Milestone 3 - CCA Action Plans and Progress Report

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Acknowledgements
The USAIDResilient WatersProgram is funded by the U.S. Agency for International Developmentand
implemented by Chemonics International Inc. Fixed amount award No. RWP-G3-MDF is a sub-grant
implemented by Mahlathini Development Foundation.
© Mahlathini Development Foundation (MDF)
2 Forresters Lane
Pietermaritzburg, 3201
KZN, South Africa
T (+27)828732289
W www.mahlathini.org
Company Reg. No. 2016/285787/08 (2016)
Non-profit org. Reg. No. 930051028 (2015)
DUNS No. 539162 399
Community based climate change adaptation for increased
water productivity and food security for improved rural
livelihoodsin the Lower Olifants basin
MILESTONE 3: Climate Change Adaptation Action Plans
(1). Progress report
06/08/2020
MILESTONE 3: CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION ACTION PLANS (1). PROGRESS REPORT
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ABOUT THE PROJECT
MahlathiniDevelopment Foundation (MDF) is a small public benefit non-profit organization consisting of
rural development practitioners who specialize in participatory learning and action processes, sustainable
natural resource management and low external input farming systems, including a focus on rain water
harvesting, conservation agriculture, intensive homestead food production, food security,climate change
adaptationmicro finance and enterprise development.
MDF designs and implements rural development programmes and training processes providing learning
processes for adults all the way from semi- literate farmers to post graduate university level. We work in
partnership with government and non-government organisations alike. We are sensitive to and mainstream
where possible gender, disability and people living with HIV/AIDs.
Climate variability and climate change (increased temperature, increased variability in rainfall patterns,
increased intensity of storms and increased drought) have far reaching effects on the lives and livelihoods
of the rural poor.Climate change poses a significant threat to South Africa’s water resources, food
security, health, infrastructure, ecosystem services and biodiversity.
This project intends to effect processes for community-based climate change adaptation (CB-CCA) for
improved livelihoods and resilience for project participants through introduction and implementation of
climate resilient agricultural (CRA) practices, building of social agency and stakeholder platforms and
support for alternative income generation opportunities.
The Innovation Systems methodological approachfor this projectfocuses on local level learning groups
and individual and group experimentation to increase local capacity and agency in building systems for
food security and rural livelihoods.
As a first step, a village level assessment of climate change impacts and general natural resource use
patterns are done. Secondly, an analysis of adaptive strategies and associated practices provides the
platform for implementation of locally derived and prioritized activities and CSA practices. Thirdly, the
learning groups provide the organizational platforms for participatory research and monitoring, improved
governance and agency and collaborative actions around village level water resource management,
rainfed cropping systems, grazing management, village level savings and loan associations and farmer
centers for local input provision and marketing.
Research and development assistance’s key role will be to create and facilitate innovation platforms for
local action in an environment of increasingly fractured social structures, immense economic and survival
pressures, and where direct government support to rural dwellers has decreased dramatically over the last
decade.Use of the smallholder farmer level decision support system will ensure a locally motivated and
owned agenda for action, with potential for transformative adaptation that includes local stakeholders
and service providers in the Communitiesof Practice (CoPs).
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Contents
1 Executive Summary.......................................................................................................4
1.1 Progress for the reporting period.................................................................................4
2 Project Objectives........................................................................................................5
2.1 Overview of RW Community based CCA Project objectives...................................................5
3 Milestone Description.....................................................................................................5
3.1 Definition of milestone and purpose..............................................................................5
4 Climate Change learning groups........................................................................................6
4.1 Progress with CCA learning groups................................................................................6
4.2 Selection of Local Facilitators.....................................................................................8
5 Progress for main activities...........................................................................................13
5.1 Learning and implementation....................................................................................13
5.2 Water committees................................................................................................. 36
5.3 Village Savings and Loan Associations (VSLAs)................................................................38
5.4 Networking and stakeholder engagement......................................................................49
6 Monitoring,evaluation and learning (MEL) plan....................................................................49
6.1 Framework & indicators..........................................................................................49
7 WorkPlan for Milestone 4.............................................................................................50
7.1 Work plan for August to November 2020.......................................................................50
8 Appendices...............................................................................................................52
8.1 COVID-19 social survey report...................................................................................52
8.2 Agroecology SA: Civil society statement.......................................................................56
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1Executive Summary
1.1Progress for the reporting period
The initial hard lockdown instituted as an emergency measure to curb the spread of COVID-19 had a
number of negative impacts on the social and economic security of the villages participating in this
programme. Stakeholders in the region pulled together to support the identified struggling households
with food parcels, a process that is still ongoing on a biweekly basis. MDF also conducted a social survey
for 42participants across 7 villages, to ascertain the nature and extent of the increased vulnerabilityin
the participating villages.
Broader stakeholder engagement with Government Departments was and still is, severely limited by the
extended lockdown restrictions. MDF is participating in civil society responses to this situation. An online
webinar outlining progress and successes in community-based climate change adaptation was held under
the auspices of AWARD on 17thof June 2020
Engagement with local structures and stakeholders has also been limited as offices have been closed and
people have not been undertaking meetings. Community level engagement however has been ongoing
throughout the lockdown period, with strict adherence to social distancing and sanitization measures as
well as continued information provision and sharing with local participant groups
Adaptation action plansare being developed through smaller group meetings in each of the villages,
rather than conducting large community-based workshops.
Learning and mentoring sessions have been conducted in six villages including poultry management, soil
fertility, liquid manure, contours, furrows and ridges and winter cover crops, for a total of 112
participants.
Village Savings and Loan Associations (VSLAs) have been given priority during this time as individual
savings and small loans are considered to be a crucial safety net for the smallholder farmers. Seven (7)
VSLAs have been set up, following introductory workshops in Turkey, Sedawa, Santeng, Willows and
Madeira. Six (6) of these groups have already started their saving and loan cycles.
Weekly marketing of organic vegetables has continued in partnership with Hlokomela, who have now set
up an online marketing platform, as the farmers’ markets have not been allowed to continueand are also
buying fresh produce for provision of food parcels to vulnerable households. Twenty-five (25) farmers have
sold R19 560worth of produce during June 2020, including beetroot, spinach, chillies, greenbeans, kale,
tomatoes and sweet potatoes.
A new intern, Thembhani Mabundahas been brought on boardas Jessica Mangema discontinued her
internship in April 2020.
PARTICIPANTS THIS PERIOD
MAHLATHINI: Erna Kruger, Betty Maimela,Thembhani Mabunda(Intern), Nqe Dlamini, Mazwi
Dlamini
CHEMONICS: Sitha Mvumvu, Mayford Manika, Lindela Mketeni and Steve Collins.
,
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2Project Objectives
2.1Overview of RW Community based CCA Project
objectives
GOAL: Increased adaptive capacity and resilience to the impacts of climate change for poor, rural
households involved in agriculture.
This goal is aimed specifically at Objectives 3 and 4 as set out in the 2019 Resilient Waters Program APS:
ØObjective 3:Strengthened ability of communities and key institutions to adapt to change,
particularly the impacts of climate change; and
ØObjective 4: Conserved biodiversity and ecosystem services.
OBJECTIVES:
ØReduced vulnerability to climate change by supporting and strengthening collective action,
informed adaptation strategies and practices and tenable institutional arrangements at a local
level, including all relevant service providers and sectors.
ØIncreased sustainability and efficiency of CSA systems in the study areas giving specific
attention to the value chain, using an IS approach
ØAdaptation and scaling out of sustainable CSA systems in selected areas using livelihoods and
environmental criteria and
ØBuilding and strengthening of different innovation platforms and networks for financing,
awareness and implementation of community level Climate Change Adaptation (CCA)."
3Milestone Description
3.1Definition of milestone and purpose
Milestone descriptions have been developed forthe RW CB-CCA project for the period starting January
2020and endingNovember 2021.The table below summarises the activities against the present milestone
description and budget.
Table 1: Mahlathini Development Foundation Milestone 3: 01 May to 6 August2020
Payment
No.
Milestone
Title
Milestone Verification
Target Due
Date
3
Visioning and
Decision
Support (I)
Progress report
The grantee will submit to Chemonics a Visioning and Decision
Support report detailing the following:
i.Number of climate change learning groups formed
(at least 9)
ii.Local structures and stakeholders engaged
iii.Profiles of the five (5) local facilitators/ Climate
Change champions engaged.
iv.Climate Change Adaptation Action plans.
Annexes:
i.Attendance Registersfrom the meetings with local
stakeholders
ii.Photographsfrom the meetings with local
stakeholders
The grantee will also submit a progress report outlining progress
in all main activities undertaken in the time period; 01 May- 30
6 August
2020
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July, (including action plans, learning and mentoring, monitoring,
reviews and networking)
4Climate Change learning groups
Below is a small map indicating villages where the CCA learning groups are active.
Figure 1: Map of villages where the CCA learning groups are presently active; July 2020
4.1Progress with CCA learning groups
Permission was obtainedfrom the Local Municipal and Police officesto conduct small workshops in the
villages in May 2020. Police presence in the villages was high and community members also reported any
‘gatherings’ they came across. This made the learning group participants wary of coming together, even in
small groups. The permissions assisted in being able to continue work. The process followed by MDF is to
work at individual homesteads and with small very localised groups of participants to continue the learning
and implementation in CRA. Attendance at learning and mentoring workshops and planning sessions has thus
been much lower and the sessions are repeated for a larger number of small gatherings.
All members who attended meetings were required to wear a mask before entering the premises of the
workshop, members were sanitized at the gate before entering and they kept a 1.5m distance throughout
the workshop. Each workshop in the respective villages was conducted outside where there was enough
space for everyone to keep distance to each other and it started with a prayer before getting into the
rationale of the workshop and also ended with one. Pre-packed light meals, including juice,water and fruits
were offered to the participants after each workshop.
The seasonal planning workshop for most of the groups have been replaced with ongoing small workshops
on specific practices and topics that the groups have been interested to focus on. This is due both to the
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difficultyin bringinglarger groups of people together (and the inadvisability of this) as well as the feeling
from participantsto urgently move towards action and production. Planning and review sessions will resume
as soon as is practicable.
Some of the training activities, notably the tower gardens, contours and layout of furrows and ridges has
had to be postponed due to unavailability of the required materials form the service provider (BUCO
hardware), despite them having received payment in early June.
Table 1:Summary of CCA learning group progress and planned activities: July to November 2020
Learning
group
CCA
planning
Practices to focus on
Progress with activities
(end July 2020)
Planned activities
(August-November
2020)
Turkey 1 and
Turkey 2 (40
participants)
Done
Seeding production, processing
(chilli, Marula, beetroot and
atjar), tower gardens, organic
mango production and mango
grafting, eco-circles, seed
saving, composting, markets,
nurseries
- VSLAs for Turkey 1(19) and
Turkey 2 (11)
-Liquid manureand trench
bedsworkshop and
experimentation (24)
- Organic mango production
training (25)
- Organic marketing
-Poultry production
management workshop and
follow-up (8)
- Water committee meetings
and monitoring of water
scheme implementation (18)
- Monthly VSLA
meetings
- Organic marketing
- Tower gardens and
eco-circles
- Mandala bed and
permaculture training
Sedawa and
Mametja (40
participants)
Done
Liquid manure, natural pest
and disease control workshop,
shallow trenches, eco-circles,
mandala garden, irrigation
management, soil conservation
(stone lines, check dams,
terraces), tower gardens,
livestock integration, seed
saving review and storage ,
organic mango training,
compost, value adding to
crops, example basil pesto,
tomato jam
-VSLAs x 2 in Sedawa (19,13)
- Water committee meetings
and monitoring of water
scheme implementation (18)
-Organic mango production
training (20)
- Organic marketing
-Monthly VSLA
meetings
- Organic marketing
- Mandala bed and
permaculture training
Willows (30
Participants)
Done
Bed design, seed saving,
seedling propagation,
Conservation agriculture, drip
kits, trench beds, mulching,
furrows and ridges, banana
circles, rainwater harvesting,
organic mango production,
tower gardens, liquid manure,
natural pest and disease
control.
-VSLA (13)
- Trench bed workshop and
follow-up (10)
- Poultry production
workshop (9)
-Organic marketing
- Monthly VSLA
meetings
- Organic marketing
- Tunnel construction
(5 participants)
- Tower gardens and
eco-circles
- Mandala bed and
permaculture training
Finale (9
Participants)
Done
Poultry production, field
cropping practices, marketing,
-Poultry production
management (5)
and Field cropping training
(furrows and ridges,
contours, winter cover crops
(9)
- Organic marketing
- Organic marketing
Santeng (25
Participants)
Done
Drip irrigation, diversion
ditches, greywater
management, rainwater
harvesting, ridges and furrows,
stone bunds, keyholeeds,
banana basins, crop rotation,
mixed cropping, mulching,
conservation agriculture,
targeted fertilizer and lime
-VSLA (13)
- Soil fertility learning
workshop (22)
Trench bed workshop and
follow-up (11)
- Monthly VSLA
meetings
- Tunnel construction
(8 participants)
- Organic marketing
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application, liquid manure,
trench beds, legumes,
compost, eco-circles
Worcester
(17
Participants)
Not
done
Seedling production, drip
irrigation, greywater
management, tower gardens,
natural pest and disease
control, growing herbs, seed
saving
- VSLA (13)
- Organic mango production
training (9)
- Trench bed workshop and
follow-up (15)
Presently activity is limited
due to extreme shortage of
water
- Monthly VSLA
meetings
- Tunnel construction
(7 participants)
Madeira (30
Participants)
Done
Drip irrigation, mulching,
keyhole beds (grey water),
furrow and ridges, banana
circles, rainwater harvesting,
tied ridges, targeted fertilizer
and lime applications, liquid
manure, trench beds, eco-
circles, seed saving
- VSLA (14)
Contact limited until early
July due to COVID infections
in the area
- Monthly VSLA
meetings
-Trench bed workshop
and follow-up
-Tunnel construction (5
participants)
-Tower gardens and
eco-circles
-Organic marketing
Lorraine(7
Participants)
Not
done
Shade cloth tunnels
The group is not meeting
during the COVID lockdown
period no progress
4.2Selection of Local Facilitators
Local facilitators/ Climate change champions are chosen per village in order to assist MDF field workers with
monitoring and locating active farmers in their villages and also toassist the learning group toprovide a
linkage between the community, MDF and other stakeholders and to support the learning group members in
their CRA implementation. They provide advice, do monitoring, provide learning and mentoring support, set
up meetings, bring forward issues and suggestions, etc. They need to be well respected and stable members
of their community, be active and knowledgeable farmers andbe willing to act as the spokesperson for their
group. The best champions are those who are passionate about farming and new ideas and enthusiastic
about sharing with others. Being literate and able to understand English is considered and advantage, but is
not a requirement.
Due to the COVID-19 social distancing requirements, the usual process of individuals volunteering and then
being selected by their learning group in a workshop setting has not taken place. Localfacilitators have
been chosen more informally by their groups and have been individuals who have taken the initiative to lead
and organise their learning groups.
There are presently six active local facilitators (LFs). Below a short
introduction is provided for each.
Christina Thobejane
Christina Thobejane is the local facilitator at Sedawa and Mametja villages.
She has been the LF here for almost three years and was chosen as she was
active in the community and brought the learning group together.She oversees
the farming activities and monitors their gardens. Christina is also a farmer
and has enthusiastically implemented most of CRApractices in her garden. She
uses her garden as a demonstrationsite, allowing farmers to come and see how
introduced practices are working and assist them to implement them in their
own gardens.She has attended local facilitator trainings workshop. She has
developed skill in implementation of underground rainwater harvestingtanks,
construction oftunnelsand drip kits construction, as well as tower gardens
constructionand has regularly assisted in construction in all the villages. She
is a keen seed saver and started a seed saving group and has also been the
primary community organiser for the organic marketing system, which includes
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also mango production and sale of mangoes to M-Pak. She is also keen to learn from other farmers.
Christina has also been centrally involved in coordination of the community efforts around access to water
and is a member of the water committee, which managed the funds and construction of boreholes with
household reticulation
Figure 2: Right and
Far Right; Christina
assisting in tunnel
construction both
in Mametja and
Sedawa and Below
left; Christina
working with the
community on
mapping of
borehole options
and Below Right;
Christina managing
the farmers market
stall for sale of
produce of all
participants
Below are a few snapshots of CRA implementation in Christina’s garden
Figure 3: Above Left to Right: Trenchbed with mixed cropping and mulching, tower garden, tunnel and underground
rainwater harvesting tank.
