AWARD_Milestone4 Annexure 2_
Cluster Activity record: Principles for
good farming practices workshop:
NOTE: These workshop notes need to be read in conjunction with the power point
presentation for the workshop as well as the 5 fingers handouts and the photographic visual
aids of potential problems for each of the five fingers used in the group discussions.
Community: Oaks, Willows, Sedawe, Botshabelo, Lepelle, Finale (1) –25 people
Team: Award, MDF, Ukuvuna: BB, Oona, Sylvester, Trygive, Richard, Kingsley, Derrick,
Ancoise, Percy, Dineo, William, Taryn
Preparation and Agenda
Overall purpose: The objectives of this workshop are to explore the principles and practices
associated with soil and water conservation in small-scale farming in the Mametja area.
Whilst climate change will not be introduced in this workshop it will provide the foundation for
further activities regarding CC impacts and adaptation.
̶An initial collaborative vision for addressing ‘the problem’ that we can then work with;
̶A broad understanding of the concept of principles;
̶Collaborative exploration of practices associated with each principle as the basis for
practice and self-assessment; and
̶An agreed commitment to working with these practices
15th Mar 2017
Reminder of bigger
Reminder of AgSI as a
soil and water
Erna to summarise
major “problems” –
should be area-specific
(need this for Session 2)
to Soil and
b. Where we are
in the process (AgSI)
Where does todays
workshop fit in?
SP to work out with Erna
Richard and BB to bring
c. What we are
going to do and why
Describe what we are
going to do and what
we hope to achieve
Focus on idea of
d. Objectives for
the 2 days (30m)
Ensure participants are
clear on what we are
going to do
Talk in 3’s and give
2. Defining a
vision for our plots 45
Get a BROAD idea from
participants what they
hope to improve in
their plots (note a
process will be carried
The constitution of
Use ‘problems’ from
Richard & Sylv to rank
-Run The Bus
in response to
on a wall
DDT and BB
to pin cards
3. The concept of
THIS IS THE HEART
OF THE WORKSHOP
d)we are here
CC in the
In plenary: either
Theprinciples at home:
the right to
-What do you
think need to
Talk to your
important principle you
have for your children
4. Introduction to
5 principles 60 m
Emphasise we are
working on principles
for soil and water
2. Soil movement:
Control soil movement
and soil erosion
3. Crops: Practice good
4. Soil health: Ensure
we maintain and
enhance soil health
Introduce the hand as a
way to remember the
Discuss on 9th March
one for each
William / Kin to
send to SP
and print 50
need to have
5. Indigenous plants:
Look after indigenous
plants as part of the
Choose groups and
Assign facilitators and
5. In plenary –
example of a good
practice related to a
To demonstrate how
practices can be
identified under a
Facilitator chooses TWO
Ask “ what farming
activity, (practice) in
your area do you think
will make sure we
achieve this principle?”
used in the
6. Break into
groups: Discuss and
define practices for
each principle 120
Define good practices
for each principle. May
not be able to do all 5
in 2 hours.
Grouped according to
areas sit together
Choose TWO or THREE
blocks to get
1. Welcome and
2. Report backs
(facilitated)- 60-90 m
3. Wrap-up: next
steps and close
Me the farmer
Practices that have already been explored through Mahlathini intervention
1.Good water management and control movement
1.2. Grey water system
1.3. Drip irrigation system
1.4. Water flows; diversion ditches, contours,
1.5. Stone bunds
1.7. Tower gardens for grey water
2.Control of soil movement
2.1. Minimum tillage – Conservation agriculture
2.2. Hand hoe
2.4. Water flows
2.5. Stone bunds
2.6. Furrows/ trenches
3.Improved crop management
3.1. Crop diversity- some introduction
3.3. RWH options
3.4. Tower gardens for grey water
4.Improve and maintain soil health
4.3. Tower gardens for grey water
4.4. Important aspects of what fertilizers are
5.Looking after indigenous plants
Small group discussions in each of the above mentioned topics/”fingers” will be done in a
way that each group focuses on three topics and reports back on one, to be able to make
the most of the time and people’s availability. The table below outlines the facilitators,
rapporteurs and topics
Introduction to AWARD; Non profit. Mainly work with issues of water and water resource
management, natural resource management and livelihoods. Partnership with Mahlathini for
community based work. All part of the same team.
