Smallholder Farmer Innovation Programme Progress 2018-2019

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Grain-SA Smallholder Farmer Innovation Programme
Kruger E, Ngcobo P, Dlamini M, Mathebula T, Madondo T and Smith H.
Interns: Mthethwa K, Mkhize S, Zondi N, Madlala S, Mdletshe N, MagenukaL, Buthelezi L, Mvelase S and Gwala Z.
Farmer-centred
Innovation
System
Awareness raising and
Access to Information
Incentives and
Market Based
Mechanisms
On-farm,
farmer-led
Research
Education
and Training
Farmers days,
symposiums, cross
visits, conferences,
popular articles
Subsidies, Village
Saving and Loan
Associations, farmer
centres, group based
access to equipment
and infrastructure
Farmer experimentation;
intercropping, crop
rotation, cover crops,
livestock integration.
Learning groups;
practical
demonstrations,
workshops, field
assessments
Stakeholder interaction,
partnerships, horizontal
and vertical scaling
The CA-SFIP;Programme strategy
The only CA research process in SA focussing on smallholders and the
only one that is showing success in adoption.
Academic, government, municipal recognition now starting (Land Care
(Best CSO implementation limited financial support, conferences
(2ACCA, LaRSA, LandCare, No Till club, other stakeholders ( DARD, DSBD,
District and Local municipal farmer and LED forums and structures, DEA)
100% in line with the new CA policy (this model influenced the policy
development process)
oBuilding momentum in scaling out and up (more areas, small and larger
farmers)
oAchieving self sustainingfood security status - over time local value
chains. Increased farming and diversification in an area where less and less
farming is happening.
o550 smallholders implementing CA and 3 000 smallholder farmers involved
through learning groups and CA
oImpact on soil health and productivity now obvious including increasing
yields (5 t/ha). Equivalent and even better than yields and soil health in the
commercial CA sector
oIncreased capacity: 4 post graduate studies in process (2PhDs’ - UKZN, 2
Masters- UWC, UP). One (agric economics Fort Hare University and one
Honours in CA completed)
oOrganisational capacity- 5 dedicated field staff, numerous interns
The CA-SFIP;Position and outcomes
Longer term research
capacity development
is crucial for building
on this ground
breaking work
Bergville, 286
Midlands, 82
Southern KZN and
Eastern Cape, 80
CA study areas
75%_of participants are female.
-increase in no of male
participants over time
Average hh size is 5-8
Ages range from 30 to>78 years.
33% are <50years, 20%
pensioners (>65year)
Income sources are social grants
(72%), employment (11%) and
farming (66%)
Overall incomes per household
are extremely low R1 580
/hh/month. A reduction from
last year; R1875/hh/month and
the previous year;
2450/hh/month
Name of village
Name and Surname
Age
Yrs CA
HH no
Children no
Employ status
Grants
Other farming
1ThamelaConstance hlongwane49 331UnemployedYR410Livestock
2EzibomviniPhumeleleHlongwane38 675UnemployedYR1 200Livestock;Gardening
3NdunwaneBoniweHlatshwayo38 476UnemployedNLivestock
4EzibomviniDladla Nombono54 351FarmingYR940Gardening ;Fruitproduction