Moses Mogofe- Willows
Moses Mogofe is the local facilitator at Willows. He was chosen by the local farmers because he knows how
to connect farmers in their village and he has been working together with livestock and crop production
farmers in the villages for years.He isa member of the dipping committee andhas interacted with the
Department of Agriculture as a representative of the farmers in the area.He set up the CRA learning group
together with other farmers from Willows, because they loved the work they witnessed in other villages.
He assistswith monitoring and arranging available fresh produce from farmers forthe market. He also
oversees farmers ‘experiments and innovations and reports to MDF.
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Moses farms in his homestead and has a cropping field some distance away as well as livestock (20 cattle’s
and 15 chickens). He has implemented many of the CRA practices, to use them as a guide and encouragement
to other farmers in the village.
Figure 4: Tunnel construction demonstration at Moses Mogofe’s homestead that will be used as a demonstration for
further tunnel implementation in Willows.
Below are a few snapshots of Mr Mogofe’s garden
Figure 5: Pictures of Moses Mogofe’s garden both inside and outside the tunnel;planting intrench beds andthe
ridges and furrows systemandusing drip irrigation forboth practices.
Nomsa Mafologela- Santeng
Nomsa Mafologela is the local facilitator for Santeng group. Santeng is one of the new
learning groups that are very active. The group consists mostly of women-headed
households who are also active in the Community Work Programme; cleaning at
schools and helping elderly people that are staying alone.
Nomsa started forming the group after attending the Sedawa learning group meetings
and workshops for a while. She then shared the news with afew groups of the farmers
in Santeng and they were keen to have the first learning meeting with Mahlathini. The
village faces the same challenges of water shortages and extreme climatic conditions.
Nomsa is unemployed and mostly makes money by selling fruit locally. She has been a
good local champion, encouraging members to start implementing trench beds
practices in their gardens, after implementing her own. For irrigation they collect water from anearby
natural spring in their village.
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Figure 6: Pictures taken from Nomsa’s garden. Her garden is 40m x 50m stand that she uses for her farming
activities, she also uses water from the natural spring for irrigating. Nomsa also has indigenous chicken and goats,
she uses chicken and goat manure in her garden and also feeds her livestock some of the crops, spinach and cabbage
leaves.
Pauline Thobejane- Madeira
Pauline Thobejaneis a local facilitator for the new learning group at Madeira. Pauline has been farming
since she was young. She has looked after her family from her farming income. Most of her production is on
a 7ha field in a nearby irrigation scheme, now defunct due toleaking dams and lack of maintenance. This
has restricted herto only growing rain fed crops during the summer rainfall season She normally plants
maize, cow-peas, ground nuts, Bambara ground
nuts, sugar beans and green beans.
Pauline has been responsible for getting farmers
together when they had meetings with
Department of Agriculture. She was chosen
because she is very organized and she helps
farmers with organizing meetings with the
department and she has all their information.
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Figure 7: Above Left: Pauline is sorting her maize harvest form her 7ha field plot and Above right; A green bean
planting in her homestead garden.
Isaac MalatjiTurkey
Isaac Malatji is thelocal facilitator for Turkey learning group. He started the group about 2 years ago, after
seeing Sedawa learning group doing well and he invited Mahlathini and
called farmers from the village to attend. The learning group selected
him to be the local facilitator as he is goodat arranging meetings and
represents them well. He also coordinates the organic marketing sales for
Turkey and is a very active member oftheir water committee. He has also
continued to introduce the CRA process in new villages and has brought
new learning groups on board.
Isaac Malatji used to run a nursery locally and local farmers were buying
seedlings from him until he had water challenges and stopped the project.
He lost most of his materials through theft in the community. He started
farming again in his homestead after meeting with Mahlathini and he also
sells his produce through the Hoedspruit organic marketing process. He
uses both trench beds and furrows and ridges in his garden.
Figure 8: Mr Malatji in his vegetable garden, recently planted tospinach,
beetroot, onions and cabbage
Naome Manosa Worcester
Noome Manosa has been chosen by the learning group to be their Local facilitator. She is an upstanding
member of her community and active in church groups and in assisting with trying to access water in the
village. Naome does rain fed cropping in her homestead, due to the extreme shortage of water in the
village and also keeps goats and traditional chickens.
Figure 9: Above Left to Right: Naome (on the left) in a small meeting organised during lockdown to distribute seed,
Naome’s maize and pumpkin plantings in her homestead plot and her goat pen.
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5Progress for main activities
5.1Learning and implementation
A number of learning and mentoring sessions were conducted during this period including:
ØPoultry production; Willows, Finale and Turkey
ØImproved field croppingpractices; Finale
ØImproved liquid manure; Turkey
ØSoil fertilityand trench beds; Santeng, Willows, Worcesterand
ØOrganic mango production; Turkey, Worcester,Sedawa, Willows and Santeng
Poultry production
Written by Mazwi Dlamini
Willows workshop
A workshop was heldat Mr Silas Malepe’s homestead in Willows on the 9thJune 2020, with 9 participants.
Mr Malepe has recently started broiler production for the first time and the problems he was encountering
provided a good learning context in terms of broiler production.
He had bought 300, day old chicks which were delivered by van, where they already were stressed, due to
spending too long in an unventilated area without food and water and he placed them first in a corrugated
iron enclosure with sawdust. After 4 weeks he had a mortalityrate of 33%.He was keen to work on reducing
this high mortality rate.
The workshop was held at Malepe’s garage with chairs distanced from each otheras per regulations.
Attendees were sanitized at the door with masks provided for those who didn’t have.This follow up
workshop was more of a focus group discussion where we touched on certain topics; quality of chicks and
feed, cooling and heating, hygiene and vaccines.
From the discussion it came out that farmers believe that chicks they get are not of good quality. Mr Malepe
remembers chicks coming in a bakkie with broken fans, he than doubted the quality of the chicks as some
grew while others were stunted. Farmers are not happy with African Chicks; the supplier; citing that despite
attempts notifying them about problems and worries they couldn’t be bothered. What makes it even more
difficult is the fact that other suppliers such as National Chicks are far away from them and theyend up
resorting to local suppliers.
Mr Malepe’s timing couldn’t be any worse with winter settling in and demanding the need for him to provide
heat for his birds. Temperatures drop a lot during the night and the sun takes a while longer to warm the
chicken coop putting his birds at risk of dying from the cold. His coop has also got a wide open space at the
front which takes away from of the heat he provides and as a result some birds have died. The group advised
him to source cover for the front that will retain heat inside the coop keeping his flock warm during the
day. Given shorter days as aresultof winter, Mr Malepe’s birds are also not having enough time to eatas
chickens cannot eat in the dark, he was further advised to source light for extended eating hours.
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Figure 10: From left to right poultry farmers during the poultry workshop at Willows with Mazwi and Silas Malepe
inside the coop advising farmers and discussing looking at Mr Malepe’s coop in terms of providing heatinh and also
better sanitation in the coop.
In the coop quite a number of Mr Malepe’s birds didn’t look healthy with some sneezing and snorting. We
also noticed that the droppings were runny and green indicating diarrhoea of some sort. He then showed us
packets of medicines and a vaccination chart that he was supplied at the veterinary clinic. These vaccines
and medicines would all prove worthless because of exceptionally poor hygiene. Mr Malepe’s chickens were
drinking water with filth and droppings in them, feeding on grower pellets with wood chipsand droppings
which warrantied for the diarrhoea. He was advised that foodand water needed to be clean; we emphasized
the fact that there was no substitute for good hygiene; even medicines cannot make a different if birds
constantly eat and drink their own dirt. His floors were soaking wet with birds eating and walking there, a
lot of his birds had developed bumble foot and died of hunger as they couldn’t move to the eating and
drinking troughs. He was advised to source more sawdust forbetter, thick bedding and also to raise drinking
and eating troughs to the breast height of
the birds to avoid contamination. This
would be close to enough to making sure
his birds are healthier.
Figure 11: Silas Malepe’s coop sawdust was
not thickenough to cover the whole coop
The next discussion that followed was the
use of vitamins to boost the health of
struggling animals. Vitamins; however;
are a supplement as the word suggest
whose sole role isto provide what is missing in terms of nutrientcontent. Here we used an example of a
degrading rangeland for cattle where supplements are provided to fill in the gap from nutrients animals are
not getting from the rangeland.
It isa different case with
poultry as feed is formulated
with all nutrients, especially
for birds kept in coops and do
not wonder around such as
free range and traditional
chickens for example. Again
here we stressed the issue of
hygiene, vitamins and
medicinescan never and will
never be a substitute for
cleanliness.
Figure 12: Silas Malepe isexplaining to farmer’s picture on the right on how he uses
the vaccination guide from Africa chicks to vaccinate his broilers per week
Phedisang follow up
It’s almost a year since laying hens were delivered all the way from PMB to the care centre in Turkey. The
centre aimed at keeping layers for the sale of eggs thatwould ease the pressure on the centre waiting on
the Department of Social Development for funds. In this way they would be able to build reserves, supply
protein and earn an income to keep the centre afloat. The centre has been crucial in providing meals for
children from struggling families; ladies at the centre also help scholars with homework.
The centre started with 40 birds that were kept in the chicken hose within the centre. During the first month
some birds were struggling with taking out the eggs and would bleed or the egg would be covered with blood
and would be moved from the cage to avoid any more complications. Ladies also pointed out that the birds
were not eating the pellets andthen decided to grind the pellets to make it mash for birds to eat. They buy
feed master mash at Tzaneen for R250/50kg. Due to the growing demand for eggs in the locality the
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Department of Agriculture donated 30 more birds. The ladies appointed a local handyman to reproduce two
cages similar to the one they bought; to add in 60morebirds they bought from ALZU atR 92,00per bird.
Of the 70 birds that they hadthey have lost 18 birds in the last year. Asthe birds did not have any specific
symptoms they do not know why they died. They thus now have52 birds that are still laying eggs.
Figure 13: Clockwise from Top Left: The newer cages with birds donated lately by the Department of Agriculture and
a home- made cage with the brown hens bought recently by the group.
The community assistedwith donating egg trays and they the record both the number of eggs collected in
each cage as well as sales generated weekly.A tray of 60 eggs is sold at R85.00 and a tray of 30 at R45.00,
R1,50/per egg. They managed to generate an income of R21965,20in a year. This income has been used to
purchase further hens as well as feed and to pay for construction of more cages. They are alsoplanning to
sell the layers when the cycle is done for R50.00 each and will continue with poultry farming as they have
not experienced any major complications and the project is going well for them.
Figure 14: Above Left; The birds brought rom PMB are now showing signs of stress, with loss of feathers and weight.
They are reaching the end of their productive cycle. Above Right; Eggs packaged in trays ready for sale.
Improved field cropping
MILESTONE 3: CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION ACTION PLANS (1). PROGRESS REPORT
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Written by Mazwi Dlamini and Betty Maimela
Many of the larger market gardens do not employ the CRA practices introduced, as participants believe
these are onlyapplicable for small gardens. A workshop was thus held in Finale to specifically discuss and
demonstrate soil and water conservation and soil fertility enhancement practices suitable for production
in larger areas.
In Finale is a group that works on a piece of land growing tomatoes, beetroot, onions, spinach and sweet
potatoes and also keeping broilers.This group is made of a family; daughters, sons, nephew, aunts,
grandparents and father, where everyone works across the commodities that are sold locally. They
continuously look to experiment with different practices for improving soil and water conservation.The
group has been farming for twoyears now.Victor Mametja oversees the project. He received permission
from the Traditional Authority to take over the then defunct community garden and restored the borehole,
to be able to irrigate. He buys electricity from a neighbouring household for the pump. He uses chicken
manure from the coop for soil fertility and sometimes also bring in cattle manure.
Practices introduced during the workshop included:
ØMeasuring contours
ØBuilding ‘furrows and ridges’on these contours, but using the method of shallow trenches, where
manure and grass are added into the mound as it is being made for increased fertility
ØMulching and
ØGreen manure cover crops planting a winter cover crop mix of back oats, fodder rye and fodder
radish
Contours were marked out using poles, string and a line level; here it was explained that we wanted to find
out point where the ground was level and not necessarily straight. The idea behind contours is to mark level
lines andthereafter wherethefurrow is opened fill thatwith organic matter to make use of their nutrients.
These are then closed up, filled with soil and raised(ridges/mounds)to stop water from running down the
slope. The 5m areas in between contours can be planted with crops that will be making use of available
water, while other crops can be planted along and on top of the mounds to hold the soil together.
Figure 15: 5m area in between the contours where
cover crops and beetroot will be planted
Given oncomingwinterand a fenced field where
grazing is not an issue, we identified the potential
of sowing in cover crops. Cover crops are grown just
before the beginning of winter, making use oflate
rains and dew to grow and help cover the soil
preserving life in the soil, these crops also add a lot
of biomass in the soil. Livestock; cattle, goats,
donkeys; also benefit a lot from these crops as they
can be cut and stored and they regrow for continuous feeding. Come the planting season these die and back
and other crops can be sown in within them as well. A demonstration of the Haraka planter (puncher) was
done; this handheld implement can be used to sow in seed faster as it opens slots, deposits seed and closes
off the planting hole in one go. The group was taken through how to change the different plates for the
different sized seeds, its function as well as maintenance.
MILESTONE 3: CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION ACTION PLANS (1). PROGRESS REPORT
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Figure 16:
Above Left;
family
members
preparing the
area for
making
furrows and
ridges, Below
Left: Vcvtor
making the
furrows and
mounds after
Right: Betty
included bone
meal and
organic matter
in the furrows
made on
contour
The family appreciated the idea of making contours and areas in between to plant cover crops and have
undertaken to follow this processfor other parts of their large plot which are fallow during winter and
which requires better soil and water management.
Figure 17: Above: Mazwi setting up the Haraka wheel
planter with the correct plates to sow the winter
cover crop seeds, And Right:Sowing cover crops with
Evans, one of the sons involved in the project and
Insert; a bag of cover crops that were used
Sowing of seeds was done along and between
the contour lines, followed by irrigation and mulching using dry grass.Betty will continue monitoring the
field and will also go back to assist with making other contours on the side farmers are still preparing
when they are done
MILESTONE 3: CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION ACTION PLANS (1). PROGRESS REPORT
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Figure 18: Above left; irrigation of the cover crop plots once plantedand Right: followed by mulching.
Soil fertility and soil conservation: soil type, soil structure and bed
design for Santeng
Written by Betty Maimela
The workshop was undertaken over two days, the 25thand 29thof May 2020, for 16 participants
INTRODUCTION
The practical workshop took place first where farmers looked into soil fertility and the importance of soil
fertility, knowing soil structure and how to design beds using organic matter that builds soil nutrients. The
workshop allows farmers to simply understand the type of soil in their garden so it is easier to work in their
garden. Farmers are taught to understand and know how the soil works and how to keep your soil fertile
and why it is important to enrich their soil.
Day 1: Soil enrichment method: Bed design (trench beds)
Day 1 was looking into bed design and bottle test to identify soil proportion. A bottle was filled a third of it
with soil, adding water into the bottle until it is almost full, placea lid on and shake it vigorously for a few
minutes in order to separate the soil particles. The bottle was left to settle until the next theory workshop.
During lockdown 10 farmers from Santeng encouraged each other to dig trench beds so they can start
planting on them as they have seen results from farmers in different villages. Each farmer has done three
trench beds in their gardens, collected materials; water, tins, old bones, plastic (if your soils are sandy),
dried grass, wood ash, manure and organic matter. Betty and Thembani assisted with collecting chicken
manure from neighbouring villages like Willows and Mulalani.Farmers only made one mistake,mixingtopsoil
with subsoil and rocks, so they had to source topsoil that can be used and mixed well with chicken manure.
Farmers aimed that Betty assist in
filling one trench bed for each
farmer and they will finish up the
two remaining working together.
Figure 19: Three trench beds each
4.5m length and 1m wide at Florence
Mashego’s household
Method used;
1.Together with Bettythey
first placed a layer of tins
at the bottom of the trench
to help with aeration and
also with supply of some nutrients.
Figure 20: Atrench is filled with a layer of tins and Betty is explaining to farmers why
adding tins and what nutrients will tins add to the soil for enrichment.
2.They filled the trench with a range of organic materials and topsoil.