2014-RESILIM-O (Resilience in the Limpopo Basin). Looking at livelihoods under the
present challenges including climate change. To help people become more resilient. – A way
to become strong even when things are difficult and changing.
Help farmers get stronger in their farming practices into the future; manage soil and water
better and practice agro-ecology. We have worked before in BBR and Venda and MDF in
KZN and EC. Also John Nzira is working with 200farmers in Sekukune – mainly easier to
plan millet and sorghum there…
Introduced a map of RESLIM B and RESILIM O. Erna will help you do maps of your
Where does the Olifants River start? – in Witbank – lots of pollution and mining (5th largest
global coal producer– 90% of that from Witbank – around 680 mines in the Lepelle
catchment -many illegal. A lot of irrigation around Groblersdal area– big commercial farms.
Urban areas- sewage works – about 120 waste water treatment works and around 80 are
giving us problems in the river. There are a lot of people suffering from water insecurity and
have very little access. Other natural issues- death of crocodiles, around 2010 (Kruger,
Mozambique..). Fish started developing problems- due to bad water quality due to the
Then flows through Sekhukhune, comes to the mountains here at Blyde and flows into the
Lowveld into Kruger National Park and then on to Mozambique. – caused some floods there
recently and before – last time was 2010.But now there is drought (last two years) and now
the whole environment is denuded.. Lepelle River”.
How do we build people’s resilience to deal with these extreme events?
-Defining a vision for homestead plots
-Concepts around principles
- Introduction to 5 fingers
-Plenary report backs and
MDF AGRISI: Process so far. Land use practices – past, present future in a changing
environment. Looking at good practice locally, leaning more about soil and water and
introducing some new ideas/innovations e.g. Conservation Agriculture, tunnels, greywater
management, diversion ditches, trench beds and so on.
Issues; As summarised from community level discussions to date
FARMING: No longer doing dryland farming, limited land available, problems with sand
mining for example, pollution and littering, drying out of wetlands, lack of fencing, not a lot of
planning on the plots, pest problems, wild life (baboons and monkeys, birds on field crops –
millet and sorghum). People use tractors- ploughing. It is considered expensive and causes
compaction. Labour also is expensive and difficult to organise.
RAIN: less rain, not much water management, not a lot of storage of water, boreholes too
expensive, over watering of plants when water is available. Ways of cleaning water for
use/consumption. Some people are using water putting pipes in the river for irrigation.
POOR HARVESTS: Sometimes we put manure but the yields are still bad…..Problems with
soil fertility, lack of techniques for improving soil fertility. Soil is hard and compacted, manure
is not easy to come by, can’t afford fertilizer.
EROSION: A lot of problems with soil erosion and erosion control, in all the areas.
SEED: People would like to know more about different seed and crop types. People
harvested okra recently and gave it away. – Some people do still eat it but nowadays the
taste for traditional foods is dwindling…..
What are the problems and how are we solving them?
Exercise on visioning for each individual’s plot…what we dream of and or plan to do…..So
far Mahlathini has been showing you a few things so that you can start imagining a different
Descriptions; Driver needs
to know where to go, people
going to similar places
should be on the same bus
or the bus should have a
Right: The community
participants analyse the bus
exercise in terms of
community level visioning
Farmers should plan together and work with their bus drivers or leaders
Leader should know where people want to go
People from different places should visit each other to learn and find out new ideas
Introduce seeds of crops for which there is a market
But also lots of different seeds with different purposes
Need help to apply for funding from government and know about their programmes
But Government tends to be really slow so we think it is better to get help from the
NGOs – we have issues with heavy machinery on the farms- causing problems with
the soil and also theft of equipment -such as transformers
Also, some ideas can Mahlathini help with other water sources such as making of
Some people are next to streams and with help we can work together to build small
dams next to the streams that we can use for irrigation.
Further, if there is no plan then any destination is as good as any other- so any yields will be
better than none. With a plan we can get a better idea. Also voices together are much
stronger than individual voices
Imagine in 3 years time what you would like your plot to look like and what would you like to
get from it? And we want to change things…some ideas..
Looked at some pictures of what has been tried: Planning – drawing water flows, line levels
for contours and ditches, liquid manure, pest control (sunlight and cooking oil –50 teaspoon
of sunlight, and 25 teaspoon oil in 5 litres of water ) – Blue death is not healthy for us and it
can cause diseases in people.
There is a worm that eats the growth point of the tree and then also eats all the leaves.
