely that another dry season lies ahead participants were keen to take a chance
and do the CA field cropping experiments again. TheFenale participants requested also to try the
bird resistant sorghum
SEDAWA, MAMETJA, BOTSHABELO
Here, the workshop was conducted in the Kgwana High School garden at the request of new group members
who are part of the Community Work Programme (CWP).Participants(new learning group members)are
interested in advancing their knowledge around gardening and finding new ways to improve their gardening
techniques. They have attended several combined AgriSI workshops where different gardening techniques
were presented but never had a chance at the practical component of the workshop. Currently, CWP
environmental monitors use short furrows to irrigate their vegetables (mainly beetroot and spinach).
Challenges these participants are facing with the furrows is that they are not level,thus the irrigation is not
uniform. Theyfind line level to be very useful and said it will come handy for them when redesigning the
furrows. The group was given a practical session on how to measure trench beds, because they were more
interested on having trench beds in their gardens, as they have seen the results of planting vegetables on a
trench bed from Sedawa local facilitator Christina Thobejane.
MILESTONE 4: PROGRESS REPORT NO 3
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Left clockwise: Two
views of the CWP
garden at Kgwana High
Shool, And Christina
giving the team some
advice on how to
measure a trench bed
and they start digging
a trench bed.
5.1.7Innovations and Experimentation
5.1.7.1Fruit tree orders and deliveries
As a part of the intervention in fruit production in Lepelle, a process was put in place for participants to
order grafted trees. Access to good quality trees is very limited in the villages and participantsdidnot know
where tofind affordable trees .MDF offered to source trees for them. The system is that participantspay
R25 towards each tree, which MDF has manged to source. Trees were delivered end October-beginning
November for planting and participants were provided with information on best planting options (including
fertility and watering)
13 Members of the Lepelle learning group ordered a total of 113 trees between them. The summary table
of trees ordered is shown in the small table below. Avocados, pecan nuts and grapefruit could not be sourced
for participants, asthey were not available at the time. Other trees were sourcedfrom Tzaneen and
Letsitele.
Items (Trees)
Quantities
Avocado (fuerte)
7
Mango (Tommy Atkins)
17
Mango (peach)
6
Mango (Sabre)
2
Mango (Keit)
11
Mango (Sensation)
6
Pecan nuts
7
Macadamia nuts
4
Shaddock (grapefruit)
20
Litchi
13
Orange
1
Naartjies
19
Total
79 (113)
MILESTONE 4: PROGRESS REPORT NO 3
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The process worked well and all but 4 trees bought for participants have been claimed and paid for. They
have paid a total of R2 500 towards these trees. As prices were higher than this, MDF opted to subsidise
this process.
5.1.7.2Report back water issues and borehole assessment survey
LEPELLE
Very little progress has been made in Lepelle, as the water committee has floundered under the political
instability caused in the village due to strife caused by lobbying in the area to change the traditional
authority and headmen for the area. Community members have not contributed as agreed and thus MDF is
unable to take the next step in the process. The agreement was that MDF would match whatever
contributions the community made, so that the first steps in renovation of the furrow can be made. No
progress has been made in the community to deal with water leakages caused by broken pipes and joins.
SEDAWA
Here Raymond Vonk, a hydrological engineer specialising in borehole surveying(geophysical services), was
employed by MDF to do a survey of three potential borehole sites for the Sedawa community
(2018/10/07). He produced a report clearly indicating three potentialsites along the three lines suggested
by the community. This will be reported back to the learning group and water interest group so that the
next steps can be taken.
Above: Assessment of Line 2 for borehole options. This line is close to the river in Sedawa and thus also has the
greatest possibility of finding a strong source without deep drilling
Suitable sites were found along all three of the lines, although the line close to the mountains above the
village, likely would need to have a deeper hole drilled. Mr Vonk suggested the community members find
out from others the average depth of drilling for the area. He was unable to conduct his usual
electromagnetic survey to access this due to the presence of too many fence lines in the vicinity, which
interferes with these measurements. Mr Vonk also offers remote assistance when boreholes are drilled to
MILESTONE 4: PROGRESS REPORT NO 3
| 40
access the condition of the rock and slurry being removed, to be able to advice whether the hole should
be drilled deeper or not.