First add dry grass or weeds
Secondly. they added green materials, spread evenly inside the
trench
Added some wood ash
Mixed topsoil with chicken manure, then added a layer, stamped on
them
Watered the mixture and started the process again, now excluding
tins until the trench bed is full
MILESTONE 3: CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION ACTION PLANS (1). PROGRESS REPORT
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Figure 21: Clockwise from Top: Betty is tamping
down a layer of dry grass, after which green
leafy material is
Figure 22:Left farmers are
mixing topsoil with chicken manureCentre:Lethabo
Malepe is evenly distributing the soil mixed with
chicken manureand Right:is a filled trench bed that
has been watered well
DAY 2: Soil fertility, structure and enrichment
During practical demonstrations of one of soil enrichment method using trench bed, bottle test was done
to study the soil structure proportion with farmers. Farmers understand that their soil is sandy but
understanding the proportions of their soil will make it easier for them to know what kind of sandthey are
dealing with.
MILESTONE 3: CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION ACTION PLANS (1). PROGRESS REPORT
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Figure 23: Right: Taken from Maanawe Shaai, the bottle test
shows clearly that she has sandy soil. There is however also a
proportion of clay, indicated by cloudy water after 24hrs. Sandy
soil is good for rooting crops, it is easy to dig and work with.
Water can get into the soil easily, but it dries out quickly and is
not fertile.
Far right: Bottle test from Fenita Phokane’s garden. This soil
shows a mix of soil elements; sand, silt, clay and organic matter
(floating on top).
Soil structure is the shape that the soil takes, determined by
the way in which individual soil particles bind together.
Farmers were also taught that soil structure is influenced by
how they manage their soil, some of the practices they use
can be harmful or beneficial to soil structure. Harmful
practices breakdown the soil structure making it harder, as
run-off takes place. Beneficial practices, like adding lots of
organic matter to their soil not only fertilizes the soil, but
makes it easier to work with the soil and also increases water holding capacity of the soil. Farmers were
taught about the importance of treating soil like a child, always cover the soil to preventdamagedfrom
prolonged heat.
Soil fertility
Farmers know what soil fertility means, they also understand that for crops to grow they must get food from
the soil, if they are not growing and forming fruits it means the soil has no food. Plants need three main
kind of nutrients:
1.Nitrogen (N) for healthy leaf andstem growth;
2.Phosphorus (P) for healthy roots and fruit formation
3.Potassium (K) for general health and healthy flowers and fruit
All these three nutrients are needed in thesoil if farmers are to grow their crops even if theywould have
water nor rain. Farmers cannot remember when last they had good harvests, but are generally convinced
that this has to do with lack of rain and water, not soil fertility. This is a common misconception in the area.
Farmers can improvethe nutrients intheir soil through good compost and planting of legumes or mulching
using legume leaves like beans and cow-peas.
Figure 24: Left: Ella Khohlwane planted ground nuts later in April after harvesting cow-peas. Right: Maanawe
planted green beans, whichalso fix their own nitrogen, but remove a lot of that nitrogen again themselves during
flowering and seeding.Green manures would work a lot better in adding nutrients to the soil.
Composting was also looked at and farmers understand it much better. They are mostlyusingpit compost,
but they forget to add water, which slows down the process substantially.Farmers requested that a practical
demonstration be done on improved composting techniques.
Soil enrichment Methods
Farmers were introduced to one soil enrichment method which is the trench bed as a way to increase soil
fertility and water holding in their gardens and they seem to understand why all the materials are added
and why water is important to add. Other soil enrichment methods were looked at using pictures asexamples;
MILESTONE 3: CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION ACTION PLANS (1). PROGRESS REPORT
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1.Eco-circles: Theseare small circular garden pits beds. For eco-circle they need a string and a stick,
a spade, compost and mulch, seedlings or seed to plant, a candle and matches, a piece of wire and
used 2l bottle with a lid.Mark out a circle (using a stick and some string) on the ground where you
intend growing food.The hole should be knee deep now (about 50cm). Place the bottle with tiny 16
tiny holes on the side going down (upright) in the centre of the circle. Now add a 2cm layer of
compost, or decomposed kraal manure, kitchen waste or dry grass, into the base of the hole. Water
the 2 layers well. Continue replacing the subsoil layering it with compost (grass and or whatever
organic material you have) watering each layer as you go. Having added all the subsoil replace the
top soil. The surface of the bed will be higher than the surrounding ground. Scoop the soil from the
centre of the circle to the outside to create a basin with the top of the bottle in the centre. The
basin shape funnels water into the centre where it sinks into the soil. So it can’t run off carrying
precious topsoil with it. Mulch
and plant. When they fill the
bottle, the water will slowly
drip into the soil.
Figure 25: Eco-circles where they planted
mustard spinach and onions.
2.Shallow trench beds: Theseare
easy to make, takes less energy
than a deep trench, it also
takes a shorter amount of time
to create. They are the shallower version of the deep trenches. This trench is dug to about 30cm
deep. The bottom of the trench is filled with sticks and branches. This is covered by a layer of dead
leaves or green leaves and grass Then the rest of the hole is filled with compost and finally it is
covered with the topsoil that was dug out. Farmers can also build a shallow trench bed from the
ground going using cement bricks if they have thin topsoil and rocks to avoid digging.
Reflection
Farmers were asked to reflect on the two-day workshop;
1.Aquafina Machimane The workshop was very good more especially that it includes practical
demonstration, she doubts that they will forget as they have done the practical over 10 houses. She
also likes the way farmers are working together to assist each other with collecting materials and
filling trenches. She also asked that a practical demonstration of other soil enrichment methods be
carried out.
2.Ella Kgohlwane She likes trench beds but she is old she won’t be able to dig; she asked that we
also assist her with making shallow trench beds and eco-circles in her garden.
3.Nomsa Mafologela These workshops will encourage farmers more and more workshops like these
ones should be held regularly.
The workshops went well and farmers attended
both workshops without dropping a number.
Farmers were happy for the workshop and were
interacting during the workshop even though
they all have one challenge water shortage.
Liquid manure and soil
fertility in Turkey
Written by Betty Maimela
Based on a requestfrom farmers a workshop was
held on the 18thJune to re-cap and deepen
knowledge on soil fertility and different kinds of
liquid manures. 24 Participants attended the
MILESTONE 3: CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION ACTION PLANS (1). PROGRESS REPORT
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workshop which washeld at Nkhurwane Shaai’s homestead. Three new members attended for the first time;
Andrew Magobatlou, Rosina Shaai and Mmalehu Magobatlou.
Figure 26: A view of the workshop with participants adhering to distancing requirements and wearing of masks.
The workshop focused on the following;
1.Review of five finger principles
2.Review of soil fertility and crop management practices that farmers implemented in their gardens
3.Demonstration of liquid manure using banana stems and foliar spray.
5.1.4.1.1Review ofFive finger principles, soil fertility and crop management practices
Implementation to date:
Elizabeth Mokgatla She uses dry leaves mixed with chicken manure to increase soil fertility,
which has allowed her to produce maize in the past three seasons, when most farmers could
not.She also mentioned that there is now less erosion, as she no longer sweeps her yard to
remove loose sand, but rather adds more soil and mulch to ensure that rainfall can infiltrate.
Norah Tshetlha She mixes top soil with chickenandcow manure and dry leaves together
then adds this mixture toher beds.She also likes planting using diversion furrows,to create
flow paths for water and the ability to seep into the ground.
She also makes liquid manure. She used a maize meal sack
filled with dry leaves, cow manure and chicken manure tied
it and placed this baginside a closed container with water.
She leaves itin the sun for 3 days, then irrigates with the
water on the roots of herplants. She does the mixture the
whole year.
Figure 27: Norah Tshetlha’s liquid manure made of cow manure, dry leaves and
chicken manure inside a closed container and uses after 3 days of brew.
Lucas Mokhawane Use oforganic matter like your dry
material and green materials in a shallow trench bed mixing
your topsoil well with kraal manure like chicken manure
helps crops grow fast and to their regular size and results in
good quality and yield. This he observed in his garden, he
can’t do deep trench beds but he does shallow trench beds
and he likes the results.
Rackson Magobatlou He implemented trench beds in his
garden and mulching using dry grass, he also observed that
the grass decomposes and fertilizes the soil but also keeps
the soil moist which is good for his crops because it can be
extremely hot in summer.
Betty talked about soil conservation: farmers have implemented most practices but when it comes to soil
conservation little has been done in their garden that prevents soilerosion and gully formation on their
streets. Farmers implemented furrow systems and stone bunds in their gardens but without looking at the
direction of water flow and diverting run-off to their gardens, instead some still divert water out of their
households. Five finger principles look at the following;
1.Good water management;
2.Soil erosion
3.Good crop management
4.Soil health
5.Looking after indigenous trees
Betty also taught farmers about soil fertility focusing on the main three nutrients a plant needs, which are;
Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P) and Potassium (K)and organic meethods of addition of these nutrients.
1.Nitrogen: Is required for healthy leaf and stem growth. Itcan be added to the soil by using chicken,
goat and cattle manure which are used dry and by planting their legumes like cow-peas, ground nuts
and beans. They can add more nitrogen to the soil if they use the legumes as green manures; where
green plant material is dug into the soil just before flowering. Farmers did not like this idea much
as they want to grow crops that they can eat and keep seed from.
MILESTONE 3: CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION ACTION PLANS (1). PROGRESS REPORT
| 23
2.Phosphorus; Is difficult to find naturally, as it is most prevalent in hair, nails and bones. Bones and
hides can be incorporated into trench beds, or bones can be heated on a fire to make them more
brittle to be ground up and spread on planting beds.P helps for healthy root and fruit formation.
3.Potassium: Is requiredfor general plant health and healthy flowers and fruits. Itcan be added by
using chickenmanureand fresh wood ash. Nkurwane Shaiindicated that the use of ash is an old
system but it needs water; crops look good and grow fast, but when it gets hot more water is
required in beds with ash to ensure plant growth.
Demonstration of liquid manure and foliar spray
Liquid manures are homemade brews for both soil fertility, plant nutrition and pest control, which can be
made using different materials. For example, you can use weeds that are chopped and put inside an orange
mesh and soaked inside a20l of water and closed, left for 7 to 10 days and diluted before use. Brews
provide plants with food to assist help grow fast and look healthy.
Banana stems were used to make a practical demonstration of liquid manure; banana stems were chopped
and an orange mesh was filled with chopped banana stems, tied on a stick and placed in a 20l bucket with
clean water and the container was covered.
Figure 28: From left to right Elias Mogofe is chopping banana stems in the picture in the middle an orange mesh was
used to fill with banana stems and the last picture Betty tied the mesh on a stick to place inside a 20l bucket filled
with water.
A foliar spray was also done using the following materials:
1.Water 60l
2.Wood ash 5kg
3.Agricultural lime 5kg
4.Bone meal 5kg
5.Chopped weeds and chopped banana leaves
6.30kg fresh cow manure
7.5l milk
8.2kg brown sugar
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Figure 29: Farmers and Betty are making a foliar spray mixing all materials inside a clean 210l drum and covering the
mixture to leave for 10-15 days before use.
Farmers could tell how fertile the soil would be by using a foliar spray buthad a problem with using sugar
and milk to make it; they willrather do other brews because they can’t afford to waste sugar and milk.
Reflection of the workshop
Farmers requested to all be there when the brew more especially the foliar spray, is being used to see how
to apply it. The date was set forthe 2/07/2020. Farmers appreciate the workshops where practical activities
are undertaken and requested further such workshops both to review what they have already learnt and to
introduce new ideas.The next demonstration workshop will be atElias Mogofe looking at gardenlayout, soil
fertility methods and soil conservation on the 26/06/2020.
Market progress with Hlokomelaunder the Hoedspruit Training Trust
during COVID-19 Lockdown
Written by Betty Maimela
Hlokomela is a Non-profit organization that is well respected role player in the health and well-being of the
local community serving about 6000 people annually(directand indirect beneficiaries). During lockdown
Hlokomela started a fundraising initiative called theHoedspruit Training Trust; which has been set up to
supportvulnerablecommunity members with whole-foods-based (Fresh herbs, vegetables &fruits, and some
grains) and essential product (toiletries, household goods) baskets. The trustis mobilisingto help fight the
spread of Corona Virus in the greater Kruger to Canyons Biosphere area. This area is home to many rural
communities already fighting a wide range of immune deficiencies like HIV, TB and diabetes
Hlokomela reachedout to farmers working with Mahlathini Development Foundation and other farmers from
Acornhoek to buy fresh produce from them every week to include in thefood baskets, ofwhich 100 are
distributed on a weekly basis. Farmers working with Mahlathini have been well placed to supply fresh
vegetables for the food baskets, as they continued farming during lockdown and a number of farmers
increased their production, noting the surge of demand forlocally produced food.Farmers have planted
and are selling, the following vegetables: Mustard spinach also referred to as Morogo, beetroot, onions,
cabbage, kale, tomatoes, green beans, sugar beans, spring onions, sweet potatoes and butternut. Mahlathini
is assisting farmers with transportation of fresh produce to Hlokomela every week and distributing cash back
to the farmers accordingly. Farmers started participating in the Hlokomela Hoedspruit Training Trust
towards the end of May in response of to the COVID-19 pandemic.
MILESTONE 3: CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION ACTION PLANS (1). PROGRESS REPORT
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Figure 30: Above Left; beans and beetroot delivered at
Hlokomela, Right; a bakkie loaded with half of the harvested
green beans, sweet-potatoes and Morogo and Far Right;
Christina packaging Morogo bundles in her
garden
Figure 31: Right top; Lepekane and his
family harvesting green beans Right Bottom;
Mmadiatla Monyela harvested beetroot from
his garden. Far right; Phinias Pakoharvesting
beetroot from his garden.