5EzibomviniMantombiMabizela46 375UnemployedYR400Livestock
6EmafefetheniDudeNdlovu63 163FarmingYR2 010Livestock;Gardening ;Fruitproduction
7EmafefetheniThomHlongwane53 174FarmingYR800Livestock
8EmazimbeniZandile Zimba50 210 4FarmingYR1 600Livestock;Fruitproduction
9EmazimbeniZweni Ndaba53 373FarmingYR1 900Livestock
10 EmazimbeniBangeni Ndaba 62 36FarmingYR1 600
11 QeleniNomavila Ndaba71 653FarmingYR2 500Livestock;Gardening ;Fruitproduction
12 QeleniTombi Zikode63 61613 FarmingYR4600Livestock
13 QeleniKhishiweCebekhulu71 612 5FarmingYR2 500Livestock
14 QeleniThembelephi Ngubane36 564FarmingYR1 200Gardening;Fruitproduction
15 NgobaThembelani Hlongwane58 311 5FarmingNLivestock;Fruitproduction
16 NdunwaneLethiwe Zimba30 462FarmingYR800Livestock;Fruitproduction
17 QeleniThulile Zikode70 672FarmingYR1 700Livestock;Gardening ;Fruitproduction
18 EmabunziniValindaba Khumalo59 314 6FarmingYR800Livestock;Fruitproduction
19 EmabunziniFlorence Ndaba78 311 7FarmingYR1 700Livestock;Fruitproduction
20 EmabunziniGail Hlongwane67 310 3FarmingYR1 600Livestock
21 VimbukhaloBukisile Mpulo64 463UnemployedYR1 900Livestock
22 VimbukhaloBuyisile Ndaba48 473UnemployedYR800Livestock
23 VimbukhaloSolobhu Mkhwanazi63 382UnemployedYR3 000Livestock
24 EmangweniNkanyiso Hadebe35 312 4UnemployedYR800Livestock
55 484 Unemployed33% R1 580Livestock83%
Farming 66% Gardening 25%
Fruit 42%
Socio-economic situation Bergville (N=24 across 11 villages)
Increased poverty
and increased
vulnerability to
climate change
YEAR 1:
Predefined with the research team:
Close spacing; intercropping, M,B,CP; micro placement of fertilizer, liming, preplant spray of herbicide..
Choice of planting method; hand hoes, hand planters, animal drawn planters, tractor drawn two row planters
YEAR 2:
Choices and options within the same overall design:
Different varieties maize (white yellow, OPV, hybrid)
Different varieties and types of legumes
Early planting
Manure and fertilizer combinations
Targeted fertility regimes and pest control measures
YEAR 3+:
Own design of experiments by participants :
Intercropping vs crop rotation options
Summer and winter cover crops
Mulching
Organic options
Different herbicide and pesticide spray regimes
Different planting times
Farmer Level Experimentation
Crop growth monitoring
Above Left: Phumelele Hlongwane’s crop growth in mid January 2017 compared to Right trial growth in mid January
2019. The extreme heat and drought at the beginning of the season has reduced her crop growth considerably
Crop growth monitoring; Bergville (24 participants, 11 villages) E Survey forms
DESCRIPTIONOF TRIAL AND CONTROL PLOTS
Name and Surname
CAtrial size
Planter
Yrs CA
% Residue cover
Crop CA trial
Name
CAplot1
CAplot2
CAplot3
CAplot4
CAplot5
CAplot6
CAplot7
CAplot8
CAplot9
CAplot10
Control
CA% germination
CA% canpoy cover
CAgrowth
Constance hlongwane1000 Handhoe;MBLI31Maize ;Beans;Cowpeas;CovercropsPAN6479;GadraM+BM+BM+CM+CSCCMLL MB MM50 0 moderate
PhumeleleHlongwane1000 Handhoe;MBLI;Haraka625 Maize ;Beans;Cowpeas;CovercropsSunn hemp;Sunflower;MilletMSCCMBMM+BBM+BMLL M70 5 moderate
BoniweHlatshwayo400 Handhoe;MBLI41Maize ;BeansPAN53;GadraM+BM+CM+BM+CM4038 poor
