Midlands Annual Progress Report 2020

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APPENDIX(5:(KWAZULU-NATAL(MIDLANDS(
ANNUAL(REPORT(
CA#Farmer#Innovation#Programme#(CA-FIP)#for#
smallholders#in#KZN#Midlands.#
Period:#October#2019#-#September#2020#
!
Farmer!Centred!Innovation!in!Conservation!Agriculture!in!
Midlands!of!KwaZulu-Natal!
!
Compiled)by:)
Erna%Kruger,%Temakholo%Mathebula,%Nontokozo%Mdletshe%
and%Hendrik%Smith%
September%2020! !
2
Project(implemented(by:(
Mahlathini%Development%Foundation!
Promoting)collaborative,)pro-poor)agricultural)innovation.)
!
!
Contact:!!Erna!Kruger!(Founder!and!Coordinator)!
Address:!2!Forresters!Lane,!Pietermaritzburg,!3201,!KZN!
Email:!info@mahlathini.org!
Cell:!0828732289!
Time!of!operation:!2003-2019!
Legal!status:!NPC!
BEE!status:!!4.!–!Certificate!available.!
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!
!
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Funded!by:!
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Contents!
Contents..................................................................................................................................3
Executive summary.................................................................................................................4
Background and Organisational Information...........................................................................4
Key activities: October 2019 to September 2020....................................................................6
Budget.....................................................................................................................................7
Results achieved to date.........................................................................................................7
Overall process......................................................................................................................11
Year 1:............................................................................................................................11
Year 2:............................................................................................................................12
Year 3:............................................................................................................................12
Rainfall and runoff..................................................................................................................12
Soil health..............................................................................................................................14
Crop water productivity..........................................................................................................20
Progress per area of implementation.....................................................................................21
Demonstration CA trials: Gobizembe...................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
Cover Crop Demonstration...............................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
Demonstration CA trial: Ntabamhlophe................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
Demonstration CA trials: Mayizekanye................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
CA demonstration trials: Ozwathini......................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
Ozwathini Strip Cropping Demonstration...........................................................................38
Farmer Innovation Platforms................................................................................................. 38
References............................................................................................................................39
!
4
Executive!summary!
The! KZN! Midlands! programme! is! in! its!third! year! of! operation,! expanding! on! the! model! and!
process!piloted!in!the!Bergville!area.!Communities!targeted!were!increased!to!include!Impendle!
and!Tbamhlophe.!The!total!number!of!participants!in!learning!and!awareness!raising!events!were!
142!(Ozwathini! and! Ntabamhlope)!and! the! total! number! of! farmer! level! trials! implemented!
increased!from!85!in!2018-2019!to!204!in!2019-2020,!of!whom!164!managed!to!both!plant!and!
harvest!from!their!CA!trials.!
Recorded! yields! form! CA! trials! were! low,! despite! all! farmers! commenting! on! improved!
production!and!reasonable!rainfall!(despite!a!late!start).!!Average!Maize!yields!for!the!CA!trial!
plots! was! 1,35!t/ha! and! those! for! the! conventional! control! plots! was! 0,99!t/ha.! Bean! yields!
average!0,78!t/ha.!!
An!open!day!was!held!in!Ozwathini,!focused!on!cover!crops,!with!inclusion!of!local!and!regional!
stakeholders,!towards!the!end!of!September!2019.!The!strip!cropping!demonstration!trial!with!
perennial!fodder!species!was!held!in!Ozwathini,!in!association!with!KZNDARD!in!January!2020.!!
This!was!followed!by!a!fodder!supplementation!workshop!process,!hosted!by!Brigid!Letty!from!
the! INR! in! May! 2020.! The! annual! farmers’! days! could! not! be! hosted! due! to! the! COVID-19!
pandemic.!MDF!participated!in!a!national!webinar!hosted!by!the!Integra!Trust!to!disseminate!the!
results! of! our! work! more! widely,! as! well! as! a! Gender! integration! webinar! for! women! in! the!
informal!sector,!hosted!by!PLAAS!(UWC)!in!August!2020.!