TURKEY
In this village learning group members have met independently and decided on a process for saving
towards drilling of joint boreholes for agricultural water provision. They have suggested that MDF meets
with them once they have collected enough funds to assist them with planning and siting of these
boreholes
In addition, Chris Stimie produced a more detailed budget for the two water provision options
(reticulation from the mountain spring and the boreholes).
5.1.8Networking & collaboration
5.1.8.1LRC Right to Food and Seed
Smallholder farmers’ workshop –
Sedawa (2018/11/07-08)
Around 36 participants attended this session
and learnt about the new Seed bills and the
potential impact on their traditional seed and
seed saving systems.
Discussions included small group discussions on
methods of seed saving and types of seed saved
by the community members.
5.1.8.2Agroecology best practise workshop
This networking process was hosted by the University of Mpumalanga and co-organised by AWARD and the
LRC (Legal Resource Centre), with input from MDF
The agenda for the session is provided below
Item
Task/ Discussion
Facilitator
time
1.
Arrival and Registration
Gerhard V (UMP) &
Bigboy (AWARD)
08:30-09:00
2.
Welcome Remarks
Prof F Kutu (Head of
School of
Agricultural Science
at UMP)
09:00-09:15
3.
Networking and Systemic Social Learning Approach
Why is this critical?
AWARD’s experiences
Dr Sharon Pollard
(AWARD Executive
Director)
09:15-09:30
4.
Guest Presentation: The Right to Food and Seed Systems
(The Seed Bill): Implications for Smallholder farmers in SA
Overview of the agricultural system in SA and the
future of farmer seed systems
UPOV & The Seed Treaty explained
Implications for seed saving/exchange/sale
highlighted
Busiso Moyo (LRC
Researcher) & Linzi
Lewis (African
Centre for
Biodiversity)
09:30-10:30
MILESTONE 4: PROGRESS REPORT NO 3
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Role of CSOs/NGOs discussed & possible way
forward mapped out
TEA
10:30-11:00
5.
Sharing Best Practices and Lessons Learnt
"Developing a decision support system in CSA for
smallholder farmers in SA(Catherine van den Hoof;
WITS)
Permaculture Explorers: Seeding Agroecologists
from the Ground Up(Becky Harmon; Zingela Ulwazi
Trust)
All (AWARD Chairing)
11:00-11:30
6.
Sharing Best Practices and Lessons Learnt
A Meeting of Networks (Lawrence Sisitka et al..,
Amanzi for Food Project)
Linking herb farmers to markets: Lesson Learnt by
Hoedspruit Hub (Betty T. Maimela & Nelson Ngoveni;
Hoedspruit Hub)
Vuhehli Climate Smart Agriculture Nursery &
VegetableProject (Linda Ngatshane; Exillite)
Maximizing benefit from water stewardship for
emerging farmers, Lesson Learnt about success
factors (Mbali Mashele, WWF Nedbank Green Trust
Project GT5650
All (MDF Chairing)
11:30-13:00
LUNCH
All
13:00-14:00
7.
Sharing Best Practices and Lessons Learnt
"Using innovation Systems to define and assess best
practice options in CSA" (Erna Kruger; Mathlatini
Development Foundation)
Mediating Agroecological learning through Learning
Networks (Pesanayi Tichaona; Rhodes
University/Amanzi for Food Project
Bokashi Composting and community Gardening in
the United States of America ( Penelope Colly &
Kathleen Rauch, Seeds of Light)
All (UMP Chairing)
14:00-15:00
8.
Closing Remarks and Way forward
Dr Cryton Zazu
(AWARD)
15:00-15:10
9.