Nombono Dladla1000 Handhoe;MBLI;Haraka325 Maize ;Beans;Cowpeas;CovercropsPAN6479MM+LLMBMSCCM+BM+BM+CWCCM00poor
MantombiMabizela400 Handhoe;MBLI30Maize ;Beans;CowpeasPAN6479MM+BMM+CM60 1 moderate
DuduNdlovu400 Handhoe15Maize PAN53;GadraM+BM+BM+LLM+LLM10025 good
Thom Hlongwane400 Handhoe10Maize ;BeansPAN53;GadraM+BM+BM+LLM+LLM100 0poor
ZandileZimba400 Handhoe22,5Maize PAN53;Gadra;Dolichos(Lab-Lab)M+BM+CM+BM+LL9015 moderate
Zweni Ndaba1000 Handhoe325 Maize ;Beans;Cowpeas;CovercropsPAN53;GadraM+CM+CM+BM+CLL MMBSCC MM7510 poor
Bangeni Ndaba 1000 Handhoe;MBLI35Maize ;Beans;Cowpeas;CovercropsPAN53;GadraM+BM+CM+BM+CLL MBMSCC MM9060 poor
Nomavila Ndaba1000 Handhoe;MBLI620 Maize ;Beans ;CovercropsGadraBMMMBMMMMSCCM9010 moderate
Tombi Zikode800 Handhoe620 Maize ;Beans;CovercropsPAN53;GadraM+BM+CMM+BMM60 0poor
KhishiweCebekhulu400 Handhoe610 Maize ;Beans;CovercropsPAN53MM+BMM8025 moderate
Thembelephi Ngubane500 Handhoe520 Maize ;BeansMBMMM7030 moderate
Thembelani Hlongwane1000 Hand hoe320 Maize ;Beans ;CovercropsGadraBMM+BSCCM9010 moderate
Lethiwe Zimba1000 Handhoe430 Maize ;Beans;Cowpeas;CovercropsPAN53;GadraM+BM+BM+CMSCCM+BM+BM+CLL M M;B;SCC;LL3080 poor
Thulile Zikode1000 Handhoe65Maize ;Beans;Cowpeas;CovercropsPAN6479;GadraM+BM+BMM+BLL MMSCCBM+B M9030 good
Valindaba Khumalo1000 Handhoe32Maize ;Beans;CowpeasPAN53M+LLBMM+CLL MMM+BMMM(PAN53)90 0poor
Florence Ndaba1000 Handhoe32Maize ;Beans;CowpeasPAN53MBM+BMMM+CMMM;B9540 moderate
Gail Hlongwane400 Handhoe32Maize PAN53MMMM9020 poor
Bukisile Mpulo1000 Handhoe;MBLI42Maize ;Beans;Cowpeas;CovercropsPAN6479;GadraM+BMM+CMSCCMBLL M+BM+CM00 moderate
Buyisile Ndaba1000 Handhoe;MBLI42Maize ;Beans;Cowpeas;CovercropsPAN6479MBBMLL MMSCCM+C M+BM5550 poor
Solobhu Mkhwanazi1000 Handhoe;MBLI32Maize ;Beans;Cowpeas;CovercropsPAN6479;GadraM+BM+CMMLL SCCM+CM+BMMM00 poor
Nkanyiso Hadebe400 Hand hoe32Maize ;BeansPAN53MMBBM5540 moderate
49,5265,42 20,4
Bergville (61): Summer CC mix: sunflower, Sunhemp, babala (millet), vetch, forage
sorghum and turnips. WCC mix (saia oats, fodder radish fodder rye)
SKZN&EC and Midlands: SCC mix
Cover Crops
Khulekani Dladla, Stulwane-
Sorghum
Ntombakhe Zikode, Eqeleni- Sunhemp forage sorghum
and WCC
Phumelele Hlongwane,
Ezibomvini- millet
Stulwane(10) and Eqeleni (1); Teff, Lucerne, clover (red and white), Lab-lab,
cowpeas, turnips
Germination and growth for only 3 participants; Teff and turnips
In season grazing and baling of dried fodder
Bergville KZN: Fodder production experimentation
Mtholeni Buthelezi, StulwaneNtombakhe Zikode, Eqeleni
Learning workshop with
Brigid Letty (INR)
supplementation, nutrition,
and condition scoring
2 Manual balers; for veld
grass, lab-lab, cowpea, Teff
and maize stover
15 participants, across 3
villages
Bergville KZN: Fodder supplementation experimentation
Village
Name and surname
Bales
Supplements
Feedingregime
Ezibomvini
Phumelele
Hlongwane
32
veld grass
LS33
(12l), premix 450
(2x50kg)
2 cows
1x/day (1 September)
Stulwane
Mtholeni
Buthelezi/
Dlamini
40
veld grass
LS33 (8,8l), premix (50kg)
4(16) cows
every 2nd day
(12 August)
Thulani Dlamini
9
- lab-lab
3
- grass, maize stalks, cowpea
LS33 (4,8l)
5 (17)