Rainfall! and! run-off! records! were! kept! for! a! selected! number! of! participants! and! water!
productivity! calculations! were! done! for! 3! participants! from! Mayizekanye! (Swayimane).! The!
results!indicated!significantly!improved!grain!crop!water!productivity!for!CA!maize!and!legume!
intercropped! plots,! when! compared! to! maize! only! plots.! The! water! productivity! for! biomass!
production!was!significantly!higher!for!the!maize!and!cowpea!intercropped!plots,!and!the!maize!
and!bean!intercropped!plots!when!compared!to!maize!only!CA!plots.!
Soil! health! analysis! indicated! significantly! improved! soil! health! parameters! for! 3rd!year!
participants!in!both!Swayimane!and!Ozwathini.!
Background!and!Organisational!Information!
Mahlathini! Development! Foundation! (2003-2020)! is! one! of! the! only! NGOs! in! South! Africa!
focussing! on! promoting! collaborative! pro-poor! agricultural! innovation.! As! such! MDF! is! a!
specialist! NGO! working! in! the! fields! of! participatory! research,! training! and! implementation,!
focussing!on!agroecological!approaches.!!
Introduction!of!CA!into!any!farming!system!requires!the!creation!of!a!process!and!environment!
of!continuous!innovation,!learning!and!change!in!a!number!of!different!areas,!including!social,!
economic,!environmental!and!agronomic!considerations.!In!the!smallholder!context!it!requires!
the!design,!introduction!and!facilitation!of!a!reasonably!complex!IS!(innovation!system)!approach!
by! the! implementers,! and! of! practice,! labour! and! resources! (including! natural! and! financial!
resources)!by!the!farmer!that!has!system!wide!implications.!There!is!an!interplay!of!a!number!of!
different!factors,!all!of!which!need!to!be!integrated,!thus!requiring!a!well-designed!and!facilitated!
IS!approach.!
5
The!IS!model!applies!a!family!of!approaches!and!methodologies,!such!as!the!Farmer!Field!School!
(FFS)! approach! and! participatory! monitoring! &! evaluation! (PM&E),! to! facilitate! awareness,!
learning,!implementation!and!research!all!together.!The!key!voluntary!participants!of!this!process!
are! farmers! from! a! locality! or! village! who! should! be! organised! into! learning! groups! (farmers!
generally!are!already!organised!into!structures!such!as!savings!and!credit!groups,!associations!or!
cooperatives).! A! number! of! farmers! in! that! group! volunteer! to! undertake! on-farm!
experimentation,!which!creates!an!environment!where!the!whole!group!learns!throughout!the!
season!by!observations!and!reflections!of!the!trials’!implementation!and!results.!They!compare!
various! CA! treatments! with! their! standard! practices,! which! are! planted! as! control! plots.! This!
provides!an!opportunity!to!explore!all!aspects!of!the!cropping!system,!its!socio-economic!context!
and!feasibility,!as!well!as!the!grain!and!legume!value!chain!in!the!area.!!The!whole!value!chain!is!
considered:!input!supply,!production!aspects,!harvesting!and!storage,!processing!and!marketing!
Horizontal!expansion!(scaling!out)!from!village!nodes!to!surrounding!farmers!and!villages!in!the!
area,!working!with!organised!farmer!groups!(or!IPs)!in!collaboration!with!stakeholders!in!the!