Figure 32: Left; Onions harvested from Harry Kgwedi’s garden at Willows together with Sweet-potatoes from
Lepekane Malepe in Sedawa. Right; tomatoes harvested from Nthabiseng Letebele’s garden, for delivery to
Hlokomela
The table below provides a summary of sales for June - July2020 during which period farmers sold a total
of R38420.00worth of vegetables.On average each of the 25 participants in this process made R650.00
from sales
Table 2: Summary of organic vegetable sales to Hlokomela; June- July2020
Date
Surname
Name
Produce
Quantity
Total
income
Village
29/05/2020
Malepe
Lepekane
Green beans
60kg
R900,00
Sedawa
Monyela
Mmadiatla
beetroot
11 bundles
R110,00
Turkey
Mmaditiro
Mayebela
Spinach
50 bundles
R750,00
Mametja
MILESTONE 3: CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION ACTION PLANS (1). PROGRESS REPORT
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02/06/2020
Tshetlha
Norah
Morogo
16 bundles
R160,00
Turkey
Shai
Lydia
Morogo
1 bundle
R10,00
Turkey
Magobatlou
Rackson
Morogo
2 bundles
R20,00
Turkey
Machimane
Alfred
Morogo
1 bundle
R10,00
Turkey
Madire
Sarah
Morogo
9 bundles
R90,00
Turkey
Malepe
Josphina
Morogo
15 bundles
R150,00
Sedawa
Sekgobela
Mpelesi
Morogo
4bundles
R40,00
Sedawa
Malepe
Lepekane
Green beans
144kg
R2 160,00
Sedawa
Malomane
Makete
Chilli
11kg
R1 100,00
Turkey
11/06/2020
Letebele
Nthabiseng
Beetroot
15kg
R150,00
Willows
Monyela
Mmadiatla
beetroot
32kg
R320,00
Turkey
Phinias
Pako
Betroot
3kg
R30,00
Willows
Letebele
Nthabiseng
Tomatoes
50kg
R500,00
Willows
Malepe
Josphina
Mororgo
10 bundles
R100,00
Sedawa
Thobejane
Christina
Morogo
10 bundles
R100,00
Sedawa
Sekgobela
Mpelesi
Morogo
5 bundles
R50,00
Sedawa
Magobatlou
Rackson
Morogo
2 bundles
R20,00
Turkey
Malatji
Isaac
Mororgo
7 bundles
R70,00
Turkey
Tshetlha
Norah
Morogo
16 bundles
R160,00
Turkey
Mogopa
Alex
Morogo
11 bundles
R110,00
Sedawa
Malomane
Makete
Chilli
11kg
R1 100,00
Tuyrkey
Malepe
Lepekane
Sweet-potatoes
55kg
R1 100,00
Sedawa
Malepe
Lepekane
Green beans
117kg
R1 755,00
Sedawa
17/06/2020
Malepe
Lepekane
Green beans
57kg
R855,00
Sedawa
Malepe
Lepekane
Sweet-potatoes
55kg
R1 100,00
Sedawa
Meissie
Mokwena
Morogo and
spinach
6 bundles
R60,00
Sedawa
Magdalena
Malepe
Spinach
4 bundles
R40,00
Sedawa
Christina
Thobejane
Morogo
11 bundles
R110,00
Sedawa
Esinah
Malepe
Morogo
7 bundles
R70,00
Sedawa
Nthabiseng
Letebele
Beetroot
50 bundles
R500,00
Willows
Sara
Madire
Morogo
22 bundles
R200,00
Turkey
Malomane
Makete
Chilli
10 kg
R1 000,00
Turkey
23/06/2020
Lepekane
Malepe
Sweet-potatoes
87kg
R1 740,00
Sedawa
Meissie
Mokwena
Spinach
5 bundles
R50,00
Sedawa
Rackson
Magobatlou
Morogo/spinac
h
5 bundles
R50,00
Turkey
Lydia
Shaai
Morogo
7 bundles
R70,00
Turkey
Mmatshego
Shaai
Morogo
8 bundles
R80,00
Turkey
Isaac
Malatji
Morogo
13 bundles
R130,00
Turkey
Mpelesi
Sekgobela
Morogo
3 bundles
R30,00
Sedawa
Christina
Thobejane
Morogo
10 bundles
R100,00
Sedawa
Moses
Mogofe
Kale
11 bundles
R110,00
Willows
Malomane
Makete
Chilli
13 kg
R1 300,00
Turkey
Nthabiseng
Letebele
Tomatoes
50 bundles
R500,00
Willows
Herry
Kgwedi
Onions
50 bundles
R500,00
Willows
01/07/2020
Herry
Kgwedi
Onions
50 bundles
R500,00
Willows
Sarah
Madire
Morogo
20 bundles
R200,00
Turkey
Mmatshego
Shaai
Morogo
10 bundles
R100,00
Turkey
Sarah
Mohlala
Morogo
5 bundles
R50,00
Turkey
Christina
Thobejane
Morogo
18 bundles
R180,00
Sedawa
Samason
Pako
Tomatoes
50 bundles
R500,00
Willows
Lepekane
Malepe
Sweet-potatoes
100 bundles
R2 000,00
Sedawa
Malomane
Makete
Chilli
15 kg
R1 500,00
Turkey
MILESTONE 3: CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION ACTION PLANS (1). PROGRESS REPORT
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08/07/2020
Nora
Tshetlha
Morogo
15 bundles
R150,00
Turkey
Lydia
Shaai
Morogo
10 bundles
R100,00
Turkey
Sara
Mohlala
Morogo
10 bundles
R100,00
Turkey
Magalangake
Mogale
Morogo
5 bundles
R50,00
Turkey
Mmatshego
Shaai
Morogo
5 bundles
R50,00
Turkey
Roony
Sekgobela
Morogo
8 bundles
R80,00
Sedawa
Meissie
Mokwena
Morogo
5 bundles
R50,00
Sedawa
Esinah
Malepe
Morogo
5 bundles
R50,00
Sedawa
Lema
Malepe
Morogo
8 bundles
R80,00
Sedawa
Magdalena
Malepe
Morogo
5 bundles
R50,00
Sedawa
Christina
Thobejane
Morogo
26 bundles
R260,00
Sedawa
Triphina
Malepe
Morogo
5 bundles
R50,00
Sedawa
Samson
Pako
Chilli
4kg
R400,00
Willows
Samson
Pako
Spring Onions
30 bundles
R300,00
Willows
Herry
Kgwedi
Butternut
50 bundles
R2 500,00
Willows
Herry
Kgwedi
Onions
50 bundles
R500,00
Willows
Malomane
Makete
Chilli
6kg
R600,00
Turkey
15/07/2020
Herry
Kgwedi
Onions
50 bundles
R500,00
Willows
Nthara
Seotlo
Spring Onions
30 bundles
R500,00
Sedawa
Malomane
Makete
Green beans
100kg
R1 500,00
Turkey
Nthabiseng
Letebele
Tomatoes
50 bundles
R500,00
Sedawa
Rackson
Magobatlou
Morogo
5 bundles
R50,00
Turkey
Trona
Morema
Morogo
10 bundles
R100,00
Mametja
Rony
Sekgobela
Morogo
10 bundles
R100,00
Sedawa
Mpelesi
Sekgobela
Morogo
6 bundles
R60,00
Sedawa
Christina
Thobejane
Morogo
15 bundles
R150,00
Sedawa
Paul
Maphori
Morogo
20 bundles
R200,00
Sedawa
Nthara
Seotlo
Spring Onions
30 bundles
R300,00
Sedawa
Meissie
Mokwena
Morogo
8 bundles
R80,00
Sedawa
Herry
Kgwedi
Onions
50 bundles
R500,00
Willows
Sara
Mohlala
Morogo
10 bundles
R100,00
Turkey
Mogalangake
Mogale
Morogo
5 bundles
R50,00
Turkey
Mmatshego
Shaai
Morogo
12 bundles
R120,00
Turkey
22/07/2020
Isaac
Malatji
Morogo
9 bundles
R90,00
Turkey
Sarah
Madire
Morogo
6 bundles
R60,00
Turkey
Lydia
Shaai
Morogo
10 bundles
R100,00
Turkey
Sara
Mohlala
Morogo
10 bundles
R100,00
Turkey
Magalangake
Mogale
Morogo
5 bundles
R50,00
Turkey
Paul
Maphori
Morogo
10 bundles
R100,00
Sedawa
Mpelesi
Sekgobela
Morogo
6 bundles
R60,00
Sedawa
Moses
Mogofe
Morogo
10 bundles
R100,00
Willows
Herry
Kgwedi
Butternut
50 bundles
R2 500,00
Willows
Triphina
Malepe
Morogo
9 bundles
R90,00
Sedawa
Christina
Thobejane
Morogo
15 bundles
R150,00
Sedawa
Magdalena
Malepe
Morogo
10 bundles
R100,00
Sedawa
Daphney
Maphori
Morogo
5 bundles
R50,00
Sedawa
R38 420,00
Reflection
Being able to sell locally produced vegetables through Hlokomela and the Hoedspruit Trust has been of great
help to the smallholder farmers who have surplus. They are also selling in their villages, but this short-term
MILESTONE 3: CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION ACTION PLANS (1). PROGRESS REPORT
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market has provided a very welcome boost to their sales and has also allowed them to sell vegetables for
which there is not a high demand in their villages, such as green beans.
Organic Mango production training
Written by Betty Maimela, Thembani Mabunda and Nelson Ngobeni
146Mango trees have been delivered to 39 participants across 5villages. Participants contributed R20/ tree
and small workshops have been conducted to assist participants in planting and caring for these trees.
Organic mango production training has been conducted for 4 learning groups across two sessions (Turkey
and Worcester, Sedawa andWillows) for a total of 70 participants (attendance registers are provided in the
report package), in association with the Hoedspruit Hub and the Bavaria Fruit State.The training consisted
of 1 day at the Hoedspruit Hub for theoretical inputs as well as a visit to the Bavaria estate to cover grafting,
composting and tree management as well as a site visit to the villages, with one of the estate managers,
Andrew Chabalala,toassess the condition of the participants’ orchards and provide advice.
The training programme is shown below
Organic Mango production training for Worcester and Turkey (23-24 June
2020)
This training is reported in detail and was similar for the secondgroup
Venue: Turkey (Mmatshego’s homestead)
Number of participant’s day 1: 32
Number of participant’s day 2: 19 Hoedspruit hub and Bavaria orchard
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On the 23rdand 24thof June 2020, Mahlathini Development foundation (MDF) made provision to continue to
support the organic mango production training workshops with a view to organic mango production for
supplying formal commercial markets.The training was held at Turkey at Mmatshego’s homestead.
Hoedspruit Hub facilitatedthe workshop; Nelson Ngobeni, Andrew Chabalala, and Karabo Mdhluli alongside
MDF facilitators Betty Maimela and Thembani Mabunda.
On the 23rdof June 2020, the organic mango training workshop was held atTurkey village in with attendance
of both farmers from Worcester and Turkey. The workshop was held outside in an open space with chairs a
distance of 1,5m apart from each other as per
regulations. Farmers were provided with
hand sanitizerbefore entry andmasks were
provided to those who didn’t have. It was
initially planned that 10 participants from
each village should attend the workshops.
Figure 33: Farmers attendingorganic mango
training workshop facilitated by HH (Hoedspruit
Hub) are wearing mask and are 1,5m apart from
each other
Surprisingly, on the first day of the workshop,
Turkey farmers attended in numbers and we had 32participants in total. Participants were keen to learn
how to better manage their fruit production to be able to enterthe formal market.Due to Hoedspruit Hub’s
restrictions, only 19 participants could attend the 2ndday.
Day 1 site visit in the community
Nelson Ngobeni from Hoedspruit Hub handled the introduction and expectations for the workshop These
included:
Pest Management
Planting Spacing (what is the right space in between mango trees)
How to plant & how deep to plant
What to include in the planting holewhen plantingtrees
Managing Diseases
Grafting
Why do mango trees onlyproduce one side?
Why do the trees dry out?
Figure 34: Questions from farmers recorded and then
responded to by Andrew Chabalala
Andrew Chabalala started by explainingthemango
varieties that they have at Bavaria before answering
questions and providing further information
ORGANIC MANGO VARIETIES
Andrew mentioned that varieties of mangoes that
most smallholderfarmers have intheir household or in
their orchards(Sabre and Peach)are not suited for the
market as they have fibres and that these are only
suitable foratchar. He stated that they have nine
mango varieties at Bavaria including:
1.TOMMY: This is a mango tree that is harvested in December-January.
2.SHELLY:High market demand locally and for export.Shelly is harvested in January-February.
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3.KENT: Good market demand,harvestedin February.
4.PRINCESS: Harvested in February or March.
5.TANGO: Tango mango market is local only.
6.KIET:Kiet is harvested in March to April. Kiet is harvest whenitis still green and then left to further
ripen until the skin changes colour.
7.ATOM GOLD: Atom Gold does not have much of a market as it remains green even after ripening.
8.SENSATION: Sensation can be planted or is mostly planted at home and it looks like peach. Bavaria
approved it for market but it is not exported.
9.HEIDI: Heidi is not available foreveryone; farmers are required to pay royalties to get it. Bavaria have
produced trees with a three- waygraftof Heidi, Kent and Kiet and those can be bought without royalites.
What to include when planting mango tree?
Compost can be used in the planting hole and the final planting basin can bemulched with leaves to protect
the soil and keep moisture in. Planting holes should be dug 1m in depth and width and then filled to thetop
with a soil-compost mixture, after which is basin is created with the remaining top soil for irrigation.
Why mango trees dry?
This could bedue to a lack of water. Greywater that contains soap can also kill thetrees. Soap contains
substances such as sodium hydroxide or a strong alkali that can poison the trees. Termites might also be the
reason why trees dry out, due to damage to the roots. He is not sure of organic ways to control termites.
How do you water mango tree?
This can be done using buckets, hose pipes or drip irrigation. For young trees they need a minimum of 2L,
twice a day. Mature trees need as much as 20L of water per day.
Mango trees are watered up until theyshould start flowering, when irrigation is stoppedfor two weeks in
order for it to start flowering. By stopping the watering processes, the tree becomes stressed and then it
starts flowering. A question was raised by one the participants (Madike Nkhekhe) in the group; “Which water
is best for watering mango trees borehole water and pure water?”, Andrew said that there is no difference
in using borehole water or pure water for watering the mango trees. However, when fertilizers are used,
more water is required to allow the fertilizer to be transported intothe entire root zone.
Why is organic mango production suitable for small holder farmers?
Farmers commented that organic production is better for their health and also for the environment and as
it uses local resources is cheaper than using external inputs.
Nelson also added that as most commercial orchards use external inputs, there is a good niche market
available to smallholder for organically produced fruit. Farmers can grow mangoes organically by adding
compost to boost soil fertility and plant growth. Compost can be made on a small scale at home, but also
on a larger scale for bigger orchards.Betty
also explained about the market and the
relationship between Mahlathini and M-Pak
that deals with drying mangoes, they will be
taking mangoes from small-holder farmers.
Figure 35: The farm worker who overseescompost
production at Bavaria orchard, in blue work suits
in the picture, is explaining to the group the
process of makingcompost
Pruning and Improving fruit formation
The form and height of amango tree has to be controlled to guide the tree and to be able to harvest without
damaging the fruit. Pruning is trimming a tree by cutting away dead or overgrown branches or stems,
especially to encourage growth. Andrew elaborated that this processis important, since mango trees
becomestressedif this is not done. He also explained formative pruning, which is done in the first yearof
MILESTONE 3: CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION ACTION PLANS (1). PROGRESS REPORT
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the young tree to guide the tree to a desired shape with 3-4 well-formedbranches,after which new flushes
of growth and branches should be removed. Pruning also provides for an open canopy where all branches
and fruit can receive sunlight. Andrew Chabalala continues explaining the pruning process to the people, he
also mentioned that pruning also helps for creating enough space for people and tractors to move around
and that it makes the tree no to grow up too much. There is structural pruning which is done for proper
maintenance of the tree.This also helps that fruiting doesn’t only occur on the ‘outside’ of the tree and
thus encourages the production of more fruit.
Nelson and Andrew explained to farmers that young grafted trees may flower within the first or second year,
but they should avoid fruit formation as it will affect the growth of the tree. Blossoms should be plucked
until the fourth year when flowering is permitted to develop. Andrew also advised farmers to keep the
orchard clean by removing weeds and ripe fruits from around the tree. Proper pruning after each harvest
season facilitates pest and harvest control and encourages good fruit yield, it also limits tree growth.
Improving soil fertility
Andrew mention that for organic planting of mango tree, one should look at the soil. Soil cannot be too
sandy and needs to contain some organic matter and have enough structure to hold water and allow for the
presence of micro-organisms can survive inside the soil. Before planting any trees, onehas to make sure
that there is no soil erosion. Compost can be addedto the soil to improve the soil quality. Kraal manure can
also be used to improve the soil quality (Goat, Cattle, and Chicken).
Farmers need to implement proper management strategies to improve the fertility of the soil and weed
management; they can do the following;
ØMulching, especially for young mango trees,
ØControl weeds by using small animals like goats to graze and monitor the animals to avoid damaging
the mango trees,
ØPlanting of cover crops before fruit production starts. The organic material left on the soil surface
provides a mulching layer that protects the soil and positively influence the water retaining capacity
of the soil.
ØDuring early development of the young tree, during the first four years it is important to provide
the tree with regular supply of compost and green manure to improve foliar development. Addition
ofcompost or organic material should always follow the flowering, so that enough nutrients are
available for fruit formation and development.
Harvesting and handling of mango
When harvesting the fruitshould be removed with the small
stem(10cm) it is growing from, to improve ripening of the fruit
and also make it easier for the tree to produce again.
Furthermore, if the harvesting is not done properly, a sticky
milky sap is exuded by the tree that can cause sap burn on the
tree and fruit.Sap burn causes black lesions on the fruit, leading
to rot and cutting storage and usage time. Mmatshego Shaai from
Turkey village wasthe one who asked how can one harvest a
mango without getting in contact with the milky sap.
Figure 36: Mangoes can be harvested by hand,or using aknife or scissors.
If the tree is high a ladder is used, the fruit should be put inside a crate
or a basket lined with some leaves to avoid and prevent damage.
Pest management
Andrew Chabalala also explained to thegroup different types of
pests and diseasesthat are common on mango trees and ways to manage them;
MILESTONE 3: CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION ACTION PLANS (1). PROGRESS REPORT
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ØFruit fly; the fly punctures the fruit skin and lay eggs that develop into larvae in the flesh
of the fruit after hatching. The larvae feed on the fruit and causes it to drop prematurely
and destroys the pulp of the fruit. Framers should always scout in their orchard and always
keep the orchard clean. A trap of pheromone can be placed in a tree to disorient male flies.
A paperbag can also be wrapped aroundthe fruit when they are still green andhard to
avoid them being stung.
ØMango seed weevil; the larva is the damaging stage of the pest, it enters the fruit by
burrowing through the flesh into the seeds, where it feeds until pupation destroying the
seed. These can be managed by keeping the orchard clean and continuously monitoring for
egg-laying marks. Sticky strips at the upper end of tree trunks can be applied when the trees
start to flower.
ØPowdery mildew; damages young fruit and flowers. In severe attacks, the entire panicle
may be involved and fruitwillfail to set.