every 2nd day
(1 September)
Dlezakhe Hlongwane
10
-veld grass, lablab, cowpeas,
maize stalks
LS 33 (4l), premix 450 (50kg)
4 (19)
-every 2nd day
(1 September)
Eqeleni
Ntombakhe Zikode
6
-veld grass
2
-teff
LS 33 (4l), premix 450 (50kg)
1 (4)
-every 2nd day
(1 September)
Six farmer centres (Emabunzini, Nudnwana,
Stulwane, Eqeleni, Thamela, Ezibomvini)
5 new
Presently 4 active; Due to difficult weather
conditions many farmers didn’t plant
Including sale of 200l storage drums for maize
Bergville KZN: Farmer centres
Village
Initial loan
Items
sold
Total
Profit
Stulwane
R
1821
Premix
450, protein blocks,
Quick
phos
tablets. Salt, britelite
soap,
Bulala
Zonke
R
6237,50
R
1247,50
Eqeleni
R
1553
Protein
block, premix 450
R
1523,75
R
304,75
Thamela
R
2800
Urea,
MAP, LAN, Roundup,
paraffin,
soap,
snuff, eggs
R
3839,20
R
778,64
Ezibomvini
-
Seed
PAN 6671, Pan413, PAN
53,
Quickphos
, Fert 2:3:2 (22),
MAP
Fert
(33), Bulala Zonke, Blue
death,
seedlings,
premix 450,
protein
blocks
R
21 490,
92
R
4958,40
The model is for learning
groups to decide how and
when to start the farmer
centres. They can be
individualor group
enterprises
Village savings and loan associations; Bergville 2018/19
NO
Village
GROUP NAME
YRS
NO. OF
MEMB
ERS
NEW
SHARE
VALUE
TOTAL
AMOUNT
SHARED
OUT
MAX
AMOUNT
/MEMBE
R
MIN
AMOUNT/
MEMBER
AVERAGE
AMOUNT/M
EMBER
USES
1
Vimbukhal
o
Ukhamba
2
20
R130.00
R75,000
R8,000
R0.00
R1,300
Inputs, school fees, cutlery, blankets,
renovations, furniture
2
Eqeleni
Masithuthuke
6
23
R130.00
R80,000
R7,800
R1,560
R3,680
Christmas and school clothes, new TV, tiles,
renovations
3
Eqeleni
Masibambane
5
25
R136.00
R79,698
R8,000
R700
R4,000
Fertiliser, LAN, Maize seed, lounge suite,
floor tiles
4
Stulwane
uMntwana
7
36
R130.00
R140,000
R7,500
R1,200
R3,200
Inputs, furniture, other household needs
5
Stulwane
Mbalenhle
2
20
R149.00
R108,000
R9,000
R1,600
R5,000
Electricity installation, furniture, serviced
debts, business stock, groceries
6
Ngoba
Sakhokuhle
3
23
R145.00
R105,000
R8,000
R3,500
R3,500
smart phones, clothing, fertiliser, seed,
wardrobe, building material, fencing
7
Ngoba
Isibonelo
3
30
R152.00
R100,000
R9,000
R1,200
R4,000
Wedding celebration, furniture, livestock,
groceries, investments
8
Bethany
Gudlintaba
3
20
R161.00
R86,070
R9,600
R1,400
R4,500
New stock for meat business (tripe), eggs to
sell, poultry, medical bills, College fees
9
Vimbukhal
o
Inyonyana
3
20
R130.00
R41,210
R3,770
R780
R1,950
Furniture, groceries, school fees
10
Ezibomvini
Ukuzama
3
21
R125.00
R23,375
R3,375
R2,000
R2,000
Inputs, household needs
11
Ndunwana
Mphelandaa
3
20
R149.00
R41,610
R3,576
R700
R2,200
Christmas and school clothes, renovations
TOTAL
258
R879,963
Participatory Monitoring & Evaluation
Social indicators:
No of learning groups, VSLAs, farmer experiments,
involvement in open days, forums, cooperatives etc,
learning, knowledge, changes
Economic indicators:
Food security, livelihoods diversification, incomes, cost
of input supplies, cost-benefit analyses(qualitative)
Production indicators:
Yields, germination, growth, fertilizer and agrochemical
use, weed and pest incidence, crop diversification, soil
fertility