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6
region!has!shown!great!promise!for!expansion!of!interest!in!and!longer!term!sustainability!of!the!
implementation!of!CA!practices!among!smallholders.!!It!means!that!a!number!of!villages!in!close!
proximity! become! involved! and! this! provides! an! opportunity! for! organising! farmers! around!
issues! in! the! value! chain! such! as! bulk! buying,! transport,! storage! and! marketing.! It! creates! an!
option!to!set!up!farmer!service!centres!at!central!nodes!that!can!provide!easy!access!to!inputs!and!
services.!The!model!also!provides!for!learning!over!a!period!of!time,!which!has!proven!essential!
to!allow!each!participant!farmer!to!experiment!with!and!master/adapt!the!CA!principles!for!at!
least! 4! years.! The! more! experienced! farmers! become! mentors! to! the! new! entrants! and! some!
undertake!the!role!of!local!facilitation!and!support!to!their!villages!and!groups.!It!also!provides!a!
platform!where!other!farmers!and!interested!parties!in!the!area!can!engage!and!become!involved!
The!adaptive!trials!are!also!used!as!a!focus!point!for!the!broader!community!to!engage!through!
local!learning!events!and!farmers’!days.!Stakeholders!and!the!broader!economic,!agricultural!and!
environmental!communities!are!drawn!into!these!processes!and!events.!Through!these!events!
!""#$%&'#"( )*%&+#,-.( /!).0!are! developed! for! cooperation,! synergy! between! programmes! and!
development! of! appropriate! and! farmer! led! processes! for! economic! inclusion.! These! IPs! also!
provide!a!good!opportunity!to!focus!scientific!and!academic!research!on!the!‘needs’!of!the!process.!
In!this!season!(2019-2020)!we!have!focused!on!the!following!elements!of!the!model,!namely:!!
a)Support!farmers!in!their!1st!to!3rd!seasons!of!implementation!
b)Intercropping!and!crop!rotation!
c)Planting!of!short!season!maize!varieties!
d)Summer!cover!crops;!sunflower,!Sun!hemp,!Babala,!Dolichos!beans!
e)Continuation!with!experimentation!with!winter!cover!crops,!including!new!species!
requested!by!farmers!(Lucerne,!clover,!turnips)!
f)Introduction!of!strip!cropping!with!perennial!fodder!species!as!an!implementation!
option!
g)Expansion!of!use!of!two-row!CA!planters!for!larger!fields!and!
h)Continued! support! for! VLSAs! (Village! savings! and! Loan!associations)! and! small!
business!development!training!for!these!participants!and!
!
Key!activities:!October!2019!to!September!2020!
204!Participants!across!5!areas!and!14!villages!undertook!the!CA!experimentation!process!this!
season.!Due!to!late!onset!of!summer!rains!only!164!of!these!participants!both!panted!and!obtained!
yields.!In!some!cases,!the!fields!were!planted!and!then!subsequently!neglected!due!to!continuing!
unpredictability!of!the!weather!and!thus!due!to!overgrowth!of!weeds!and!livestock!invasions!a!
number!of!participants!did!not!harvest!their!crops.!
This!season,!along!with!the!preferred!maize!varieties,!SC701!and!PAN6479,!three!short!season!
varieties!were!used!in!villages!where!late!planting!has!been!necessary!due!to!late!onset!of!rain!
and!variable!rainfall.!These!varieties!are!PAN3A-173!(ultra-early!white),!PAN!5A-291!(medium!
early-!white)!and!PAN!5A-190!(medium!early-!yellow).!
Two-row!planters!(tractor-drawn)!are!now!available!in!both!Swayimane!(shared!by!4!learning!
groups)!and!Ozwathini!(shared!by!one!large!learning!group).!Sessions!have!been!held!to!ensure!
7
the!correct!operation!and!maintenance!of!these!planters!and!the!extension!staff!from!KZNDARD!
have!been!brought!in!to!assist!in!this!regard.!