ØIt is possible to cover each fruit with brown paper or plastic, to protect them from pest
attack. This is however quite time consuming. Another method istocollectall the rotten
mangoesand dig 50cm deeppitin the ground not far from the mango trees and put the
rotten mangoes inside with some stones and then to cover thepit with soil. Nora Tshetlha
from Turkey village used a method that she was taught at the last Organic mango workshop,
she uses a method called smudging a practice where one collects moist organic material
like grass or leaves under the tree and smoke them in order to induces flowering and kill
pests. She further explained that she had a problem of pestsin her mango trees but since
she started using this method, the pests are no longer a problem. Smudging is commonly
done towards the dry season when mangoes are ready to flower. Smoking materials can be
mixed withherbs like lemongrass or lantana leaves toproduce arepellant smoke that chases
away insects from the tree.
GRAFTING
Andrew Chabalala then explained grafting to the group why, when, and how they graft the mango trees.
Generally, rootstock is chosen to be hardy and diseases resistant, to produce a strong tree. Sabreis a
common rootstock variety. Then the scion, or top part of the grafted tree is the preferred fruiting type.
To perform grafting, one needs material such as a grafting knife, grafting tape, and variety of mango trees.
Grafting is only done in summer. They canstart grafting from the 15thof Augustonwards.
For the scion, the tree has to be starting a new flush of growth. Branches can be cut and kept cool for a day
or two prior to using the smaller stems for grafting. The grafting cuts have to be at an angle on the stem,
not perpendicular, and the cuts need to be made carefully to ensure a good fit
between the rootstock and scion. When they are wrapped up care should be
taken to make sure there is not contact between the graft and air.Grafting tapes
can only be removed after 7 days or when one can see that the graft is starting
to ‘take’. These grafter cuttings should be kept moist at all times, but should
not be over-watered.
Day 2 (Hoedspruit Hub and Bavaria)
The second day of the Organicmango training workshop was held in Hoedspruit
Hub and Bavaria on the 24thof June 2020, the 19 participants were screened for
COVID-19 at arrival in Hoedspruit Hub and they were divided into two groups,to
use separate classrooms, with a maximum of 10 participants per classroom.
Figure 37: Magalangake Mogale is sanitizing her hands after screening, before entering
the classroom.
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A review of day one was conducted and then input was provided on: ensuring a careful harvest, handling of
fruits after being harvested, quality criteria for fruit, introduction to Agroecology (Climate Smart
agriculture), and garden walking and explanation.
Overview of day 1
Farmers or participant were asked whatthey had learnedfrom the previous day. They outlined all the points
that were discussed. Madike Nkhekhe explained that he didn’t know the importance of dry leaves under the
tree as he used to clean and burn them, but he now knows that he doesn’t have to do that and use them as
mulch. He also knows how to plant mango seedlings. Magalangake mentioned that she took home smudging,
a practice where one smokes moist organicmaterial in the treeto induce flowering and reduce pests and
the importance of irrigating properly and the exact amount of water required. She now knows that soap
water is like slow poison to the tree. Victoria Makofane said that she now knows that pruning atree is not
killing a tree but is turning a tree to
have enough sunlight coming
through to hit all branches of tree
and also increase yields. She also
learned about different kinds of
diseases that affect mango trees
and how to avoid pestproblems in
her orchard.
Figure 38: Oneof the groups consisting
of 10 participants at Hoedspruit Hub
Handling the fruit after harvest
Mangoes hold be harvested in a way that they don’t fall on the ground, as this damages them or pelting the
tree with stones to dislodge fruit is also a very undesired practice. Mangoes should be carefully placed
directly into crates and boxes and not thrown on the ground first. Even though they are hard when harvested,
the fruit will still bruise. Good post-harvest management of the mangoes minimizes damage and
contamination of the fruit, thus extending the shelf life and ensure freshness and attractive appearance.
Maintaining the orchard after harvest
Farmers should not forget to collect all fallen or
decomposed fruits, prune the old, weak, shaded
branches and twigs, cut the grass around the trees
and compostthe waste properly or burry it deeply.
Garden walk aboutfor agroecology
session
Figure 39: Nelson the facilitator took farmersto show
them some of the practices of Agroecology being
implementedin theHoedspruit Hub garden. Above right is
the tunnel and below right is a mandala garden.
In the garden walk participants were shown how to
make and apply compost and also other techniques
such as vermi-composting, vermi-teas, mixed
cropping and mulching. They were also shown ‘earth
MILESTONE 3: CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION ACTION PLANS (1). PROGRESS REPORT
| 34
pod’, which are small containerized beds, where plants draw upwater and nutrient from below the rowing
medium, rather than being irrigated from the top.
Bavaria orchard visit and tour with Andrew Chabalala
The following stationswere visited in Bavaria; Bavaria nursery, Bavaria compost site and mango orchards.
Farmers were first taken to the nursery, where the manager Andy Lewele, did a practical grafting
demonstration.It was explained to farmers that they start grafting from the 15thof August because
temperatures start to change from cold to hot. They also explained that they graft trees looking at the
demand of the variety, and they use Sabre is a root because they have strong roots and they can survive
harsh environments.
Figure 40: Above, Andy the nursery manager is
talking about the different varieties and nursery management
and Right and Far Right is demonstrating how grafting isdone.
Farmers showed a lot of interestas they were now seeing
what was explained by Andrew Chabalala on the first
day with their own eyes. Rackson Magobatlou, from
Turkey villages was allowed to graft one Kiet tree for
the first time.
Figure 41: Rackson Magobatlou is grafting after a
demonstration that was presented to them
Bavaria compost site
After pruning of trees, all the waste in the orchard is brought to the site andused to make compost; ripe
fruit, pruned branches with leaves etc. Materialsare well mixed in lines and a machine is used to turn the
compost from time to time. Water is also added to ensure the compost remains moist.Compost is ready
after 5-6 months.
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Figure 42: farmers being shown the composting process
Mango orchard tour
The tour was to show farmers how they prune trees and how theygraft a variety in demand on top of an old
sabre tree that had a different variety before the one grafted. Farmers were also shown how irrigation is
done. Practically the tour was to show farmers all the theory they were taught that are practiced in the
orchard. Andrew also explained the spacing in between the trees in a big orchard will be different from
small orchard as they would not need tractorstobe moving in between the trees. He also showed farmers
that they don’t clean fallen leaves from the tree, they are used as mulch that adds organicmatter to the
soil and protect the soil from losing moist and from erosion.
Figure 43: Above and Right;
views of the Bavaria orchard where various aspects of
orchard management were explained.
Conclusion
Farmers were extremely interested in the management and grafting aspects of mangoes and were
enthusiastic in asking questions and sharing their knowledge. They were also particularly keen to get access
to grafting tapes and knives, so that they could try out their own grafting. They were also very enthusiastic
about improving their orchard management to enable them to enter a formal commercial market for their
fruit.
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5.2Water committees
In both Sedawa and turkey the two locally managed schemes for provision of household based agricultural
water are now fully operational. In each case 18 households now have dailyaccess to water for irrigation
and the participants have been gardening enthusiastically. This has been linked to the greater local demand
for fresh produce that has emerged as a consequence of the COVID-19 lockdown and also to the weekly sales
of produce to the Hoedspruit Trust and Hlokomela.
Turkey water committee and garden monitoring.
Written by Betty Maimela
The situation in Turkey is such that without a dedicated supply of water, participants could not undertake
much farming. Although thepresentboreholeonly provides a limited amount of water, this has already
made a significant difference for the participating farmers.All 198 households are now actively gardening
for both household consumption and sale.
Each household has been responsible for arranging their own water storage arrangement. They have been
impressively diligent and meticulous about this process. Thegroup has appointed two people who oversee
borehole operation and equal sharing of water: Alfred Machimane and Rackson Magobatlou. In a week each
person is allowed to fill their 3x 210l tanks, twice (~1300L/week).
A group of five of these participants; Matshego Shaai, Norah Tshethla,Sarah Madire, Lydia Shaai and /, have
decided to do a joint revolving savings scheme between them to buy themselves 2200l Jo-Jo tanks to better
manage their gardening water supply into the future.
Figure 44: Above left:Mmatshegoconnected drip kits to a 210 litre tank that she uses to irrigate both inside the tunnel
and two trench beds outside where she planted beetroot, green pepper, Mustard spinach and Swiss chard spinach.
Above centre:Norah Tshetlha collects hershare in3x210l tank, placed close to the garden for ease of irrigation,
although she also uses some of this water for household purposesAbove right:Lydia Shai, has a range of containers
that she fills from her ‘mainline’ valve, when she is provided access to water.
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Farmers alsoclubbed together to put in an order for buying seedlingsat
PARMA nursery in Hoedspruit: 5000 cabbage, 2000 Swiss chard spinach and
2000 beetroot. In total the farmers managed to collect R3400,00 of the
overall cost of R4259,00 for the seedlings. MDF assisted with transport.
A fewparticipantsare also buying from Sarah Madire, whobought seeds
before lockdown and has been producing the following seedlings for sale
locally; mustard spinach, beetroot, kale, onionsandtomatoes.
Figure 45: Right; Beetroot seedlings collected from PARMA
and Far Right;Seedlings that Sarah Madirewas selling in
her community. She managed to make R200,00 from
selling seedlingsthus far, selling them at R10 per bunch.
Most participants planted similarcropsthat have a
high local demand, but including also some of the
‘new’ crops such as mustard spinach introduced in
previous seasons. Farmers are happy to be able to
make an income from farming and to haverunning
water. Electricity is not a problem as they all
contribute a fair price and appreciate the way they
working together without fights and would like to
keep it in that manner.
The pictures below provide a snapshot of activity in a number of the participants’ gardens.
MILESTONE 3: CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION ACTION PLANS (1). PROGRESS REPORT
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5.3Village Savings and Loan Associations (VSLAs)
This aspect ofthe work is managed by Mr Nqe Dlamini from StratAct, who specialises in microfinance
solutions for the rural poor. The concept of savings groups was introduced at a cluster meeting on 25th
February 2020, which included members of all learning groups and villages. Participants who were interested
were then provided with introductory meetings in their villages.
VSLA is a model that promotes the establishment of Savings Groups for the purposeof using their collective
savings to build a group fund that they use to provide key financial services to their members.
The following clarification meetings were in held in the communities:
Wed 26 Feb
Thurs 27 Feb
Fri 28 Feb
1.Sedawa
2.Willows
3.Worcester
4.Madeira
5.Turkey
Structure of presentation
MDf was assisted by Bigboy Mkhabelafrom AWARD in translation and facilitation; as AWARD also has an
interest in this kind of work and a collaborative effort was agreed to.
1.The objective of the meeting was explained
This was an orientation and introduction meeting for recruiting community members to establish and
operate Savings Groups that would support their production activities. Specifically for these communities,
the key objectives were:
§To explain and demonstrate how safe their money would be in the Savings Groups
§How would Savings Groups help them to finance their production objectives
2.Scarcity of money and its consequences were explained
§Incapacity to meet the household needs
§Heavy reliance on loan sharks
§Inability to start and operate an income generating activity
3.The ugly reality of financial illiteracy was explained
§Debt problem:Instalment sale agreement steals people’s money. Borrowing money from a loan shark
is like buying expensive money.
§Problem of instant gratification:The desire to buy non-productive products remain the strongest in
the brain. Instant gratification kills the ability to save for productive assets. In many instances, this is
largely as a result peer pressure.
§Poor appetite amongst smallholderfarmers to investin productive assets:People chosoe to ignore
productive assets in favour of money wasters. There is a tendency that many farmers and rural
enterprises would ignore buying productive assets. There is a “loyal” expectation that government
institutions and some NGOs would provide grants for free production infrastructure.
§Appetite for grocery stokvels:The largest majority use grocery stokvels to buy food items in bulk in
December, and sadly groceries that only last for a month or two. Their money is not put into good use.
4.It was concluded that:
§Debt takes money away and makes other people richer
§Food is necessary, but over-consumption takes money away
§Instant gratification is the worst enemy towards achieving a better life in future
§There is a solution: start saving money to buy productive assets
5.Security of collective savings in VSLA was explained
MILESTONE 3: CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION ACTION PLANS (1). PROGRESS REPORT
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§Knowing each other very well, trust, respect and living in the same neighbourhood is the “make or break”
of their Savings Groups. They must not accept people that have a bad reputation in their community.
§There will be a 3-way lock steel money box. 3 Members keep the keys and a box keeper only keeps the
box without the key.
§Money box is opened by 4 people but only at the start of the meeting.
§People sit in a circle so that they can see all transactions. Transparency!
§There will be 2-way recording system. There will be a master record book andanindividual transaction
book.
§Memory-based recording will be enforced. The Chairperson is allowed to fine forgetful members of the
Savings Group. A Savings Groups must be able to reconstruct records using their memory in the unlikely
event the books are tempered with or lost.
6.The rules and procedures were explained
§Savings-led approach
§Major components of a constitution and non-negotiable rules
§Share-based model; buying of shares
§Loan taking rules
§Transparent operations
§Share-out meeting procedure
7.The following demonstrations/calculations were made:
§Recording of shares
§Calculation of shares
§Taking of loans and benefits for taking loans
§Recording of loans
§Conducting a share-out meeting
After these meetings trainingsessions were held for interested groups in June 2020. A facilitator training
manual was produced for this trainingand handouts and savings books in siPedi was producedfor the
participants. In addition, moneyboxes were procuredand provided to all the groups
VSLA training sessions
Training outline for sessions 8-11June 2020
Key Item
Min
Responsible
COVID-19
Observe all COVID-19 public meetings protocols
ALL
START THE MEETING
1
Opening and
welcome
Observe local protocols, prayers, introductions, etc.
10
BB/BM
2
Purpose of the
workshop
Duration of workshop (3.5 to 4 hours)
10
BB/BT
Expectations
Structure of the workshop
Goal and outcome of the workshop
3
Confirm Savings
Group
establishment
Recap key learnings in meetings in February
15
BB/BT
Name of the groups
Size of the group
Management Committee
Value of a share
If they have started operating
4
Rules and
procedures
Goal of a Savings Group: Rules 1 to 3
60
ND/MD
Governance: Rules 4 to 11
Basic operations: Rules 12 to 18
Membership: Rules 19 to 25
Savings meeting procedure: Rules 47 to 56
Buying of shares: Rules 57 to 62
Taking and repaying of loans: Rules 63 to 76
MILESTONE 3: CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION ACTION PLANS (1). PROGRESS REPORT
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Key Item
Min
Responsible
Share-out procedures: Rules 77 to 80
Cooperative buying: Rules 81 to 82
Fines: Rules 83 to 85
General matters: Rules 86 to 90
Summary of non-negotiable rules: Rules 26 to 38
BREAK
5
Recording of
transactions
Operating tools (issue books)
30
ND/MD
Shares
Loans
Closing balances
6
Support, training
and supervision
Local/village- based supervision
30
ND/MD
Monthly supervision, training and re-training
Skills workshops, e.g. enterprise development
Training of chairmen and secretariesworkshop
Share-out procedure training
Share-out meeting support
7
Next steps
Clarifications
15
BB/BT
Next savings meetings
Training of chairmen and secretariesworkshop
Enterprise development training workshops
CLOSURE AND REFRESHMENTS
VSLA training sessions conducted
Written by Thembani Mabunda
The villages where the workshops wereintroduced were; Turkey, Santeng, Sedawa, Willows, and Worcester.
Training for Madeira was postponed due to active COVID-19 cases in the area. The Facilitators of the VSLAs
workshops were Nqe Dlamini (StratAct and partner of MDF), Mazwi Dlamini (MDF seniordevelopment
facilitator), Betty Maimela (MDF senior development facilitator), Bigboy (BB) Mkhabele (Award development
facilitator), and Thembhani Mabunda (MDF development facilitator Intern).
Nqementionedthat the goal of a savings groupsis to provide financial services to the people to useto
enhance their livelihood strategies.Financial services are deposit taking (savings as in buying of shares,
access to short-term credit/loans and usable lump sum pay-outs at the end of a savings cycle). The model
of buying shares is based on principles of, and/or promotion of inclusivity. Members of savings groups can
buy between one (1)and ten (10) shares in a meeting.This means that if the value of a share is R200, a
member saves between R200 and R2000 in a meeting.
Nqe took the participants through the rules and procedures of establishing and operating a savingsgroup,
from governance to operations. In the main, the following was explained and discussed.
GOVERNANCE
He explained that savings groups are formed by people who know and trust each other very well
and most preferably neighbours.
The minimum age a member should have to be part of the savings groups is 21 years.
Each member is only allowed one account, that is, one savings/transactionbook. However, members
are allowed to send their proxies to savings meetings. It is highly recommended that proxies are
introduced on the second or their meeting of a group. Proxies are only sent to buy shares and to
repay loans. They are not allowed to take out loans on behalf of their absent “senders” (members).