Environmental indicators:
Soil health indicators, organic matter, % carbon and
nitrogen, water holding capacity and water balances,
run-off
Social, economic, environmental, production
Farmer involvement: Contracts and baselines, production monitoring
forms, yield measurements, focus groups- review, learning, planning,
open days, reports
Social agency
2013 2018
Value chain
2013 2018
Productivity
2013
2018
No of female farmers
89% 75%
Saving for inputs
0% 28%
Intercropping
maize
and beans
0% 92%
No of participants involved
51 533
Reduced labour in CA plots
0% 78%
Intercropping maize and
other legumes
0% 17%
Learning groups (No)
531
Reduced weeding in CA
plots
0% 39%
Crop rotation
0% 20%
Months of food provisioning:
10
-12
7
-9
4
-6
1
-3 100%
15%
38%
39%
8%
Use of planters:
Hand hoes
Hand planters
Animal drawn planters
Tractor drawn planters
97%
3%
26%
69%
5%
0,5%
Covercrops; summer mix
sunflower, millet,
sunhemp
, sorghum
0% 26%
VSLAs (Village Saving and Loan
Associations)
- % of
participants involved
0% 79%
Local financing of
infrastructure
Threshers
Mills
0
1
1
Covercrops; winter mix
relay cropping
Saia
oats, fodder rye, fodder
radish
0% 31%
Sale of crops locally (maize,
beans, cowpeas, sunflowers)
0% 10%
Farmer centres
04
Fodder: provisioning of
livestock through cut and
carry
0% 5%
Innovation platforms; including
external stakeholders
03
Ave maize yield (t/ha)
3,7 5,7
Seed saving
0% 11%
Innovation systems indicators; KZN 2013-2018
All these participants are:
Implementing all three
principles of CA,
Involved in intercropping
Improving yields
Including CA into their
overall farming practices.
Saving money and
increasing food security
considerably
Involved in local VSLAs
(Village savings and loan
associations)
Using traditional seed
varieties alongside the
more modern OPVs,
hybrids and GM varieties
promoted.
Trends for 5th year participants
Sustainability
has been
achieved
73% have
increased
their field
sizes
2-3,5t/ha
Carbon
sequestered in
CA plots
On average rainfall
gauges and weather
station data are
similar, despite high
variability recorded
between villages
Evapotranspiration
measured for the
season far exceeds
the rainfall
Although overall
rainfall higher this
season than in
2017/18, due to
timing and high ET,
growth and yields
were reduced by
around 40%
Rainfall and Evapotranspiration
Rainfall (mm/month) 2018
-2019 summer rainfall season; Bergville villages
Village
Weather station
(Ezibomvini)
Month
Stulwane
Ndunwana
Ezibomvini
Eqeleni
Emhlwazini
Thamela
Average
Rain (mm/
month)
ETc (mm/
day)
Sep
-18
5
71
15
30,3
5,8
154,36
Oct
-18
19,5
28
6
17,8
24,6
117,47
Nov
-18
106
68,1
180
74,8
47,7
95,3
50,4
148,16
Dec
-18
64
22
61
64
76,5
52
56,6
80
152,34
Jan
-19
57
321
27,5
258,5
290,4
97
175,2
70,6
142,01
Feb
-19
135
253
218,7
254
171,8
356
231,4
139,8
108
Mar
-19
177,5
73
214
205,5
63,2
66
133,2
212,4
100
Apr
-19
136,5
63
89
67
53
81,7
149,9
100
May
-
19
0
0
0
0
0
0
0,0
11
84,92
TOTALS
594,5
937
699,3
1029
676,7
671,7
768,0
744,5
1107,26
Runoff this season was
lower than 2017/18
But proportionally runoff
in the CA plots were
higher- so more similar to
the conventional plots
than before - more
exposed soil!