A!seasonal!thematic!focus!on!cover!crops!was!kick-started!in!Ozwathini!with!an!open!day!that!
involved!members!of!all!the!Midlands!learning!groups,!KZNDARD,!LandCare!and!AGT!Foods.!This!
aspect!is!crucial!for!soil!fertility!and!soil!health!improvement,!soil!erosion!control!on!the!steeper!
slopes!and!livestock!integration.!Interest!in!the!use!of!cover!crops!has!increased!dramatically!
within!the!learning!groups!in!the!Midlands,!due!to!early!positive!results!obtained!by!the!handful!
of! participants! who! have! tried! this! to! date.! The! strip! cropping! farmer! level! experimentation!
process!with!perennial!fodder!species!(such!as!Lespediza,!Bahia!grass!(Paspalum)and!Catstail!
grass!(Digiteria)),!is!part!of!this!focus.!In!addition,!three!further!workshops!were!held!in!the!area,!
focussing!on!crop-livestock!integration!aspects;!including!supplementation,!hay!making!disease!
management!and!calf!rearing!and!around!12!participants!undertook!experimentation!in!livestock!
supplementation.!
Participants!numbers!in!existing!learning!groups!in!Swayimane!and!Ozwathini!have!increased!
dramatically!in!this!season.!The!partnership!with!Lima!RDF!in!Ntabamhlophe!(Estcourt)!has!been!
continued! and! strengthened! through! direct! involvement! of! LandCare! in! this! area! and! a! new!
partnership!has!been!initiated!with!the!INR!(Institute!of!Natural!Resources)!in!Impendle!as!part!
of!an!initiative!to!pilot!soil!and!water!conservation!practices!in!the!catchment!
The! Cornfields! (Estcourt! area)! focus! has! continued,! despite! the! understanding! both! in! the!
community!and!by!the!facilitators!that!this!is!likely!a!very!marginal!area!for!maize!production-!
due!to!climatic!conditions!and!extremely!poor!soils.!The!learning!group!members!have!continued!
to!do!the!best!they!can!manage,!under!the!circumstances.!
Budget!
The!budget!for!this!project!of!R551!225!was!completed!as!of!the!end!of!July!2020.!The!remaining!
activities!of!annual!reviews!with!participants!and!their!planning!for!the!2020/21!cropping!season!
is!to!be!implemented!through!a!different!budget.!The!project!is!considered!complete!at!the!date!
of!submission!of!this!report.!!!
Results!achieved!to!date!
Fourteen!learning!groups!have!been!supported!under!this!process.!Training/learning!workshops!
have!been!conducted!for!the!following!topics:!
How$to$implement$CA:!introduction!to!the!principles,!soil!health,!crop!diversification!
and!different!planting!options!for!CA!
Working$with$herbicides$and$knapsack$sprayers:!information!on!different!herbicides,!
their! uses! and! safety! measures,! as! well! as! operation! of! knapsack! sprayers,! protective!
clothing,!etc.!
Trial$plot$layout$and$planting!using!different!CA!planting!equipment!such!as!hoes,!MBLI!
planters,!and!animal!drawn!not!till!planters.!
Inclusion$ of$ cover$ crops:!both! summer! and! winter! cover! crop!options! in! different!
planting!regimes;!separata!blocks,!alley!cropping,!relay!cropping!and!strip!cropping!and!
8
Livestock$integration:$fodder!supplementation,!hay!making,!disease!management!and!
calf!rearing!!
The! learning! groups! provide! the! innovation! platforms! also! for! discussion! of! the! value! chain!
issues,!such!as!bulk!buying,!harvesting,!storage!and!milling!options!and!marketing.!!
The! table! below! outlines! activities! related! to! objectives! and! key! indicators! for! the! period! of!
October!2019-September!2020.!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
Table 1
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A04-3)5,.7-3<041,.)1.:1504,37)
NG,19)>-3419146)70;29-7?)3-2-04)K*SL)
70;29-7)053,77)F)<1990/-7)
NG,19)8-0948)70;29-7?)T)
203415120.47U)T)<1990/-7)
NP=.N,>>)29,47)0.:)301.)/0=/-7+)*)
<1990/-)
NV04-3)23,:=541<146+)T)
203415120.47)053,77)T)<1990/-7)
)
M34159-7)0.:)23,;,41,.09);04-3109)4,)
-./0/-)740I-8,9:-37)1.)48-)R3,0:-3)
-.<13,.;-.4)0.:)78031./),>)1.>,3;041,.)
