SFIP Progress Presentation

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SFIP: PROGRESS TO DATE
Optimising the system for non commercial and semi-commercial
smallholders
2015
Trial summaries -2 seasons; Matatiele and Bergville
Bergville
Matatiele
2014
2015
2014
2105
No of villages
3
9
4
10
No of trial participants
28
83
23 (61)
16 (63)
Area planted (trials)
13,1ha
42,6 ha
0,36ha
0,3ha
Average yield maize
3,74 t/ha
3,63 t/ha
0,95t/ha
0,7 t/ha
Min and max yield maize
2-
4,3 t/ha
1-
6,7 t/ha
0,25-
1,65 t/ha
0,34-
1,84 t/ha
Actual amount of maize pp
233kg
576kg
15kg
64kg
Rand replacement value
R 1 600,00
R 4 492,80
R102,75
R
499,20
Average yield beans
1,24t/ha
0,26t/ha
1,26t/ha
0,34t/ha
Trial summariesover 2 seasons; Matatieleand
Bergville
Maize and bean yields somewhat lower in 2nd season-due to
adverse weather conditions
CA trial plot yields consistently higher than control plot yields
1,24
0.26
2.25
2,06
3,74
3,63
1,14
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
Year 1
Year 2
Average yields for maize and beans in Bergville; 2013-
2015
Average of (Cowpea (1-1.2 t /ha), - Trial
plot
Average of Maize (4-10t/ha) - Trial plot
Average of Maize (4-10t/ha) - Control
Average of Yields: (Beans 1-2.5 t /ha), -
Trial plot
Yields comparison over 2 seasons in Bergville
Continue with horizontal expansion into villages around
Bergville area.
Training for local facilitators to support groups and increase
number of farmer volunteers
Give attention to mechanization issues for larger farmers
Start to implement the PES system
Farmer centres for inputs, tools and advice
Recommendations
WHAT IS THE SMALLHOLDER
SYSTEM?
Appropriate agricultural practices (technology and innovation)
Land preparation, planting, crop protection, rotations and crop systems
Scale of farming operation
• Farmers’Organisation
Services
Monitoring and Evaluation
APPROPRIATE PRACTICES
Technology and innovation:
Land preparation
Planting and crop systems
Crop protection
Land preparation, planting and crop systems
Pre-spray with post emergent
and contact herbicides (Round
Up and Gramoxone)
Close spacing of tramlines
50x50 maize
25x10 beans
One weeding is enough before
canopy cover is reached. Must
be early weeding: 2-3 weeks.
Cover is reached from 4-5
weeks onwards.
Intercroppingand close spacing
PAN 6479 Dolichosintercrop
Even stand of maize, earlymaturing and thus tasselingalreadyend January
Dolichosprovides great cover and does not compete as may have been expected.
Planted using hand hoesMrs SimephiNkosi-Emmaus Jan
2015
PAN 53 intercrop with PAN 148 or Ukulinga
PAN 53 medium season well adapted to Bergville conditions
PAN 148: good cover less dense -
Ukulinga: A bit more rust more semi determinate more volume
Mrs SimephiNkosi-Emmaus Jan 2015
PAN 6479 and Cowpea intercrop
As last year cowpeas
show visible positive
effect on size and
colour of maize in the
intercrop
Very few farmer
participants opted to
grow cowpeas again as
they do not eat it. A few
people like the
cowpeas and know it
as fast cooking and
good for making soup.
Border King (OPV) with Ukulinga
Border King more variable in stand and longer season than
the hybrids used, but yields about the same under difficult
weather conditions.
Mrs KeshiweCebekhuluEmmaus Jan 2015 Left: PAN53 Right :Border King
Border King (OPV) with Ukulinga
Also small incidence of leaf diseases not noted in hybrids
Gray leafspot(Cercosporazeaemaydis) and Eyespot
(Kabariellazeae) noticed
GM Maize
GM Round Up ready seed planted -50 m away
from other plantings and in an area of dense
planting of maize 500m-1km separation distance
not adhered to. Pollen likely to interfere with
traditional and more local varieties of seed kept
Spray Round up before planting and around 6-
8weeks after planting
Spacing 50cmx1m single crop.
Soil is not covered. Further weeding and
spraying of herbicide is required but facilitated
through Round Up ready seed.
Mrs SimephiNkosi-Emmaus Jan 2015
Crop protection
CMR beetles very common also finding hosts in the grasses
close by. Spraying with DecisForte helps
Stalk borer load much more severe this season; Especially in
early planted maize Stalk borer granules used as DecisForte
had little lasting effect
SCALE OF FARMING OPERATION
Non commercialsmallholders, semi commercial smallholders and
commercial smallholders in loose value chains
Issues of scale
Appropriate interventions
Scale of farming operation
Non commercial
smallholders
Semi commercial smallholders
Commercial smallholders in
loose value chains
people
72
23
5
For household
Minimal inputs bought
For household and some selling which
supplements household income.