Then also looked at types of soil and organic matter in the soil… also suitability of soil for
planting, And then conservation agriculture (using lime and bone meal). Making the basins in
a zig zag to save space and harvest water. Also use your leg for spacing.
Then also did a trench bed- put some old tins in the bottom– then dried and green plant
materials, manure, ash. Tins add iron and also help to hold the water in the bottom of the
trench. Also, can add stuff such as cardboard- green stuff provides nitrogen. To save water,
Creates compost under the ground to provide fertility for the soil. Can use it as a seedling
bed andthen transplant…Takes time for it to decay and soil will stay fertile for a long time.
Then building diversion ditches and cut off drains to direct water into the garden, and to slow
down water across a slope. And then added the trench gar den.
Then crop diversity for including traditional greens and traditional fruit trees – Mabilo, and
then mixed field crops – sweet potatoes and maize, and then spinach and intercropping…
Issues at the base: water, planning
and crops, pests, erosion, fencing, soil
health, using little land for example
Then practices will be the vision.
Right: A slide that was put up as a
summary of issues mentioned by
farmers to date, that was ratified and
further discussed in the workshop
Report backs on visioning
Lepelle: Mangoes – as business for atjar and fruit for eating and selling.
Sedawe: Indigenous trees and crops such has jugo beans, mabele, millet – has good
nutritional value, better nutrition for us
Botshabelo: Tomatoes, spinach, beans, for eating and want a large variety of things
including sweet potatoes to be able to sell. Lots of different kinds of crops
Willows: Proper place with fencing, stop thieves and livestock and dogs. And within that can
have chickens – layers to sell to the community and provide to orphans within that village.
Oaks and Finale: We want to have as many trench beds as possible as we have less rain
and water- to store the water in the beds ot plant enough vegetables to provide food and
support those in need.
Principles and practices
People battled to come up with a definition for practices; they came up with exercise, ways
of learning, practicals.
Principles are those things that underlie practices. The reason for the practices… Principles
are what guide us in our lives- there are for example rules/principles for how to behave in
your household, for example the need for mutual respect.
What are the things that people need to do (practices) in your family to show that they are
showing respect? Examples: When we grew up we learn that our neighbours are our
uncles, sisters, brothers. You could go to them and they will help you. Elders also have to
have respect so that children can learn this. Teach elders to write down letter to inform
others of who came to visit. When women give food to the husbands, they have to kneel.
A principle such as show respect will have different practices associated with it in different
places. So, principles may stay the same, but practices may change between the villages.
Principles in farming – 5 fingers
We have spoken about this in some of the villages. They talk about the principles, is a guide
to do good farming,
Makes remembering the practices a lot easier:
Good water management: e.g stone bunds, using greywater. It relates also to how
you abstract, use, store water, thus including irrigation drip irrigation, water filter….
Soil movement: e.g. Mulching
Crops: good crop management; diversity, pest and disease control, mulching…
Soil health: organic matter
Indigenous plants: When cut down a tree, I have to replant another one, Furrows,
windbreaks - plant a row of trees and cover soil with mulch. Could use pigeon pea…
Could also include livestock management – which has a lot to do with balancing the need for
resources. Also about sharing and working together- which could be the palm or the whole
Best practices in village groupings for the 5 principles
The workshop participants then divided into the village groups and discussed potential best
practices for 3 principles. Each group was to report back on one of the principles.
Below are summaries of the report backs.
SEDAWA: Crops, soil health,
Percy, Trygive, Derick, Percy, Oona, Erna
Magdalena Malepe. Lawrence Mstshali
Elssina Malephi, Christina Tobejane, Alex
Right: the Sedawa small group look a
pictures or visual aids as discussion points
for their best practice topics.
Seeds: Different types according to
oSpray seeds with ashes
before you plant
oSeed banking-seed saving
oMaize seed: dust this
chemical on seed to kill any soil borne pests
oDip seeds in paraffin and sunlight liquid…
oSoak maize and beans overnight before planting.
In the shop- we just buy what is available
E,g Bambara nuts- eat bigger ones- keep smaller ones for seed.