Vote of thanks
Any Volunteer
15:10-15:20
A total of 51 participants from a wide range of organisations, including CBOs, NGOs, tertiary Institutions
and Government attended this very informative session.MDF’s presentation on citizen science related to
water productivity in the gardening experimentation and specifically in the shade tunnels and trench
beds, was well received.
The intention of the experimentation process in the communities was to work with smallholder farmers to
access the potential impact of these practices, both on production and water use efficiency as well as
profitability.
5.2Success and Challenges in meeting milestone.
MILESTONE 4: PROGRESS REPORT NO 3
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Lack of water has restricted activities of farmers even further in this quarter. However, work with tunnels
and trench beds has intensified in the communities, despite these difficulties, to the extent that the
organic herb and vegetable marketing process has progressed well and even expanded.This initiative
points to the huge potential for income generation in the villages if appropriate support and resources can
be provided.
Workshops and networking processes have been well attended throughout the periodand commitment by
the learning group members and their facilitators to this process is impressive.
Handover from Sylvester Selala to the new field worker and supporting intern has gone smoothly, although
Sylvester will be greatly missed by the community.
5.3Monitoring and evaluation
5.3.1Garden monitoring (October-December 2018)
Garden monitoring has been conducted for around 20 participants in this period. The number is low, as not
many participants are active in gardening due to lack of water. Presently only those with access to their
own or shared borehole water are still gardening.
This number indicates additional monitoring,i.e.different households to the 29 households monitored in
the previous quarter. The number is also lower, as field staffs arespending much more time onorganising
the logistics around the marketing process and have been involved in anumber of trainings and exchange
events, limiting days available for the monitoring.
Below are some descriptive photographs of the monitoring done. A full analysis will be conducted again in
the next reporting cycle.
TURKEY 1
Garden at Molokane Creche, where two eco-
circles were planted, but have subsequently
died off due to lack of water.
Mabiletse’s tunnel. She has used tree
leaves as mulch and is producing well, due
to the fact that they have a borehole in
their homestead
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SEDAWA, MAMETJA and BOTSHABELO
5.3.2Indicators: Assessment December 2018
Figures in the table reflect numbers for the period of reporting, in this case October-December 2018. Some
of the information has remained similar in this period, when compared to the July-September period.
Table 6: Summary of indicators assessments for the duration of the AgriSi project: October-December 2018
Bigman’s farm above Sedawa. He uses drip irrigation
and farms vegetables on a large scale ~1,5ha. He uses
a water source that “belongs” to him-
Joyce Mafologela’s garden in Mametja. She has a
household borehole for water access and employs a
gardener to assist in vegetable production
Miriam Malepe’s tunnel in Botshabelo. She has run
out of water completely.
Alex Mokgopa’s garden in Sedawa. Although he is an
enthusiastic gardener, he too has been able to do
little without access to water
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Indicator
Overall target
Actual December
2018
No of participants in learning groups
120
123
No of learning groups
6-7
6
No of local facilitators
6
4
Percentage of participants engaged in CC adaptation
responses
1-2 (45%)
2-3 (25%)
>3 (10-15%)
1-2 (10%)
2-3 (50%)
>3 (40%)
No of participants experimenting with new innovations
-local
-co-designed
15%
45%
10%
75%
No of participants showing increased knowledge
35%
72%
Percentage of participants engaged in collaborative
activities
35%
44%
Percentage of participants with improved livelihoods
-increased availability of food
-increased income
-increased diversity of activities and livelihoods
options
40%
5%
5%
-86%
-27%
-12%
Qualitative assessments;
-Increased understanding and agency to act towards
achieving increased resilience
- Adaptation and innovations into local context
-Potential for increased resilience
-Social engagement
See project life
change questions
Stakeholder engagement
Hoedspruit Hub and Hlokomela, Agroecology
network members, National Climate Change
Committee Stakeholder process,
5.3.3Project Life Change Questions:
1. Do we have examples orstories of how we orothers are in the process of adaptive management
related to CC? (adapt, reflect and respond to….) and examples of what this adaptive management
is?