Minimal inputs bought
Consumption and sale in various
percentage mixes but moving to more
sales.
More inputs bought
Hand cultivation
Hand cultivation, animal traction
Animal traction, tractors
> 0.1ha
0.1
-1ha.
1
-2.5ha
access
Inter cropping, micro
-
dosing with
fertilizers, herbicides, pesticides,
cover crop rotations
Inter cropping, micro
-dosing with
fertilizers, herbicides, pesticides, cover
crop rotations
Inter cropping, micro
-dosing with
fertilizers, herbicides, pesticides, cover
crop rotations
Hand planters,
Learning groups, working groups
Hand planters animal drawn
planters
Learning groups, working groups
Animal drawn planters, two row
planters
Learning groups, working groups
SCGs,
CIGs
-
SCGs, CIGs
Bulk
buying
SCGs, CIGs, formal loans and bank
accounts (group and individual
Bulk
buying
Issues of scale
A plot of >1.5ha planted using hand hoes: late plantingof maize (Sahara) and bean
(PAN 148) mono-cropafter spraying withRoundup. Mid December
The women have battled to keep up with weeding and further herbicide may nowbe
required. (around R545)
Issues of scale; Appropriate interventions
FARMERS’ ORGANISATION
Learning and working together
Savings and Credit groups
Commodity interest groups and Bulk buying
Learning and working together
Learning workshops; practical and theoretical based on farmer Field
School approach
Value chain orientation: Meetings to discuss issues of cooperation
and joint concern Commodity interest groups Bulk Buying
Working groups; to ease labour, increase sizes of areas under
cultivation, share experiences
Saving and Credit Groups
Through SaveActTrust
Voluntary membership, buy shares every month,
small interest bearing loans from group to
individuals, yearly share out of lump sum
Amount of
AE Loans
R300
R500
R700
R1 000
R1 500
R2 000
Total
CIG Member
R300
R3 000
R1 500
R4 800
Non
-
Member
R500
R700
R2 000
R3 200
Total
R300
R500
R700
R3 000
R1 500
R2 000
R8 000
Total Agricultural Enterprise Loans in
Previous Cycle
2013
R8 000
Total of Loans in Previous Cycle
-
2013
R51 850
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
# of People
CIG Member
Non-Member
Figure : Amount of Share out spent on
agricultural enterprises
Commodity interest groups and bulk buying
Formed by participants in SCGs interested in
specific commodities to explore and work with
issues in the value chain
Not improved
52%
Income
improved
15%
Inputs
cheaper
7%
Inputs easier
to access
2%
No business
18%
No sales
3%
No longer
sell on credit
3%
Business improvement since
involvement in CIGS,Bergville
MaizeBulk buying 2013-2014 (N=14)
Amount in Rands No of people
R1-R200 3
R201-R500 3
R501-R1000 1
R1001-R2000 5
R2001-R3000 1
R4001-R5000 1
SERVICES
Input supply systems
Land preparation; ploughing
Storage and marketing
Input supply systems
Buy from local farmers
supply cooperatives in
Bergville and Winterton.
Issues of timing;
smallholders not
prioritised
Issues of transport;
delivery into smallholder
areas not that common
Accounts; for
smallholders not yet
available
Needs negotiation and
setting up of systems that
are win-win for both
parties
Land preparation; ploughing
Ploughing services provided by KZNDAE and
local contractors.
Issues of timing; For KZNDAE long waiting lists
not necessarily guaranteed
Issues of cost; Local contractors tend to charge a
lot and are inflexible-do not do CA
Needs negotiation and setting up of systems that
accommodate smallholders
-Group ownership
-New models for contract ploughing
-Dedicated process by KZNDAE?
Storage and marketing
Local storage not well
developed
Household level:
Group storage options
At milling operations in
Bergville
MONITORING AND EVALUATION
CA indicators and scoring
VSA-Visual Soil Assessment
PES-Payment for Ecosystem services
Local monitoring of visual indicators
Indicators have been
chosen that can be
monitored visually and
throughout the growth
season of the crop. The
intention is twofold:
To assess different
indicators for their reliability
,robustness, sensitivity to
change in management
practices and
To design a system that can
be locally implemented by
facilitators and farmer.