Pest control: Common pests- red spider, moths, caterpillars, cutworms, locusts,
oFish oil and sunlight, paraffin and sunlight
oSome of the weeds attract insects and these can become pests- must remove
oBury weeds in holes and water that as a way of composting
oBury ash in small holes around the seed to control cutworm
oTraditional: take the insect causing problem. Fry, dry, crush and thenspray it
onto the plants…
oCompanion plantings to repel insects; such as onions, rosemary, marigold,
Nutrient deficiencies; leaves turn purple and yellow
oPulling out – weed 2-3 times per season. And more if it is raining heavily
oOnly irrigate the planting basins – to control weeds in between
oIf the weeds are big slash them to make a groundcover and make sure they
do not make seed. Can then later, make small holes and plant seed in there.
This also increases the soil fertility
oPeople weed early morning, and late afternoon when its not too hot
Micro climates: Protection from birds, too much heavy rain, heat, sun....
oBananas planted in lines next to beds provide shade in the afternoon when
oNetting – greenhouse/tunnel,
oWindbreaks and hedges
oRidges for planting
oNatural fencing; num-num, strichnos, - or placing thorny branches around the
Mulching to control weeds and retain moisture
o Dry grass
oLeaves, from mangoes and other trees
oTrench bed (1mx1mx1m) – retain a lot of water
oDepth of planting of seed : Maize 5-10cm. if it’ s too deep the seed will not
germinate. The bigger the seed, the deeper, the smaller the more shallow.
(10x diameter of the seed)
oPlant in the afternoon
oSeasonal calendars, crop choices
To control pests and weeds
To avoid depletion of the soil nutrients
Plant vegetables in winter and maize in summer..
Should not plant cabbage successively as it will deplete the soil
Rotate with beetroot and carrots. Also plant legumes to provide some
Three sisters; maize, bean, pumpkin
New idea will try out (rule: mix tall with short, big with small,
oDiversification; inclusion of fruit, multipurpose species, fodder, medicinal
Strawberries, green pepper, garlic,
Multipurpose plants; herbs, medicinal species,
oCorms, root division, cuttings, grafting, slips,
oE.g banana, cassava, sugarcane.
Keep the soil covered; avoid erosion, saves water, shade to keep it cool,
Soil nutrients; manure, compost, lime, dry leaves, grass, ash, tins for iron, bones,
Till when the soil is wet…
Report backs; discussions
Short input on seedbanks and CCA
Report back: Group Oaks & Finale: Principle: Soil health
Right; The Oaks and Finala small group discuss their
practices around soil health for reporting back to plenary.
Understanding of soil types; percentages of clay,
silt and sand (should be equal- then it’s fertile–
MDF to give input on this
Bed design; e.g. trench beds – that hold water
and have a lot of organic matter, control soil
temperature. Trying to build up a ‘house’ for the
Mulching; also serves as food for the worms,
Shade for the soil; mulching and CA
Good infiltration and good water holding capacity
through water management, reducing run-off,
infiltration ditches/diversion furrows, increased
organic matter, promotion of presence of
Manure, compost; Find ways to increase decomposition
Crop diversification; different types of crops together
Most of our fields are steep – must store water in the soil . Furrows to diver water into
small ponds/ infiltration pits, to store the water there.
Add rock walls to the edges of fields.
Use indigenous plants as buffer strips for S&WC.
Report back: Group Willows: Principle: Protection of indigenous plants
Problems of soil erosion,
In times of hunger and drought people will depend on indigenous plants for food and
Plant indigenous trees- close to households to protect them.and use water
conservation and harvesting to help the trees grow- similar methods to what we
have used in our fields. Thus, look after the trees.
In the fields there are buffer zones of around 3m to leave grass and bushes to assist
in the natural balance- works as a water conservation strip.
Want the indigenous plants so that they are conserved for future generations…
Some trees are useful; for traditional beer and even selling. Some trees’ function is
calling rain, but now people are cutting those trees – Mhlumi –“Waterberry”.
Expose and educate the youth to protect our history/culture, tradition and values.
Marula tree (fruit, juice, nuts, beer), sawa milk, Magaba for high blood pressure,
aloes (ash of leaves for storage of seeds), herbs,
Barakitchaune – helps maize????
Moringa: nutrition, protection from lightening and medicinal uses.
Report back: Group Sedawe; Principle: Crop management
Seeds: traditional seed treatment, seed choices, seed selection, soaking before
planting, seed saving MDF to give input on this
Pest control: natural/ organic sprays, remove weeds that attract insects; plant garlic
on the sides of the beds, ash for cutworms, rosemary,
Weed management; Pull weeds out, but use as mulch. Or cut and provide mulching.