Members are given “account numbers”starting with the chairman as number 1, followed by the
secretary as number 2, vice secretary as number 3 and so on. The third moneybox key holder shall
be number 9 and the last member of a management committee.
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Each savings groups must have a management committee which includes a Chairman, Secretary and
Vice Secretary (record keepers), Treasurer (money box keeper), two Money Counters, and three
money box key holders. He then explained the role for each member in the management committee
starting from the Chairman to the last member of the management committee. For instance, the
chairman must check that there is a quorum before each meeting start and it is compulsory for
every member to attend the savings meeting which is done once every month because if the money
box keeper fails to attend the meeting, the meeting would not sit.
A saving cycle can extend from 12 months to 24 months as decided by the group.
Money box is only opened in front of everyone member present in the meeting by the key holders.
Meetings are held once in a month on a date, time and venue agreed by all members of the group.
All rules and procedures are important and must be observed all the time.
OPERATIONS (Conducting a savings meeting)
The first stepof the meeting is confirmation of closing balances and buying of shares. Before the
money box is opened, the chairman has to ask members how much was in the box from their last
savings meeting. The secretary and/or the vice secretary will then confirm the closing balance. In
the event of one or two members fail to remember the closing balance, the chairman has to fine
those members. Once the closing balance is confirmed by the secretary, money counter will count
the money in the money box in front of all the members.
After confirmation of the closing balance, the chairman would request members to buy shares. The
chairman, as member number 1 of the groups would be the first to buy shares, followed by the
secretary as member number 2, then vice secretary as member number 3, and so on. Depending on
the share value, members of a savings groups would buy between 1 and 10 shares. R100 and R200
were recommended as most affordable share values to the participants, and calculated as follows:
Share
Value
Number of Shares Bought in a Meeting
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
R100
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
R200
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
1800
2000
One money counter, checks that money used by each member is not fake or ink-tainted. The second
money counter counts the total amount used to buy shares by each member.
All transactions are recorded by the secretary in the individual member’s books and the group’s
master book. Secretaries do not record their transactions. Transactions of a secretary is recorded
by vice secretary or chairman, and transactions of a vice secretary are recorded by the secretary.
The vice secretary records similar transactions on aflip chart for every member to see in the
following order: shares, repaid loans, new loans issued and closing balance. MDF will provide flip
charts and soft pens to the groups. The vice secretary counts the total number of shares bought by
all members in a meeting and total shares must correspond with the amount of money counted by
the money counters. This amount is announced in the meeting.
The second stepis repayment of loans by indebted members (borrowers). In each case, the borrower
gives money to moneycounters for checking and counting before it is recorded by the secretary. At
the end money counters count the total amount of money received from repaid loans. This amount
is announced in the meeting.
The third stepis issuing of loans. No new loans are issued to indebted members. This means that a
borrower must settle her/his debt before requesting for a new loan. Loans are only taken between
months (meetings) 2 and 9. However, depending on the availability of money, the group may grant
loans from the first meeting. Members are allowed to take two times the value of their shares as
loan amount between months (meetings) 2 and 7. For example, a member with R1000 can take a
loan up to R2000. Between months (meetings) 8 and 9, members are only allowed to take loans
equivalent to their total savings, i.e. total value of shares. For example, a member that has saved
R5000 can take out a maximum loan of R5000. No loans are granted from the 10thmonth (meeting).
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The loan is 3 months at 10% interest per month on reducing balances. A borrower may be granted a
4thmonth to settle her/his debt. No interest is charged from the 5thmonth. Borrowers are not fined
for failing to repay a loan. MOST IMPORTANTLY, INTEREST ACCRUES TO THE GROUP AND NOT A
BORROWER! Borrowers sign for all loans and outstanding balances in their books. The secretary signs
only when a borrower settles her/his debt. When all new loans are issued and recorded, the
chairman asks the money counters to count money remaining in the box/table. This is the closing
balance of the meeting. This amount is announced in the meeting.
The pros and cons for not taking loans during the saving cycle were explained. The benefits are
presented in the next section on page 13 of this report.
The chairman asks the secretary to put money and all books in the money box and the three key
holders to lock the money box. The chairman gives the locked money box to the money box keeper
(“treasurer”). This closes the savings meetinghowever, the chairman may/should allow the meeting
to raise and discuss matters of social protection/security.
Groups are advised to come up with amounts of fines for fining transgressors. Fines should include;
coming late to the savings meetings, talking while meetings are on progress, sleeping during
meetings, using cell phones, forgetting closing balances, and forgetting savings/loans of a member
sitting on your right and on your left.
OPERATIONS (Conduction a share-out meeting)
Towards the end of a savings cycle and in particular month (meeting) 12, a savings group should
meet to reconcileall the books in terms of total shares bought and loans outstanding (if any)in
preparation for the final meeting. Members are still allowed to buy shares in this meeting but not
to take out loans.
At the final meeting, month 13, a savings meets for the purpose of dissolving a group fund (loan
fund). No other business is carried out in this meeting. No shares are bought; however, outstanding
loans must be settled.
A representative of MDF will be present in themeeting to supervise the group.
The chairman asks the secretaries to confirm that no member has an outstanding debt.
The chairman asks the money box to be opened and money to be counted.
The chairman asks secretaries to count the total number of shares by each member and the total
number of shares bought by the group.
CALCULATING FORMULAR:The total amount of money (group fund) is divided by the total number
of shares of the group in order to get the new value of a share. The total number of shares of each
member is multiplied by the new value ofa share in order to get a share-out amount. An example
of a group with 9 members was used to explain the share-out procedure.
Total Group Fund:
R113 760
Total Group Shares:
711
Total Value Shares Bought:
R71 100
New Value of a Share:
R160
Book #
Shares
Share Amount
1
75
X R160
= R12 000
2
80
X R160
= R12 800
3
90
X R160
= R14 400
4
55
X R160
= R 8 800
5
77
X R160
= R12 320
6
93
X R160
= R14 880
7
98
X R160
= R15 680
8
66
X R160
= R10 560
9
77
X R160
= R12 320
TOTAL
711
R113 760
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The table above representsa savings group with 9 members thatbought 711 to the tune of R71100 over a
period of 12 months. Fines and interest charged on loans grew the group fund to R113760. The value of a
share that was R100 grew to R160 at the end of a savings cycle. The number of shares bought by a member
is multiplied by the new value of a share to get the share-out amount of a member.
DAY 1 (VSLA Training in Turkey & Santeng Villages)
On the 8thof June 2020, the VSLA training was undertaken in Turkey village facilitated by Nqe Dlamini and
Bigboy Mkhabele. Turkey group had not elected their management committee but they had already started
with savings meetings which made the workshop easyto conduct. They had a savings meeting before and
decided that each member of the savings groups should buy shares starting from R200 up to R500 but they
had a challenge of a box to put their savings money in, so they had decided that some of the money would
be used to buy the savings box. One of the rules of the savings groups states that the savings groups is
established by 19 members most preferably people who know and trust each other well and people who are
neighbours. However, the Turkey group had 39 members including the management committee and it is the
only group that exceeded the required number for the savings group. It was then agreed upon that this
group will have to divide themselves into two groups. Only one money box was issued. The second money
box will be issued once the split has been done. The first management committee of the first group is as
follows;
(1) Chairman: Alfred Machimane,
(2) Secretary: Pinky Ratshosi,
(3) Vice Secretary: Portia shai,
(4) Money Box Keeper: Sara mohlala,
(5) Money Counter 1: Mogofe Elias,
(6) Money Counter 2: Mogale Magalangake,
(7) Key Holder 1: Magobatlou Rackson,
(8) Key Holder 2: Madire Sara,
(9) key holder 3: Malatji Angelina
It must be noted that the management committee may change depending on the results of the splitting of
the “mother” group.
On the same day the VSLA training wasalso done in Santeng village. For theSanteng group the savings
groups were their first experience since they never had a savings workshop before. Nqe Dlamini, Betty
Maimele, Mazwi Dlamini, and Thembani Mabunda facilitated the workshop, and started by explaining the
rationale of the savings groups including the rules and regulations of thesavings group to the Santeng group.
The Santeng group werealso given time to elect their management committee for the savings group. The
overall number of the members in Santeng village is 13 members and the management committee are as
follows;
(1) Chairman: Julia Lehlwane,
(2) Secretary: Lethabo Malepe,
(3) Vice Secretary: Frida Kgohlwane,
(4) Money Box Keeper: Nomsa Mafologela,
(5) Money Counter 1: Maanawe shai,
(6) Money Counter 2: Getrude Mankgele,
(7) Key Holder 1: Florence Mashego,
(8) Key Holder 2: Rose Molobela,
(9) key Holder 3: Phokane Fenita
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Figure 46: Avoe Left: Mr Nqe Dlamini facilitating the workshop in Turkey and Above Right: Betty Maimela running the
workshop in Santeng.
DAY 2 (VSLA Training in Sedawa Village)
On the9thof June 2020, the savings group training was done in Sedawa village. The Sedawa group had
already elected theirmanagementcommittee and the overall numberof their group is 19 members. They
had also started with saving money, although they had some problems understanding the rules and
regulationswhichwere resolved by this present workshop and proper recording books and money box were
given to Sedawa group.
The group, immediately after the workshop, recorded every transaction made to the proper books for the
saving groups. The Sedawa group started with buying of shares on April 2020 after the first workshop was
conducted and they managed to save R5 700 inApril, with members buying shares starting from at least
R100 to R1000. In May 2020 the group savedR3 800 with members buying shares between R300-R700 of
value.and inJune 2020 they savedR4 100. The Sedawa savings group had also started with taking of loans.
Members had already started with taking loans for buyingfarming inputs and equipment and to operate
profitable business enterprises.
The management committee of Sedawa savings group is as follows;
(1) Chairman: Christina Thobejane,
(2) Secretary: Fridah Thobejane,
(3) Vice Secretary: Vinolia Malepe,
(4) Money Box Keeper: Norah Malepe,
(5) Money Counter 1: Thea Morema,
(6) Money Counter 2: Ntebo Malepe,
(7) Key Holder 1: Magdelina Malepe,
(8) Key Holder 2: Drona Morema,
(9) Key Holder 3: Lawrence Motsha.
Figure 47: The VSLA training
in Sedawa, with Nqe
Dlaminifacilitating.
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DAY 3 (VSLA Training in Worcester Village)
On the 10thof June 2020, Worcester village was visited forthesavings group workshop and it was facilitated
by Nqe, Bigboy, and Thembani. Worcester already had a background of savings groups and stokvelswhich
made thefacilitation easy. The groupalso had elected their management committee and also had started
withthe buying of shares and taking of loans. Worcester Group has 16 members but during the workshop
therewas a group of home-based care workers thathad attended the workshop and asked the facilitators
if they can separately start their own savings group. Worcester savings group started with buying of shares
on the 09thof March 2020 and also with members taking loans. Members bought shares starting from as low
as R100 to R300.
The management committee that the members have selected is as follows;
(1) Chairman: Naomi Manaso,
(2) Secretary: Madike Nkhekhe,
(3) Vice Secretary: Sekgobola Suran,
(4) Money Box Keeper: Mahlo Nkutsane,
(5) Money Counter 1: Ramoshaba Anna,
(6) Money Counter 2: Malatji Melidah,
(7) Key Holder 1: Mmola Matiyela,
(8) Key Holder 2: Maanaso Rosina,
(9) Key Holder 3: Madike Anna.
This pictures above were taken on the 10thof June 2020 in Worcester village. The left picture shows the
members of the Worcester savings group and theright picture shows Nqeand Bigboy facilitatingthe
Worcester workshop.
DAY 4 (VSLA Training in The Willows village)
The last savings group workshop was on the 11thof June 2020 in Willows facilitated by Nqe, Mazwi, Bigboy,
Betty, and Thembani. The Willows group had about 26 people who attended the workshop; they were taken
through the rules and regulations of a solid savings group. A management committee was elected during
the workshop.
Moses Mogofe, a resident and a farmer in the Willows village came up with ways on how their savings group
can use their saving to make more profit; he mentioned they can buy local cattle at a low prices ofR5 000
and sell them at R9 000 after a few months, as long as they are in good condition. He further explained that
he also knows somewhere where they can sell the cattle since they have been calling him wanting to buy
his cattle. They agreed that they will meet again after the workshop to properly elect their management
committee so the money box and booklets of the saving group were given to them.
The 6 members of the management committee are as follows;
(1) Chairman: Kgaogelo Mahlako,
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(2) Secretary: Mogefe Moses,
(3) Vice Secretary: Letswalo Motlatso,
(4) Money Box Keeper: Shai Mokgadi,
(5) Money Counter 1: Mogofe Pedetsi,
(6) Money Counter 2:Mahloko kholo
The pictures below were taken on the 11thof June 2020 and they illustrate the settings of the workshop in
Willows with both pictures showing the facilitators and the participants.
Frequently asked questions
In all the workshops conducted in the villages in the Lower Olifants basin, there were certainquestions that
were asked by al groupsregarding the savings process. The questions are as follows; “What happens if a
member of a savings group dies?”,“What if a member buys only sharesand does not take out loans?”, and
“What happens if a member fails to repay the loan?”. The answers were carefully elaborated by Nqe Dlamani
for better understanding of savings groups.
For the first question; Nqe mentioned that it is good if a member passed on without having any outstanding
balances but if it is not the case, the savings group will have to accept that they have lost. But if a member
passes on while having shares in the group, the amount of the money of shares will be given to the family
of the deceased person.
For the second question; Nqe used two different members of a certain group as an example; one member
who only buys shares and doesn’t take out loans and the other member who doesboth. He mentioned that
those two members will benefit differently at the end of the year when share out occurs; a member that
buys shares and takes out loans will benefit more than the member who doesn’t, because that member can
be able to buy a fridge and a stovefor example,in the middle of the year using the money from the loans
that he/she has taken and also get a certain amount of money at the end of the year.
For the last question, Nqe used the record keeping books to show that each one has the rules written out at
the beginning that a member signs before starting saving. This is like signing a legal contract and members
who do not repay loans can be taken to court. A person is given at mostfour months to repay the loan, Nqe
advised the savings groups in different villages that they should not allow a member to go to month three
without paying anything, by that month the group should call a meeting for the member to have a talk with
the person. For all the villages that had savings groups workshops before and had also started with buying
of sharesand taking of loans they had the same problem of how to pay back the loans which includes the
interest rate of the loans.Some of the savings groups had a problem of understanding the interest rate of
the savings groups, they were not understanding if the interest rate is meant for one person or for the whole
group.
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Nqe usedthe picture on the left asan example to the
savings groups to answer the question of the two
members in the same group wherein one memberof
the group is taking out loans and is also buying shares
compared to the one who is not. With member
number 1 having 75 shares and 5 having 77 shares at
the end of the year, member 1 is onlybuying shares
and not taking loans and member 5 is both taking out
loans and buying shares. At the end of the year
member 1 will have a share of R12 000 whereas
member number 5 will benefit a R12320 plus a fridge
and a stove.
Some groups and in particular Willows and to some extent Sedawa are already integrating enterprise
development in their plans. Cues for starting enterprise development training (Street Business School SBS)
were very clear during thetraining workshops. We need to develop a plan tointegrate SBS during group
supervision starting with the groups that are ready to do so. However, the priority should be supporting
groups to master saving meetings and recording of transactions.
We should build monitoring tools and an evaluative tool totrack the performance of the savings groups and
how they integrate into the CRA programme. This tool can be designed in such a way that it provides data
for a research paper if we decide to publish in the near future.
VSLAs: Summary of progress to date
As the groups are still new and new members have come on board for most groups, since the training and
initial meetings, a review of the operation of savings groups was undertaken. The summary included;
the goal of a savings groups,
governance of a savings group;
operations of a savings group,
savings meetings procedure, i.e. buying of shares, taking and repaying loans, calculation of closing
balances and recording of all transactions;
share-out (group fund dissolution) meeting procedure,
co-operative buying, and
dealing/fining of transgressors
In addition, most groups were somewhat confused about the interest charge on loans as it is cumulative
over three months, rather than beinga flat rate of 10% for example. Below is a diagram that was used in
the sessions to explain how to calculate the interest, that assisted members to understand the process.
Figure 48: Table demonstrating the calculation of the 10% interest.
In addition, each group was supplied with the following tables to use to calculate the interest.