% soil cover at planting(From 0% -no
cover to 100% full cover); Cover of the
soil looking from above-can be crop
residue, weeds, mulch, grass etc)
% crop canopy cover at 6-8 weeks
(From 0% -no cover to 100% full cover);
Cover of the soil looking from above-
crop cover/ canopy) a new indicator
% Weed infestation(0%-very high
weed incidence, complete yieldloss; to
100%-no weeds zero yieldloss)
% Pest occurrence(0%-veryhigh
infestation , complete yieldloss, to
100%-no insect pests and zero yield
loss)
% growth; (germination, colour, height,
health)
% growth of cover crop (from 0% not
planted or not germinated to 100% full
germination and excellent growth) A
new indicator that has beenincluded
this year, but not yet added to the overall
score for each participant
Values
Row Labels
Runoff
Average of
Cover
crops
Average of
%Cover
(at
planting)
Average of %
Weeds (0%)
high weed
infestation
to (100%) no
weeds,
Average
of % pests
(0%) bad-
(100%)
Average of %
growth
(germination,
colour,
height,
health)
Average of
Overall
score (10)
Lelatso Thuso
1
70%
10%
75%
85%
30%
5
Bulelwa Dzingwa
1
10%
15%
75%
85%
65%
6
Mahutlong Dodo
0
1%
10%
65%
90%
70%
5,9
Majaokbo Sabasaba
0
0%
8%
15%
90%
20%
3,3
Mamolelekeng Lebuoea
1
100%
10%
90%
80%
80%
6,5
Manapo Moshoeshoe
1
1%
5%
55%
80%
60%
5
Manyalleng Sikhosana
1
70%
10%
70%
85%
70%
5,9
Matshepo Futhu
1
60%
10%
55%
85%
65%
5,4
Mohajane Kanetsi
0
1%
10%
15%
80%
75%
4,5
Mongezi Bhekaphezulu
2
0%
8%
40%
80%
55%
4,6
Nkosiyamankwali
Maqungo
0
0%
5%
25%
80%
40%
4
Nokuphiwa Phekula
1
0%
5%
10%
90%
35%
3,5
Nthabiseng Moshoeshoe
1
0%
10%
35%
80%
65%
4,8
Siyabonga Maqungo
0
0%
5%
10%
80%
10%
2,6
Thabiso Dihollo
0
0%
13%
45%
78%
75%
5
Tsolonae Mapheele
2
55%
15%
63%
85%
58%
5,5
Grand Total
12
21%
10%
45%
83%
54%
4,8
CA Scores for Matatiele; 2015
Control plot scores are
lower on average than the
trial plots
Trial plot scores for the
2nd year are higher than for
the 1st year. This is
expected due to better
management of trials by
participant farmers as they
get used to the process and
are able to improve
0.00
1.00
2.00
3.00
4.00
5.00
6.00
7.00
8.00
9.00
CAscores for control and trial plots;
Stulwane 2 seasons
Control - Year 1
Control - Year 2
Trial plot - Year 1
Trial plot - Year 2
Acomparison of scores over 2 seasons for Stulwane;
Bergville
Visual indicator of SoilQualityVisual Score (VS)
0 =Poor conditions
1 =Moderate conditions
2 =Good conditions
Weighing VS Ranking
Soil Structure3
Soil porosity3
Soil colour2
Number and colour of soil mottles1
Earthworm counts2
Soil cover at planting 2
Crop cover at 6-8 weeks2
Soil depth2
Run-off 2
Ranking Score (sum of VS rankings) Max =38
VSA; Visual soil assessment
Crop emergence (% germination)3
Crop growth and height(%;
overall
growth and colour-
relative
height at time of assessment)
3
Weed infestation2
Crop yield3
Size and development of
root
system
2
Surfaceponding /water infiltration
2
Production costs
2
Ranking Score (sum of VS rankings) Max =22
CA monitoring
scores
VSA
Soil scores
VSA
plant scores
Yields
Above
average 7 >28 >15
3
-8.9 tons/ha
Average
5-6.9 11-28 7-15
1
-2.9tons/ha
Below
average 3-4.9<11 <7
1ton/ha
Combination of yields, CA scores and VSA
17
17
22
20
20
12
19
16
19
19
16
22
29
31
31
29
19
29
29
24
26
29
6.5
7.625
8.625
7.96
8.125
4.75
8.25
7.875
5.45
7.95
8.625
05 10 15 20 25 30 35
2,7
3,6
4,8
6,7
5,7
2,2
3,9
1
5,1
3
1,8
Year
2Year
2Year
2Year
2Year
2Year
2Year
2Year
2Year
2Year
2Year
2
Bang
eni
Dlami
ni
Cazil
e
Zimb
a
Cupil
e
Buthe
lezi
Dleza
khe
Hlong
wane
Khule
kani
Dladl
a
Landil
e
Nsele
Maket
hi
Dladl
a
Mthol
eni
Dlami
ni
Phas
azile
Sithe
be
Thulis
lie
Hlong
wane
Zama
ni
Dladl
a
Trial plot - Sum of Overall
score (10)
Trial plot - Sum of VSA Scores
soil
Trial plot - Sum of VSA scores
plant
THANK YOU