Planting practices: Bed design – such as trench beds, depth of planting of seed,
planting times and calendars, _ MDF to give input on this
Physical protection: nets, green house, wind breaks, fences, natural fences (num-
num- pigeon pea,…)
Diversification: fruit, multipurpose plants..
Crop rotation, intercropping- MDF to give input on this
Plant propagation; cutting, slips, root division, corms.
Report back: Group Botshabelo; Principle: water management
Must store water during rainy season as much as possible. MDF to give input on
thisWater infiltration: look at slope, dig furrows and ditches
Mulching to keep moisture in the soil
Greywater system and management; wood ash in containers, remainders in
containers can go into toilet to help it sink down. We use soap in the water- which will
not make people sick… –MDF to provide input on Moringa seeds and Sand
filters and health concerns
Manage water flow: diverted to fruit trees and store water in the soil
Report back: Group Lepelle; Principle: soil movement
Group felt there was not much of a problem with erosion, soil health, water management
(want to abstract from the river)
Seeds (GMO), seed saving, water flow and management
Seeds are expensive to buy: used to go to commercial farmers and buy seed form
Learnt that they come from overseas- give seeds to our government who then gives
them to communities. Once you planted seed you cannot save it, have opt buy every
year. We were informed that they provide bigger fruit, drought resistant- will provide
food whether it rains or not. Bees that do pollination can move the pollen and then
those characteristics can change and it changes the characteristics… MDF to give
input on this
Tsepo from Ukuvuna provided a short input on: Seed banking: heirloom seeds.
Processes of change can be uncomfortable. We need to look at what we’re doing and
accept that maybe things need to change. This is a very important step in learning.
Uncomfortable is different not necessarily bad…. Let’s undertake to trust each other and
The five fingers is a way for remembering the important things to do in terms of farming. It’s
like a book.
How do we decide if we are successful? Use the practices as criteria, to assess whether you
are doing well or not. There are some things that will be difficult to deal with alone, as they
are part of the group/village. These include from plenary discussion:
- Land pollution – rubbish and pollutants
- People who assist farmers take a long time to come and visit them. Lima for
example- has not come for 2 years….
- Household is not fenced as animals destroy crops; even with fencing chickens and
pigs can be a problem.
- Water shortages
- There is water, but abstraction of water from the river is not happening.
- With cutting trees, people burn trees instead.
- Birds; eat crops, fruit and seed
- Heat; high levels
- Not having land to farm- or may have land but no capital to farm
- Young people not that interested in farming –
- Most of these issues are within our control but there are bigger issues – want to be
helped to dam water so that we can have access. Individuals will need to have a
water use licence if you want to dam the river….
We must take ourselves seriously as farmers. Keep records and remember in terms of
experiments which worked and which did not and why. Get organised.- better to work in
groups to deal with the village level issues. Work with leaders.
Comments: You talk about coming together as farmers. Some farmers have pumps, some
wait for rain, some get water from the mountains. This makes it difficult for them to work
together as a group as they are doing different things. We must be clear as to what support
you will be providing. People are pulling away now as it is not clear. Can you assist us with
RWH tanks for example.
We want help also with being referred to organisations that will help us.
Obed (Willows): Some people here do have the answers- if someone does not have land
they can go to the tribal council. There are other issues raised – once you have started
farming. Where do you start- I can’t call myself a farmer without a tractor- we have gone
through workshops, but we go in circles as you cannot help us do this. You talked about
RWH to be able to assist in certain capacities- what is the easiest way to channel and
harvest water. It there is training without something tangible then we will not stay interested.
We are not interested in just meetings and workshops.
George (Lepelle): Some sort of assistance is better than no assistance at all. By ourselves
on our own our voices are not loud enough for others to hear us… Maybe others will see and
be able to help us… Back in the days just pumping seeds and tractors to people did not
really help. Hope we are going through some of the steps to do this better. Farmers can
become more profitable to be able to improve to hire labour and stay stagnant.
Fanuel (The Oaks): Clear now what support you are providing- doesn’t provide the
impression that you are helping some people and marginalising others…
Demonstration; of breaking sticks and then adding them together- they are stronger and
harder to break…
Team Reflection on Mametje
1.Reflection on cc w/shop
a.-dealing with 5 fingers
b.-other implications– for AgriIS
2.Baseline homestead assessments; completion, translation
3.Sensitive topics: water abstraction, NPK, GMO, municipality relationship
REFLECTION ON 5 FINGERS workshop
What went well:
Participation from farmers was great. E.G Miriam from Botshabelo - see some
farmers are internalising the training and the tools are good.