In the learning groups concern about access to water has come to the forefrontand the members
of groups are working on a number of joint strategies to address access to agricultural water for the
groups. They have decided to do something themselves rather than wait for Government to provide
and have also decided to try and do this together seeing that individual solutions have limited
benefit for others. MDF is providing support in the necessary dialogues and negotiations within the
villages and have included participatory video as a way for the learning group members to be heard
and also for them to express their thoughts and needs in a coherent fashion.
The small videoshave helped a lot inside the villages to open up the discussions, but to date we
have not managed to set up viewings with other stakeholders.
Some of the learning group members are making the linkages between organic matter, water holding
capacity and evapotranspiration and are adapting practices introduced to still include these
principles.
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Use of climate information has yet not assisted in decision-making as participants feel they cannot
rely on this information and want to try and take a chance on dryland cropping with the hope that
they will succeed even in the face of quite overwhelming odds.
Also, they have left the issue of grazing access toolate and now have to rely on bringing in feed and
hay to keep livestock alive.
2. Do we have stories that show innovation or lack of innovation towards positive change? What
insights have we gained into how innovation can lead to positive change? (INCREASED RESILIENCE)
There are many examples of small adaptations and innovative changes that participants have made
to the practices introduced. One obvious example is that participants have seen the value ofmicro-
climate management (shade netting) in vegetable production under these increasingly dry and hot
conditions. A number of participants have extended their gardening areas under shade netting and
a few have purchased additional tunnel kits. Asthis particular innovation is now directly linked to
the participants’ ability to make a small incomefrom selling organic produce, it is being
implemented to various degrees by around 30-40% of the participants
Another adaptive innovation is the building up of trench beds, where digging is difficult due to
shallow and rocky soils. Participants have grasped the importance of deep beds with lots of organic
matter and have adapted that principle.
Right: Mphelesi Sekgobela’s garden (Sedawa). She has extended her
garden area under shade netting and also made built up “trench beds”
partially under shade of trees as adaptations to allow better production
in the hot and dry conditions being experienced in the re
3. Do we have storiesthat show evidence of, or an interest
in self organisation towards collective action? What
insights have we gained into how self-organisation can lead
to collective action?
The members of learning groups that have set up the water
committees have actively sought each other out tolearn
about how these have been set up and how they are
working in the different villages. This has meant that in
Turkey, which hascome on board a little later than
Sedawa, they have incorporated some of the learningsform
the Sedawa group. A significant learning that they are
working with is not to try and organise the whole community into one water committee, but to work
with smaller neighbourhood groups of 10-15 families who work together in managing one sources (a
spring or borehole) and do the reticulation for themselves. They have learnt thatthese smaller
groups are more coherent and manageable.
Collectively, members from these groups have also entered into discussions with their local
authorities to ensure that their initiatives are supported at that level and they have negotiated also
with more powerful individuals in their villages who presently hold ‘power’ over certain water
sources and attempted todraw them into the broader process of sharing and managing water
resources in their village
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The collective action is based around people sorting out their own water problems independent of
the municipal and other Government structures, as they no longertrust that these institutions have
their interests at heart or have the will to assist them.
4. Do we have storiestoshow that learningtogether is happening or that there is an interest in
learning together? What insights have we gained about how to learn together?
Learning group members value the revision sessions and specifically value the input from other
learning group members who have learnt new practices and are implementing them. The confidence
of some of the smallholders has grown significantly and with this their will to support and ‘tech’
others has also grown. They have now suggested that they do these revision sessions regularly among
themselves and that they want to set up a network of farmers across the villages of implementation
to share information and their experiences.
5.3.4Work Plan for next period (15 December 2018-12 April 2019).
1. Continuation with water committees and water provision projects in Sedawa and Lepelle to
include a borehole survey in Sedawa, further workshops for planning and collection of
contributions form participants, writing of funding proposals by MDF to source co-funding.