483,=/8)<031,=7)1..,<041,.)2904>,3;7)0.:)
23,5-77-7?)1.59=:1./)48-)1.4-3.-4@)7,5109)
0.:).-4A,3I1./)2904>,3;7)0.:)
5,.>-3-.5-7)
N>03;-37),2-.):06)1.)!WA0481.1)
KG-24-;R-3)HXth@)FX*YL)
NZ-<-9,2;-.4),>)0)%,<-3)53,27)80.:,=4)
0.:)2,74-3)>,3)=7-)1.)740I-8,9:-3)-<-.47)
NV3141./),>)0)R,,I)58024-3)>,3)%M"'+%M)1.)
M>3150)
NH);=941)740I-8,9:-3)9-03.1./)A,3I78,2)
1.)!WA0481.1),.)072-547),>)91<-74,5I)
1.4-/3041,.)
NJ3-7-.4041,.7)1.)4A,)A-R1.037?)'.4-/30)
43=74)0.:)J[MMG)4,)53-04-)0A03-.-77),>)
48-)%M)GD'J)
%,<-3)53,27)290.4-:)
R6)FX)203415120.47)@)
803<-74-:)>,3)
91<-74,5I)>--:)0.:)
7--:)I-24)R6)0)7;099)
23,2,341,.)
)
K*XX\)5,;29-41,.L)
)
)
)
G,19)>-3419146)70;29-7)
3-7=947)80<-)R--.)
0.0967-:)3-2,34-:)
,.)1.)48-)1.4-31;)
3-2,34)
)
G,19)8-0948)70;29-)
3-7=947)80<-)R--.)
0.0967-:)0.:)3-2,34)
,.B)
K*XX\)5,;29-41,.L)
)
)
)
)
)
)
)
K*XX\)5,;29-41,.L)
C-6)0541<146)*+)
D03;-3N5-.43-:)
'..,<041,.)
G674-;7)P-7-0358+)))
)
)
#,1.496):-71/.)0.:)1;29-;-.4)>03;-3N9-:)
0:024041,.)431097)0.:)0)R07I-4),>)>03;-3)
9-<-9)-E2-31;-.4041,.)23,4,5,97)>3,;)%M)
R-74)2305415-),241,.7B)
)
G23061./@)290.41./@)
4,2):3-771./@)2-74)
5,.43,9B)]3,A48)
;,.14,31./)807)R--.)
5,.:=54-:)0.:)
9
C-6)0541<146)FB)
(09=-)5801.)0.:)
0/31R=71.-77)
7=22,34+)))
)
)
)
)
)
)
)
)
)
)
C-6)0541<146)H+)
G=22,34)[,509)
>05191404,37+)))
NFXT)>03;-3)9-<-9)431097)7-4)=2)053,77)*X)
<1990/-7?)1.59=:1./)1.4-353,221./)A148)
9-/=;-7)0.:)5,<-3)53,27),241,.7B)
)
J3,;,41,.)0.:),>)(G[M7)>03;-3)5-.43-7)
0.:)7;099)R=71.-77):-<-9,2;-.4)0;,./)
1.:1<1:=09)7;0998,9:-3)>03;-37)
N)G4034)N=2),>)*).-A)(G[M7)K!WA0481.1L)
)
)
&301.1./)0.:);-.4,31./)7=22,34)>,3)04)
9-074)S)[,509)D05191404,37)4,)1.53-07-)48-13)
50205146),3/0.17-)9,509)>03;-37@)9,/174157)
0.:)290..1./)>,3)53,221./),241,.7)0.:)
;,.14,31./),>)48-)>03;-3)9-<-9)
-E2-31;-.4041,.B)
NS)[,509)>05191404,37)80<-)R--.)502051404-:)
4,)7=22,34)48-13)/3,=27)^)723061./@)1.2=4)
7=2296)0.:):-91<-36@)29,4)906,=4@)0.:)53,2)
/3,A48);,.14,31./)
61-9:7)80<-)R--.)