Local participation good. Translation helpful. Enough trust to raise their issues
towards the end
Programme was well planned for timing
Farmers have a wealth of stuff going on that we can enrich it, but they really got it…
Think farmers really understood the concepts
Principles vs practice was nice
Feeling that there is a partnership going on
Loved the photos
Within the groups, they showed there was a lot done before and that they can
remember and relate to all the activities
People showed they understood things- now can try more on the ground.
Working together to create a good picture
Love the way farmers talking to others and teaching each other. Their attention was
very good. Happy to hear them talking about mulching, companion planting,
Worked well at this point in the process – this ended up being a good consolidating
day. People have learnt quite a lot. The repetition and re-enforcement was not too
much. Really helped that they have actually done some of the practices
Not so good
Good practices within the management practices ?
Lepelle; based on the group’s discussion and what Erna and Sylvester shared there
was a mismatch…
Same people talk in the groups
Not enough time for feedback from the groups – as people could help each other
learn and do more sharing
Would have been better if they could have covered all the 5 fingers
How to stop people from dominating…….
Thought we were just capturing their own practices; and or sharing how we do the
Should have focussed a little more on good practices towards improvement and also’
de-focus’ somewhat a little on the training form Mahlathini to surface local practices
that are good.
How are we handling the community based expectations around inputs and
How does this mesh with the AgriSI and implications for going forward. Is needs to
be further linked to a learning process. What are we going to do with the visioning.
How will it become a group vision? These workshops are largely an opportunity to
put people in a discomfort zone,
Need to make clear at the beginning of the workshop what people can gain from it.
Managing group conversations to stay on track.
Farmers have expectations, still testing the waters of what they can be getting.
Worrying that they are doing ‘wait and see”.
There is a dynamic in Lepelle – whether we go ahead –but there are issues there…
Do not like the idea that we went and said there is a problem after they said there
isn’t one. But perhaps it’s okto cause discomfort… we need to watch what is going
Managing expectation is central; but we do say it.. but maybe need to say it
more…but can’t just put it aside. As those are potentially also real needs. Need to
engage some of that discourse…
Six villages with amount of resources is quite ambitious – possibly can allow
ourselves to change…
Implications for AgriSi
The fact that they said they want to meet is a good thing and also that the
expectations are now on the table.
The implication I to engage with the energy that people are prepared to meet and we
should take it further. How to work together, should we work together.
We need more time on understanding before we start on the activities
We ran parallel process of setting up the talking and doing at the same time. It
means that the process side of things has felt a bit haphazard.
The visioning process can’t be left too long. Wider visioning about the future is
potentially interesting. Not just specifically around what they plan to do in the
Link to INR – maybe do the farming together with the INR
Be realistic about what is possible in the time frame of a year.
If they take on an experimental process they will learn new things every year…
Let’s situate the visioning within change and climate change and how can we best
adapt to this.
-Each farmer now has practices… from which the garden monitoring can be done.
Dearick:What is your baseline? - simplify it. The individual homestead based
assessments are way too complicated for this process – even though they could
provide information related to some of the indicators against which reporting needs to
happen. Work rather within an internal contextual profile – first level of assessment:
that is the baseline context. Then do the evidence building.
Derick: What you choose as your baseline it is your own cross that you will bear. If
you do a forensic baseline process, then you will have that complexity throughout.
Sharon: This is not a tenable approach…which is why they do it themselves, the
groups decide. They assess and gather evidence –cluster based evidence…
DericK: A baseline is a pretty standard requirement. There should not be a problem
Choose the key practices under each principle and use that. Group based
assessments with the five fingers and traffic lights.
Farmers can do their own assessments. Farmer make their own judgement calls
about how they are doing. That is not as arduous a task.
Some verifiables that are causing problems in the milestone deliverables: Farmer work
plans, individual experimentation plans, garden monitoring and training manual. These will
be sorted out and provided before the end of March.
Timeline of activities; in the progress report- and documentation- mention every one of the
Erna misunderstood documentation as ways to verify… not as verifiable indicators…this
difference in understanding was somehow missed in the whole contracting process.