R220
(Separate R200 and R20)
R200
10% of R200= R20
R20
10% of R20=R2
R20 + R2
=R22
R220 + R22
=R242 (New Payment)
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The table below outlines the progress to date.
Table 3: Summary of VSLA progress in Limpopo, July 2020
Village
No of
members
Group name
Cumulative
savings
since start
Loans
taken
Loans
repaid
Comments
Worcester
Start date:
June 2020
16
Rutanang
(Teach each
other)
R3000
R1800
R880
Re-cap of loan and
repayment process
Santeng
Start date:
July 2020
13
Rekakgona
(We can make
it)
R1200
R0
Re-cap of loan and
repayment process
Sedawa
Start date;
March 2020
19
Sedawa group
R20 100
R21 950
R20 050
Need careful
adherence to rules-
too many
irregularities
Willows
Start date:
June 2020
26
Epopeng
(Bunch of
things)
R3000
R0
Review of whole SG
process for
members
Turkey
Start date:
July 2020
19
Tšwelapele
(Going
forward)
Review of whole SG
process for
members
Turkey
Start date:
July 2020
19
Refentše (We
have
conquered)
Review of whole SG
process for
members
Madeira
Start date:
August 2020
Review of whole SG
process for
members
SAVINGS TO DATE
R27 300
Figure 49: Above Left and Right: VSLA meetings in Sedawa and Worcester respectively.
AMOUNT
INTEREST
R10
R1.00
R20
R2.00
R30
R3.00
R40
R4.00
R50
R5.00
R60
R6.00
R70
R7.00
R80
R8.00
R90
R9.00
AMOUNT
INTEREST
R100
R10
R200
R20
R300
R30
R400
R40
R500
R50
R600
R60
R700
R70
R800
R80
R900
R90
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5.4Networking and stakeholder engagement
Stakeholder engagement
The following processes have been engaged in:
AWARD: Co presentation, with Derick duToit (AWARD) and John Nzira (Ukuvuna), of a webinar
entitled ‘Building networks and skills for climate change preparedness with small scale farmers in
the Olifants river catchment’ on the 16thJune.
TheNova Institute: Further refinement of a joint proposal (Attie van Niekerk and Hendrik Smith)
for a full feasibility study to develop the smallholder mango marketing chain in the area to be
presented to AgriSA. A copy of this proposal is available on request.
K2C:Liaison with Cindy Koen from K2C, to incorporate the work for MDF in the “from the region for
the region’ marketing platform.
The Hoedspruit Hub:Finalisation of the organic Mango production training for three groups
The Hoedspruit PGS: Bimonthly web-meeting was held on the 21stof July. Learning workshops have
been planned, in collaboration with AWARD, for 3learning groups during August 2020 (Sedawa,
turkey, Willows), to enable these groups to register for PGS certification
AgroecologySouth Africa: this civil society networking and policy support group has now been
formally constituted and a vision and principles document has been created. In addition,a civil
society statement on the Supplementary Budget and the implications for food security and land
reformhas been prepared and endorsed by a wide range of organisations, including MDF. (A copy of
this statementis provided in section 8.2)
C19 coalition: Continuation with the process of meetings and negotiation for provision of support
to smallholder farmers with the Minister’s Office. Development of work streams for development of
advocacy materials and involvement in the Agroecology practices work stream with around 19 other
organisations.
Local Food systems: Creation of an interest and working group to explore principles, approaches
and joint activities in promoting and implementing local food system processes and projects, with
a membership of around 18 civil society organisations.The intention is to create an alternative
development paradigm for smallholder farmers, spearheaded by like-minded organisations
supporting agroecology and food sovereignty principles.
6Monitoring,evaluationandlearning
(MEL) plan
6.1Framework & indicators
Below is a summaryof implementation according to our indicators for May-August2020
Indicator
Overall target
Actual (May-August
2020)
No of participants in learning groups
370
112
No of learning groups
9-12
10
-No of local facilitators
6
6
Percentage of participants engaged in CC adaptation
responses
1-2 (45%)
2-3 (25%)
>3 (10-15%)
42%
20%
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No of participants experimenting with new innovations
-local
-co-designed
15%
45%
9%
No of participants showing increased knowledge
35%
61%
Percentage of participants engaged in collaborative
activities (water committees), marketing)
35%
54%
Percentage of participants with improved livelihoods
-increased availability of food
-increased income
-increased diversity of activities and livelihoods
options
40%
5%
5%
62%
45%(most farmers w water
have increased production
for sale)
4% (drying, livestock)
Qualitative assessments;
-stakeholder engagement
-Increased understanding and agency to act towards
increased resilience
- Adaptation and innovations into local context
-Potential for increased resilience
-Social engagement
Stories, case
studies (5-6), CC
impact summaries
(4), best practices
booklet
7Work Plan for Milestone 4
Below a brief assessment of progress for each of the activities mentioned for the May-Augustworkplan is
provided.
1.Set up mango production training for 2 groups (30 each)
in association with Hoedspruit Hub (May-June 2020)
Training done for 3groups x 20 participants (July
2020)
2.Order and deliver mango trees according to list of trees
and participants prepared (May 2020)
Done. 146 Mangotrees delivered to 39
participants from Turkey, Sedawa,Worcester,
Willows and Santeng)
3.Finalise CA and field cropping monitoring for 35
participants across 4 villages
Done and reported on in Milestone 2
4.Set up learning groups and identify and induct local
facilitators for new villages
Done
5.Order materials and tunnels to support in the training and
learning activities (May 2020)
Done. Materials from BUCO still on order Shade
netting and bone meal has been unavailable-
necessitating postponement of tower garden
training
6.Recap of agroecology/permaculture training workshops
for existing groups and start on training for new groups;
(garden layout, soil and water conservation, soil fertility,
bed design, mixed cropping, shade cloth tunnel
construction) (May- July 2020)
Done. Learning workshops conducted in 5
villages (Santeng, Willows, Turkey, Sedawa,
Finale), on trench beds, liquid manure, soil
fertility, contours, furrows and ridges and
winter cover crops.
7.Do VSLA training for the 5 new savings groups set up in
February 2020. Monthly mentoring during group saving
meetings is to beundertaken. (May- July 2020)
Done. VSLA training for 7 VSLAs across 6 villages
(Madeira, Sedawa (2), Turkey 1 and Turkey 2,
Santeng and Willows)
8.Initiate garden monitoring after training and learning
sessions
Not started yet.
9.Initiate beneficiary selection and training in construction
of shade cloth tunnels (June 2020)
Done. Tunnel construction will start inthe 3rd
week of July
7.1Work plan for August to November 2020.
MDF strongly believes that our presence in the villages where we work is crucial withinthese difficult and
uncertain times, both to continue and strengthen the agricultural work and food production of the
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participating farmers and also to provide social supportand commentary on the effects of COVID-19 and
South Africa’s national strategy.
We propose thus to continue activities, as responsibly as possible, within the strictures of present legal and
health directives. Large gatherings and cross visits will thereforebe put on hold for at least 4 months and
networking and communication through SMSand WhatsAppgroups will be given attention.
Below a brief work plan is presented:
1)Initiate construction of shade cloth tunnels(19) (July - September2020)
2)Set up new learning groups and run climate change impact workshops in Ntshabeleng, Butswana and
Balloonand/ or Molalane (August 2020)
3)Set up a new learning group in Botshabelo and select a new Local Facilitator (August 2020)
4)Run CCA planning workshops in Madeira, Worcester and Santeng (August-September 2020); including the
five fingers monitoring framework
5)Run PGS training workshops in partnership with AWARD in Sedawa, Mametja, Willows and Turkey (August
2020)
6)Attendance and monitoring at monthly VSLA meetings x7 (August- November 2020)
7)Learning and mentoring workshops in agroecology and CRA practices; including tower gardens and
natural pest and disease control in 6 villages (August- November 2020)
8)Compile a proposal for support in water provision activities in Santeng, Sedawa 2, Turkey 1 and Madeira)
9)Continue weekly organic vegetable marketing process with Hlokomela (August- November 2020)
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8Appendices
8.1COVID-19 social survey report
Survey responses
Villages; Finale, The willows, Santeng, Sedawa, Turkey, Madeira, Worcester
No of respondents: 43
Female 65%
Age; 39-72
Sense of resilience
1.Stress level 1-10
9
2
3
1
11
1
3
3
2
8
2.Agricultural activities undertaken
- Growing vegetables; spinach cabbage, kale, tomatoes, green peppers: 21
- Field cropping; harvesting summer crops (Maize, beans, cowpeas): 8
- Cleaning household and yard: 3
- Looking after livestock: 0
Vegetable production was limited to those villages who have some access to water. Notable for lack of
access were Finale, Santeng and Worcester, where the struggle for everyday household water consumed
most of their energy.
3.Required support (Finale)
This question was not answered by all participants. It related to immediate support that participants
would need. Responses are listed below in order of importance
Required support
No of respondents
across all villages
Food parcels
18
Sanitizers and masks
13
Seedlings
10
Water for gardening (filling of Jo-Jos- requires access and payment)
5
Fencing
4
Assistance with transport to town
3
Social isolation and community
COVID-19 information
Strongly
Disagree
Disagree
Neutral
Agree
Strongly
Agree
I am not worried about being
infected
16
1
5
14
6
I am confident that my family
members and I would recover if we
were to be infected
2
6
5
26
4
I have access to accurate facts and
information on when to get tested
15
3
5
16
4
I have access to accurate facts and
information on when to self-
quarantine
12
0
3
22
5
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COMMENTS
No access to real facts, just what we see on TV and hear on the radio and from our
neighbours
They have information about testing because health care workers gave them a number to
call from if they ever feel like they are infected.
Always in fear of getting infected and not sure that they will recover if they get infected
since people are dying.
family members have assisted by fetching her medication, attending funerals and
shopping
People continue support local business even though they have reduced their way of
spending as most work temporary jobs. People also adhere to social distancing as they
don’t know who is affected and who’s not. He doesn’t feel safe going outside his
household
It was mentioned by health workers that there is no cure for the virus,
Information shared is confusing as one said there is no cure but on the news they state a
number of people who recovered, is there any information that they are no told that is
hidden.
COVID 19 community response
Strongly
Disagree
Disagree
Neutral
Agree
Strongly
Agree
My community has banded
together during this time
28
1
6
8
2
I want to continue supporting
my local businesses
5
0
1
31
2
Social distancing has not had a
negative impact on my
community
12
5
3
11
8
Vulnerable members of my
community are well-supported
during this time
31
1
6
7
0
I feel safe when I go outside /
to the shops during this time
31
2
6
3
0
COMMENTS
We wish to visit old people to help them, but we are scared because we haven't been
tested for the virus
Social distancing help because the virus cannot be spread but hunger is killing us
We can't go to the shops due to lack of transport and because we are scared to get
infected
Social distancing has not had a negative impact on my community because it has helped
with the control of alcohol which then lowered the rate of crime in the communities
There is no-one to take care of the vulnerable members of the community
We do not feel safe going to town as we aren't sure whether we will get the disease or
not
Social distance has negatively affected the business around the community
Child headed and vulnerable houses holds are not assisted in the community and food
parcels are only given to households with one child.
Covid-19 has an impact because we don’t meet and advise each other on certain things.
Poor people are not being assisted, the keep on assisting the rich who can afford.
Community can’t band together during this time as people are not allowed to move so
how can they help each other. Covid-19 is having a negative impact on the community
because she can’t get customers.
People buy chickens on credit for R60, allowed to take from 5 chicken going up on credit.
Food parcel are being given to the people. They register from the council for food parcel.
1.What are the top three concerns re social distancing?
Social grants; not sufficient for need
2
Education; children can’t go to school and no provision is made for them
1
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Farming; access to farming fields, inputs, marketing
7
Food: scarcity in shops and locally, long queues
1
Water scarcity
2
Transport; difficult to get transport to town
3
Staying at home and doing nothing; leads to depression
4
The economy is being destroyed
4
Unable to visit banks to be able to make payments such as loans
1
Not being able to see our children
7
There is no full proof way to protect yourself
1
Employment and income; Livelihoods
Livelihoods impacts
Strongly
Disagree
Disagree
Neutral
Agree
Strongly
Agree
My job / work/informal
trading/farming is not at
risk
19
8
3
9
3
My spending habits have
not changed
23
7
2
8
2
I am confident that I can
continue providing for my
family
6
11
12
12
1
I am not worried about
the impact of COVID-19
on the economy
25
7
4
1
1
COMMENTS
We depend on farming for income and don't have enough money to buy food
We cannot sell our crops, the only demand that seems to be high is for
vegetables
I am now spending more money on food as more people are home and also have
to travel to town twice to get the monthly supplies, because of the restrictions.
Prices have increased.
We cannot afford the higher prices as we are reliant on social grants
Some businesses have closed, so access to supplies is difficult
There is insufficient water in the community
The government has helped with the addition to social grants to help buy food
supplies
Some people still think that they will be able to provide for his family even
though it will be tough and will have to cut on other things just to prioritise
essentials
There is not enough food to feed my family
worried about the economy because the disease keeps on spreading and
infecting more people
Access to food
Strongly
Disagree
Disagree
Neutral
Agree
Strongly
Agree
I am confident that I can
continue to afford food and
supplies
16
2
16
8
0
I am confident that my
household can continue to
access to basic utilities and
services (e.g., internet,
electricity, transport, water)
11
4
17
10
0
I do not see the need to stock
up on bulk-buy supplies
19
6
3
7
1
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I am confident that my
household will not run out of
food and supplies
12
5
11
3
0
COMMENTS
We have no source of income except for farming, we cannot access grants
We see a need for bulk buying during this time, so that we will have enough food,
but cannot do so as we rely on the pensions for an income and there is not enough
I am not confident that we won't run out of food, since we don't have money and
can't provide for our family
I am supported by my children, who are currently at home, so there is insecurity
as to whether our quality of life will go down
We are in fear of being unable to support our family, the only option is to sell
livestock, but those were for lobola and we should not sell them
not be able to continue to afford food and supplies if the disease is not
controlled. Stocking up on supplies is not a problem if one has money.
Production impacts
Strongly
Disagree
Disagree
Neutral
Agree
Strongly
Agree
I am confident I can continue
with my agricultural production
activities
8
3
2
22
3
I am confident that as a family
we can produce enough food
for our household
7
3
4
25
2
I am confident that I can access
the inputs and supplies I need
to continue farming activities
12
8
11
9
0
I have enough support to
continue and intensify my
productive activities
15
11
12
4
0
COMMENTS
Traveling to buy seedling is a problem because they don’t have permits.
If we can get seedlings, we can continue with our farming.
Not sure if will continue farming because we don’t have agricultural tools and water
and also seed/Seedlling
I am confident that if I get some support, that I can continue with farming
Not confident that I will continue to provide for our household because of longer able
to move around and sell products.
working together with other small holder farmers sharing seedlings and seeds. fear of
not getting enough seeds/seedlings, people sell in the community and will run-out
production to provide both at home and in the community
Agricultural production
Production for respondents has not been significant. Mostly they mentioned being able to continue
supplying food for themselves for the following 2-4 months if things continue as is. Garden sizes are mostly
small < or equal to 100m2. Around 6 respondents have larger gardens 200-4000m2and they have enough
produce for household use and sale, making between R100-R500/week on average
Cropsgrown include: Sweet potatoes, green beans, onions, spinach, cabbage, kale, tomatoes, beetroot,
chillies, green pepper, carrots and lettuce.
Towards the end of May 2020 a marketing process was initiated to assist the Hoedspruit trust to supply
fresh produce in their food parcels and also to sell to individuals in town.
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8.2 Agroecology SA: Civil society statement
Civil society statement on the Supplementary Budget and the implications for food security and
land reform
30 June 2020
Context: engulfed by multiple crises
The Minister of Finance has announced an austerity budget at a time when the fissures of
unresolved historical inequality, poverty and suffering are made so much sharper. The lives of
people are going to be made so much worse, at a time when redistributive and social measures
are needed most. It is shocking that these measures are not the focus of the budget, despite the
fact that the pandemic has exposed the vulnerabilities and inequalities in the society, and will
deepen these issues with income loss, prolonged hunger and other negative health and social
impacts. Instead the government is aiming to go from deep debt to a budget surplus in as little as
four years, which is short-sighted and unlikely and will rather reinforce and perpetuate societal ills.
The Supplementary Budget was passed in the context of multiple, deep-seated economic,
ecological, social and political crises in South Africa and globally. These crises reveal the apparent
incapacity of the late capitalist system to deliver on the needs of diverse populations in complex
societies. They have revealed the extent of corporate-financial capture of the state, in South Africa
as much as in the US and Europe. We know the coronavirus pandemic is but one of a series of
shocks to come, with the climate crisis already manifesting daily in a variety of morbid symptoms.