Runoff and waterinfiltration
Stulwane
Ndunwana
Ezibomvini
Eqeleni
Runoff CA
Trial(ml)
Runoff
Control (ml)
Runoff CA
Trial(ml)
Runoff
Control (ml)
Runoff CA
Trial(ml)
Runoff
Control (ml)
Runoff CA
Trial(ml)
Runoff
Control (ml)
Dec-
18
3 343
2 600
11
14
35,2
39,5
5 800
5750
Jan-
19
5 900
2 250
305
348
30,8
31,0
10 000
12750
Feb-
19
3 266
6 275
471
609
66,0
74,5
12710
13 250
Mar-
19
2 423
1 615
69
117
24,1
27,5
9 800
9 000
Apr -
19
4 836
5 875
41
29
2,7
2,3
4 000
4 000
Average
Nov
-
Apr
3 954
3 723
179,4
223,4
494,5
573,6
8 500
8950
CA yields: Trial summaries over 6 seasons; Bergville, SKZN and EC
Trial summaries
Midlands
Bergville
EC, SKZN
Season
2017 2018
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017 2018
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2018
No of villages
493 911 171819 410 88 13
13
No of trial
participants
42 70 288373212 259207 23 16435493
75
Area planted
(trials)
-ha 1,36 3,1 2,87,25,913,5 17,415,2 0,360,30,371,18 3,58
4
Average yield
maize (t/ha)
2,04 1,43
3,74
3,63 4,12 5,035,73,4 0,950,71,372,52 2,17
2,6
Min and max
yield maize
(t/ha)
0,4
-
7,1
0,3
-
4,6
2
-
4,3
1
-
6,7
0,6
-
7,4
0,3-
11,7
0,5
-
12,2
0,1
-
8,5
0,3
-
1,7
0,3
-
1,8
0,5
-
4,4
1,1
-
5,2
0,2
-
6,7
0,2
-
6,9
Average trial
quantity of
maize (kg)
87 65 233 576654487206113 15 64
125kg
161 66
97
Rand
replacement
value
(maizemeal)
R992
R572
R1 600
R4 500
R5 500
R4 900
R2 350
R994
R103
R500
R1 000
R1 700
R752
R854
Average yield
beans (t/ha)
0,62 0,87
1,24
0,26 0,79 1,051,220,56 1,26
0,34
0,691,28 0,35
0,6
Seasonal effects
~40% reduction in yield
for maize
~80% of total yield loss
in beans; and 55%
reduction in yield to the
remaining participants
Lab-Lab, cowpeas and
SCC grew better than
the maize and beans
Sharp increase in maize
cob rots
Three 5th year participants from Ezibomvini and Stulwane respectively
% OM is highest for SCC plots, followed by M+CP and then M+B
Carbon sequestration in these CA mixed crop plots is between 0,75-1,5t/ha
more than the single crop plots
Overall carbon sequestration is on average around 2-3t/ha for CA plots
Soil health example: Bergville (5th year)
Cont
M+B LablabM+BM+CP MaizeSCCVeldBeans
only M+BM+CPSCCVeld CA Cont
M
Ezibomvini Stulwane
Total 2.9 3.2 3.6 4.5 3.6 5.3 5.8 5.6 4.9 6.0 6.1 7.5 5.0
0.0
2.0
4.0
6.0
8.0
%OM
%OrganicMatter;Bergville2018
Intercropping and use of
cover crops is very
important for building soil
fertility and soil health
Crop rotation aids in
stabilising high soil health
scores over time
The more crops you use
and rotate the better
Having legumes in the mix
speeds up the process
Soil Health Summary
Crop diversity is
crucial
Crop rotation in
combination with crop
diversity supports this
process
Lab-Lab and SCC
provide for very high
organic C and N
values
Lower C:N ratios are
found in crop mixes
that contain legumes
cowpeas, Lab-Lab
Continued focus on longer term research questions
Fodder production and livestock integration (in association with DAFF)
Mycotoxin research in smallholder systems (in association with the ARC)
Carbon footprints and sequestration
Productivity
Scaling for commercialisation
Input supply partnerships
Storage and marketing options appropriate for smallholders
Develop a model for broader implementation and expansion; financial
incentives, collaborative project development with potential partners
Build in a feasible exit strategy for farmers involved for >4years
Expand into new areas
Larger professional capacity development focus
Way Forward