;-07=3-:)
K*XX\)5,;29-41,.L)
)
)
)
)
_Z)
)
)
'.)0).=;R-3),>)48-)
<1990/-7@)1.:1<1:=097)
A8,)50.)>=9>19)48-)
3,9-),>)0.)[D)80<-)
.,4)5,;-)>,3A03:)
0.:)4817)17)74199)
;0.0/-:)R6)`ZD)
740>>)
)
K*XX\)5,;29-41,.L)
C-6)0541<146)*B)
D=348-3):-<-9,2)
48-)J034151204,36)
`,.14,31./)0.:)
$<09=041,.)KJ`a$L)
>30;-A,3I+))
)
)
)
)
)
C-6)0541<146)FB)
D05191404-)
1..,<041,.)
2904>,3;7)>,3)
9-03.1./)0.:)
.-4A,3I1./+))
)
)
)
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C-6)0541<146)HB)
G43-./48-.)
'..,<041,.)
J904>,3;7+)
)
)
$E2-31-.5-:)>03;-37)K>03;-3)>05191404,37L)
0.:)48-)>051914041,.)4-0;)077174)1.)
751-.41>15@),./,1./);,.14,31./)KQ=0914041<-)
0.:)Q=0.414041<-L)0.:)7=22,34)4,)>03;-3)
-E2-31;-.4-37B)
)
Nb=0.414041<-)3-7-0358)-9-;-.47)
5,.:=54-:)1.)2034.-37812)A148)T)
-E2-31-.5-:)>03;-37)053,77)T)<1990/-7)
K1.59)3=.N,>>)29,47@)301.)/0=/-7@)A04-3)
23,:=541<146)0.:)7,19)8-0948)0.096717)
)
[-03.1./)/3,=2)7-771,.7)>,3):175=771,.)
0.:)9-03.1./B)
NM4)9-074)H)7-771,.7)80<-)R--.)8-9:)A148)
9-03.1./)/3,=27)053,77)cNS)<1990/-7)^)
48-;-7)80<-)1.59=:-:)%M)231.5129-7@)
723061./@)1.59=71,.),>)>,::-3)0.:)5,<-3)
53,27@)-E20.71,.)1.4,)903/-3)03-07@)
;03I-41./),241,.7@)5,,2-3041<-)
:-<-9,2;-.4)0.:)-.43-23-.-=37812))
)
'..,<041,.)2904>,3;)-<-.47+)
N!WA0481.1)>03;-37):06?)D,5=7),.)%,<-3)
53,27@)'.59=71,.),>)[0.:%03-@)Cd_ZMPZ@)
M]&)D,,:7)0.:)203415120.47)>3,;)
GA061;0.-)
N_40R0;89,28-)%M)0A03-.-77):06)5,N
8,74-:)R6)[0.:%03-)
"1N0..=09)74--31./)5,;;144--);--41./7)
K_,4):,.-)07)6-4L)
&A,).-A)1.4-3.7)
A148)`G5e7)1.)
M/315=94=3-)0.:)G,19)
G51-.5-)80<-)R--.)
R3,=/84),.)R,03:)4,)
077174B))
%3,2)/3,A48)
;,.14,31./)=71./)48-)
2-.:30/,.)-N7=3<-6)
807)R--.)5,.41.=-:)
4817)7-07,.)
K*XX\)5,;29-41,.L)
))
)
)
)
)
)
)
)
)
)
)
)
K*XX\)5,;29-41,.L)
)
)
)
)
_Z)
A!performance!dashboard!is!indicated!below.!This!provides!a!snapshot!of!performance!according!
to!suggested!numbers!and!outputs!in!the!proposal.!
!