The pandemic harshly exposes the vast and deepening inequalities in society, especially in the era
of rampant militarised neo-liberalism and the unchecked rule of finance capital. The pandemic has
shown the limitations of ‘the market’ in meeting the needs of humans and the ecological systems
we are embedded in. It lays bare the structural problems with the global food system, the manner
in which food is produced and the unequal power relations in global value chains. By so doing, the
global crisis in the food system starkly reveals the grave problems with international trade
relations and within institutions like the World Trade Organisation and the International Monetary
Fund.
The budget is also framed in the context of a deepening debt crisis, wrought on by neoliberal
policies advected by the International Monetary Fund and international and bilateral trade
agreements exemplified in the economic partnerships agreements. This crisis is of the African
National Congress’s making over the past 10 years in particular. Where did the borrowed money
go? We would at least expect some greater level of infrastructure and services, but the pandemic
has revealed the failure of the government to respond to the needs of society these past years.
The rich grow richer, and the poor grow poorer, even in the presence of a so-called
‘developmental state’.
Corruption and nepotism are rampant and unchecked at all levels of society. Even emergency food
relief has been fair game for embezzlement. There is no shame. Farmer support programmes such
as the Comprehensive Agricultural Support Programme (CASP) and Ilima/Letsema have shown
limited results despite tens of billions of Rands having been poured into them over the past
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decade. Where land has been transferred, this is mostly without any further support forthcoming
to settle on and use the land effectively and sustainably.
This state of affairs is evidence of a society that has been led down the wrong path. There is
mismanagement and incapacity in the state even for basic functions, with the collapse of
municipalities, non-functionality of entire departments and increasing irregularity of spending at
every level. While we can acknowledge increases in social protection for the most vulnerable since
1996, this has also entrenched a reliance on the state, with many citizens constrained to being
passive and disempowered recipients of government welfare rather than active participants in a
democratised economy.
Austerity: making the poor and vulnerable pay for the crisis
President Ramaphosa has offered platitudes about a new society and a “new dawn” arising from
the ashes of the pandemic, reiterating this message in the budget which says government is
“resolved not merely to return our economy to where it was before the coronavirus, but to forge a
new economy in a new global reality”. We have understood the President’s message to have
meant that the pandemic has taught us about the failings of the industrialised production system
that exploits the planet and the poor for profit. We had hoped this new dawn would include laying
the foundations to ensure a rapid transition to a more resilient society where the wellbeing of
every person counts, and the regeneration of the living earth systems on which we depend.
However the budget shows more of the same: first stabilise the economy - which implies
imposition of an austerity budget that is wholly inappropriate and unsuited for South Africa,
especially as we face this health crisis – and then the benefits will “trickle down” later. The
proposed budget entirely overlooks advice given by academics that government spending can
bring about stimulus. For every “R1 billion government spends, gross domestic product (GDP)
increases by R1.68 billion and 6,900 jobs are created. This means that spending 6% of GDP, R305.6
billion, would increase GDP by R513.4 billion and support the creation of 3,542,460 jobs.”[1]
Setting aside the fantasy of a budget surplus within the next three years, the logic of the
Supplementary Budget is the same as that which misled us with GEAR in 1996, resulting in 24
years of widening inequality, and a widening gap between decision-makers and the mass of the
population. State-society relations are filtered through party structures that act as a buffer
between political elites and the mass of the population. This has created a political system
characterised by lack of accountability, lack of trust in the people, and exclusionary, opaque, and
undemocratic planning and decision-making. The budget is doubling down on the strategy of
permanent austerity and policing the response of the poor. We call for immediate resistance to
entrenchment of these austerity measures in the medium-term budget framework.
Food security, land reform and small-scale producer support
Government’s remote and out of touch approach is nowhere clearer than in the deep cuts made
to the budget of the Department of Agriculture, Land Reform and Rural Development (DALRRD). In
essence, funds that were previously allocated to land reform, food security and rural development
have been redirected to military and police spending in anticipation of increasing deployments
onto the streets. The Defence and Police budgets have been increased by a combined R5.6 billion,
while the DALRRD budget has been slashed by R2.4 billion, and Environment, Forestry and
Fisheries by R766 million. According to Minister Didiza, Food Security had cuts of R939 million,
Land Redistribution and Tenure Reform R544 million and Land Restitution R403 million, and
provinces will receive lesser allocations for producer support for production and infrastructure.
Again, this is familiar territory: we have just gone through years of public hearings and
deliberations on land expropriation without compensation, but once again, nothing has come of it.
Political elites have again shown that they will raise issues before elections for votes with no
intention of following through with these proposals in reality.
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Agricultural development is a primary industry and fundamental economic driver, especially from
the low base we are now looking at. Productive employment to producing food which in turn
creates a new economic growth node is crucial right now. Yet the budget appears to anticipate
and prepare for food riots rather than rededicating resources to growing clean food in an
environmentally sustainable manner, which implies an enormous increase in small-scale ecological
farming, as advised by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization and called for in the
Sustainable Development Goals, which the government has endorsed. Allocations to small-scale
producers, and appropriate rural infrastructure are precisely the kind of investment needed to
mitigate and weather predicted future shocks, especially if an agroecological approach is adopted,
as civil society has called for. Instead, the supplementary budget provides a band-aid in social
grants that, while of value, are set at low amounts that at best makes up for food price increases
that have enlarged corporate coffers, especially in retail.
In the same manner, we are concerned with the Department of Environment, Forestry and
Fisheries (DEFF’s) budget cuts, which penalise the already under-funded small-scale fisheries
sector. While Minister Barbara Creecy and DEFF officials continue to promise that support and
capacity building programmes will be provided to develop the sector, no provisions are made in
this budget to provide relief to small-scale fishers. Further cuts of over R88 million are made to the
Fisheries Management Programme, at a critical moment where additional capacity is needed to
meaningfully implement the coastal Small-scale Fisheries Policy and to develop and implement a
legal and policy framework that will recognise the livelihood and food provision activities of small-
scale fishers operating on freshwater bodies.
We view the DALRRD budget cuts and reallocations as an act of bad faith. Only a few weeks ago
Minister Thoko Didiza and Director General Mdu Shabane expressed strong support for an
orientation towards household and local food security initiatives as part of the immediate crisis
response and as an essential medium- to longer-term approach. The Department has claimed it
wants to engage with civil society to review existing policy and programmes and to redirect
support to local initiatives. We understand that they were compelled by the Department of
Finance to make cuts, but when it came to the crunch, local food security and redistribution faced
the largest cuts. There was no consultation whatsoever with civil society about what to do in this
emergency. It is clear that there is a long way to go to build trust and meaningful engagement.
Despite commitments to civil society about the importance of an active population in local food
security, the underlying logic of the budget cuts in DALRRD and DEFF is still that large scale
commercial agriculture and fisheries, and corporate food production and distribution are viewed
as the ultimate guarantors of food security in South Africa. This aligns with Agri SA which is
boasting that food supply to supermarkets has continued without disruption through the
pandemic and therefore that South Africa remains food secure. On the contrary, the pandemic has
exposed the lie that full supermarket shelves equate to individual, household and local food
security. High and rising prices at supermarkets and conditions of restricted movement have
meant lack of effective access. The pandemic has highlighted the essential services provided by
street traders, informal and small-scale distributors and retailers, and the crucial role of public
sector food programmes, especially the National School Nutrition Programme. The pandemic has
revealed and intensified the stark lack of effective access to food for large numbers in the
population. The Constitution states there is a right to food. This cannot be some abstraction but
must mean the right to food every day, for every person, to meet nutritional, health, social and
cultural needs. Effective access to food for all must be the organising principle of food systems.
The budget includes a R3 billion liquidity bridge to the Land Bank, which blames rising costs and
drought for reducing its income. This is another example of a string of bailouts for financial
institutions which support unsustainable production models of commercial agriculture. We also
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note with concern the pursuit of public-private partnerships (PPPs) (disguised as "blended
finance") in order to direct (commercial) funding to developing farmers. This is the opposite
direction to the one required and poses a massive threat to any chance of food sovereignty and
promotion of local food economies. It opens the door for further privatisation of farmer support,
and essentially defeats the object of the exercise by turning new farmers into vassals to the
financial system. Bailout funds could be better spent to support agroecological transitioning and
support for a majority of small-scale producers and local food distribution systems that have
proven their importance as essential to ensuring the right to food during the lockdown.
Alternatives: invest in the potential of the people
What is required is investment in the innovative and productive potential and capacity of the
diverse population, with popular agency in food systems at a human scale, and active involvement
of the people. This was the spirit and promise of the mass democratic movement and the “people-
centred development” of the 1994 Reconstruction and Development Programme, but which was
allowed to dissipate without achieving traction in the material world. Today there is a woeful lack
of participation in economic activity, with wasted human potential exemplified in extremely high
youth unemployment and increasing economic disparities which fuel social violence including
violence against women and girls. The pandemic offers an opportunity for the mobilisation of the
whole society to respond to the crisis and to reorient the economy towards one that responds first
and foremost to the basic needs of everyone in the society. But this is apparently not on the
agenda of this government, with its preference for top down, remote and (not very effective)
technocratic planning and decision-making, and its ceding of food systems to corporations to run
and profit from.
Call for a radical and people-centred response to the crisis
In this context, we the undersigned insist on the following:
We reject the redistribution in the supplementary budget from household and local food
security to increased militarisation and policing of our society. We call for the full restoration
of funds taken from household and local food security programmes, including for small
enterprise support in ecological input supply, agroecological production, small-scale fisheries,
processing, distribution and retail, and fresh produce markets situated close to end users, all
managed in a participatory and decentralised way.
We call on the Minister of Agriculture, Land Reform and Rural Development to show good
faith by an internal reallocation of the revised DALRRD budget back to food security, land
reform and integrated rural development.
We call on the Minister of Environment, Forestry and Fisheries and the Department to make
an internal budget reallocation towards the Fisheries Management programme, particularly
towards the Small-Scale Fisheries Unit and its support and capacity building programme.
We call for more active participation of popular rural movements, small-scale farmers and
fishers, and other civil society organisations in decisions on budget allocations and
programmes in DALRRD and DEFF, not just as recipients of decisions made by the
departments.
We call for the government to publicly recognise the critical role of rapid land redistribution,
tenure security, release of commonage land, local food production and distribution, and
democratised food systems as urgent responses both to the short term crisis of lack of
effective access to food at individual, household and local levels, and to the increasingly
urgent imperatives for a rapid and just transformation of the South African economy centred
on the needs of the population, and empowering the population (citizens and migrants alike,
regardless of status) as active participants in transformative actions.
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We call for a participatory, rapid and critical review of producer support programmesover
the past 15 years, including Ilima/Letsema and CASP, the Land Development Support policy
and other relevant policies, development of concrete proposals for revised, more transparent
and participatory, land and producer support programming, and a commitment from the
leadership of DALRRD to materialise revised producer support programmes in alliance with
civil society.
We call for state capacity and budgetary support for agrarian reform that is aimed at
addressing the combined hunger, climate and water crises, and a producer support strategy
that explicitly acknowledges the serious climate, biodiversity and related ecological crises by
promoting ecologically and socially sustainable forms of production (agroecology, organic,
biointensive, permaculture, biodynamic, regenerative etc) and the role of small-scale
producers.
While policy and programme reviews are taking place, we call for the identification and
immediate unblocking of bureaucratic bottlenecks that inhibit farmers from accessing funds
and other support for their farming activities.
We note that farm workers, who have provided an essential service in ensuring the availability
of food during the crisis, still face evictions and retrenchments in some places. We call for
an immediate moratoriumon all evictions in the midst of the pandemic, and for this
moratorium to be extended into longer term tenure security for all even beyond the
immediate crisis.
We call on the government to prioritise the livelihoods of rural farmers instead of pushing
miningas a source of jobs (particularly coal mining) given that mining displaces hundreds of
people and negatively impacts on thousands who potentially have the capacity to feed
themselves and their families. Mining is unsustainable and leaves behind devastated
landscapes, contaminated water sources and polluted soils and air that are unlikely to be
rehabilitated and will become a burden that rural communities will carry for many
generations.
We call on the government to initiate talks at continental and international levels
to challenge and undo the current balance of forces in international trade
arrangementsthat result in unequal returns for small-scale farmers and food producers in
global and domestic value chains.
We call on social movements, small scale farmer and fisher organisations and other
community-based and civil society organisations not only to resist the austerity budgets, but
also to mobilise and organise independently, without waiting for the state to act, to respond
to the immediate food crisis and to continue to advance the longer term imperatives for
democratisation of our food system.
Endorsements
Organisations:
Abelimi Bezekhaya
African Centre for Biodiversity (ACB)
African Climate Reality Project (ACRP)
Association for Water and Rural Development (AWARD)
Biowatch South Africa
Cooperative and Policy Alternative Center (COPAC)
Dijalo
EarthLore Foundation
East Cape Agricultural Research Project (ECARP)
Eategrity
Environmental Monitoring Group (EMG)
Food Equity, Equality and Democracy(FEED)
GenderCC Southern Africa Women for Climate Justice
Global Environmental Trust
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Good Food Network
Green Business College
Greenhouse Project
groundWork (Friends of the Earth, South Africa)
Hoedspruit Hub
Institute for Poverty, Land and Agrarian Studies (PLAAS), University of the Western Cape
Inyanda National Land Movement
Land Access Movement of South Africa (LAMOSA)
Mahlathini Development Foundation
Masifundise Development Trust
Mfolozi Community Environmental Justice Organisation (MCEJO)
Mopani Farmers Association
Natural Justice: Lawyer for Communities and the Environment
Ntinga Ntaba kaNdoda
One Voice of All Hawkers Association
Participatory Guarantee Systems South Africa (PGS-SA)
PHA Food & Farming Campaign
Phuhlisani
Rural Women’s Assembly (RWA)
Seed and Knowledge Initiative (SKI)
Seriti Institute
Siyavuna Development Centre
Siyazakha Land Rights Forum
Solidaridad Southern Africa
South African Adaptation Network
Southern African Faith Communities’ Environment Institute (SAFCEI)
SouthAfrican Organic Sector Organisation (SAOSO)
South African Urban Food & Farming Trust
South Durban Community Environmental Alliance (SDCEA)
Surplus People Project (SPP)
Trust for Community Outreach and Education (TCOE)
Tshintsha Amakhaya
Ukuvuna
Umgibe Farming Organics
Umphakatsi Peace Ecovillage
UmsiziSustainableSocialSolutions
Unyaka Wakho Youth Foundation
Young Women with Vision of South Africa
Individuals:
Amy Giliam
Andriesdu Toit (Prof), PLAAS, University of the Western Cape
Brittany Kesselman (Dr)
Buhle Mbatha
Busisiwe Mgangxela
Daniel Moody
Donna Hornby (Dr)
Erica Inches
Fikile Vilakazi (Dr)
Gareth Haysom (Dr), African Centre for Cities, University of Cape Town
Geoff Davies (Bishop),Patron of SAFCEI
Glenn Ashton
Jama Mashele, Nelson Mandela University
Jane Battersby (Assoc Prof), African Centre for Cities, University of Cape Town
Josette Cole
Kate Davies
Laura Pereira (Dr)
Leonora Breedt
Marc Wegerif (Dr), Department ofAnthropology and Archaeology, University of Pretoria
Ntwenhle Majozi
Rachel Wynberg (Prof), DSI/NRF South African Research Chair (SARChI): Environmental and Social Dimensions of the Bioeconomy, University of
Cape Town
Raymond Auerbach (Prof), Centre of Excellence in Food Security, University of the Western Cape
Ruth Hall (Prof), DSI/NRF South African Research Chair (SARChI): Land and Agrarian Studies, University of the Western Cape
Scott Drimie(Dr), Department of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University
Stephen Greenberg (Dr)
Steven Robins (Prof), Department of Sociology and Social Anthropology, Stellenbosch University
Stha Yeni
Sybil Nandi Msezane
For more information, contact:
NaseeghJaffernaseegh@masifundise.org.za082 577 0622
Mercia Andrewsmercia@tcoe.org.za082 368 3429
Stephen Greenberggreenbergs08@gmail.com083988 2983
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[1]Gilad Isaacs 2020 “South Africa is bent on austerity: there’s a strong case that it should change tack.”
(https://theconversation.com/south-africa-is-bent-on-austerity-theres-a-strong-case-that-it-should-change-tack-
135977accessed 29/06/20).