2. Continuation of herb and vegetable production for sale through the Hoedspruit Hub partnership
process. The next round of seedlings was supplied in mid- November and participants are also
growing crops from seed.
3. Continuation of learning sessions; review of S&WC and CSA,for all groups (1 day) with a focus
on more bed design options and also pit composting
4. Conservation Agriculture re-introduction into fields with supplementary irrigation options
(Sedawa, Botshabelo, The Oaks, Turkey and including bird resistant sorghum and fodder
production
5. Exploration of options to bring more learning groups on board.
6. Further seed saving focus groups linked to seasonal reviews and planning
6Overall Progress of Project
6.1Integration of milestone status.
The table below indicates overall completion of activities according to milestones.
Table 7: Milestone target completion October-December 2018
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6.2Project risk and mitigation summary.
6.2.1Implementation risks and mitigation
Implementation is proceeding well at this stage, with no further risks identified.
6.2.2Financial risks and mitigation
The project is on track and is being managed within the budget confines set out.
MAHLATHINI
MILESTONE COMPLETION: Completion to date % (in black)
Key activities /
Milestones
MILES
TONE
1
MILESTONE
2
MILESTONE
3
MILESTONE
4
MILESTONE 5
MILESTON
E 6
MILESTON
E 7
Inception report
100%
/
Setting the scene
50%
New villages,
baselines, visioning
scenarios
Turkey,
CCA
workshops,
visioning
and
baseline
New village,
CCA
workshops,
visioning and
baseline
Learning and
mentoring
25%
4%
38%
Learning sessions x 3-5
for ea learning group,
value adding
activities, mentoring
LFs (24 sessions total)
Turkey (3
sessions)
Sedawa,
Botshabelo,
Lepelle (3
sessions)
Botshabelo
(1 session);
Turkey (1
session)
Mango
training (4
sessions)
Poultry
production
(2 sessions),
gardening
revision(2
sessions),
CA (2
sessions)
Experimentation &
intro to innovations
20%
20%
20%
Individual
experimentation
New innovations seed
saving, fodder
production etc
2 villages
(Turkey,
Sedawa)
4 villages
Turkey,
Sedawa,
Botshabelo,
MametjaA
(tunnels,
drip kits,
trench
beds, herb
growing,
greywater)
6 villages
Turkey,
Sedawa,
Botshabelo,
Mametja,
Lepelle,
Fenale
6 villages
6 villages
6 villages
Collaborative work
20%
20%
20%
Joint experimentation
on new ideas
Collective action
RWH, erosion control
activities
3 villages
(Turkey,
Sedawa,
Lepelle)
3 villages
(Turkey,
Sedawa,
Lepelle)
3 villages
(Turkey,
Sedawa,
Lepelle)
Networking and cross
visits
15%
15%
30%
Community level cross
visits
Stakeholder
engagement
-Agroecology
network
-Hoedspruit
hub
-Hoedspruit
hub (herb
growers-
visits to
buyers)
-Ukuvuna
cross visit
-Agroecology
best practice
workshop
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6.3Project work not directly linked to the milestone
6.3.1Presentation at NCCCS
A two- day stakeholder workshop was hosted by the national Climate Change Committee. The objective
was to provide a platform to facilitate wider stakeholder engagement on outputs/products of the
implementation of the national climate change response policy. The first day of the dialogue focussed on
the National Adaptation strategy and the UNFCCC COP24 Negotiating position and preparations and the
second day covered discussion on climate change thematic areas including climate finance, mitigation, as
well as information sharing presentations from stakeholders.
MDF presented a paper entitled Community based climate smart agriculture” to this group of around 100
participants which included a very large range of stakeholders including DAFF, DEA, Eskom Sasol, CSOs and
university representatives.
The AgriSi work was showcased in this presentation. The following three slides were included.
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This presentation was very well received and future collaborations with the CSA Unit for DAFF and the CCA
Unit in DEA has been arranged, which would involve designing training processes for DAFF extension staff
and collaborating in a monitoring and evaluation framework for CCA through the DEA.