10
Table 2
9&0ERFORMANCE&DASHBOARD:&!EPTEMBER&3434)
!/&4/&)*
:1242)$9*
;<-1%=*>?@AB*
C%&/-7*;D$"*>?>?B*
_=;R-3),>)03-07),>),2-3041,.)
F)
c)
_=;R-3),>)<1990/-7)0541<-)
*F)
*T)
_,),>)9,509)>05191404,37)
S)
S)
_,),>):13-54)R-.->151031-7?)>03;-3)9-<-9)-E2-31;-.4041,.)
*FX)
FXT)K*STL)
D,::-3)431097)A148)Cd_ZMPZ)
F)
F)
G40I-8,9:-3)$<-.47)
H)
H)
(09=-)5801.)7=22,34)
_,4):->1.-:)
[,509);03I-41./)0.:)f,1.4)
23,5=3-;-.4),>)509<-7)0.:)
1.2=47)>,3)H)9-03.1./)
/3,=27)
M34159-7@)5,.>-3-.5-7@)A-R1.037)
*NH),>)-0)
*)R,,I)58024-3@)F)A-R1.037)
G,19)>-3419146)70;29-7)
YX)
HF)
G,19)8-0948)70;29-7)
OT)
Sg)
The!table!below!summarises!farmer!level!CA!trial!implementation!for!the!2019-2020!planting!
season.! A! total! of! 204!trial! participants! have! planted! trials! this! season,! showing!a! significant!
upswing!in!interest.$
Table 3
9&!UMMARY&OF&FARMER&INNOVATION&NUMBER&AND&AREAS&PLANTED&PER&VILLAGE&IN&THIS&$*&PROCESS:&;<(&,IDLANDS=&
345673434,
C1$-*
E'77-5$*
>?@F*
>?@G*
>?@H**
>?@A*
IJ4$1'K
0$8&-&'28*
L200$8&)M*'8%7*
47-8&$1)*/)$9N*
$745,=34)
%,3.>1-9:7)
O)
Y)
*X)
*H)
'.4-353,221./?)
JM_)STgX@)J0.)
*TO)R-0.7@)
5,A2-07)
Z-;,.743041,.)
29,4)04)`3)`160e7)
8,;-74-0:B))
_-A)
h0.,<-3?)
GA061;0.-)
`061W-I0.6-)
*)&8-;R1)
`I81W-)
)
S)
O)
*c)
'.4-353,221./+)
G%gX*@)JM_)
YFYF)R-0.7@)
5,A2-07!
h0.:)8,-7)0.:)
`"[')290.4-37)
=7-:B))
)
`061W-I0.6-)
F)`37)_E=70)
)
Y)
O)
*F)
'.4-353,221./+)
G%gX*@)JM_)
YFYF)R-0.7@)
5,A2-07
h0.:)8,-7)0.:)
`"['))0.:)4A,)
3,A)290.4-37)
=7-:
)
`061W-I0.6-)
H)_,;=70)
G80.:=)
)
O)
Y)
*Y)
'.4-353,221./+)
G%gX*@)J0.YFYF)
R-0.7@)5,A2-07
h0.:)8,-7)0.:)
`"['))0.:)4A,)
3,A)290.4-37)
=7-:
)
],R1W-;R-)
)
Y)
*F)
*Y)
'.4-353,221./+)
G%gX*@)JM_)*TO)
R-0.7@)5,A2-07
h0.:)8,-7)0.:)
`"[')290.4-37)
=7-:B)
!WA0481.1)
GA-:1)
"0;78-90)
h9041I8=9=)
$;048=91.1)
)
)
*c)
TT)
'.4-353,221./+)
G%gX*@)JM_)
YFYF)R-0.7@)
5,A2-07
h0.:)8,-7)0.:)
`"['))0.:)4A,)
3,A)290.4-37)
=7-:)
&0R0;89,28-)
Z-)C9-3I@)
$;:A0R=)
[,7I,2)
)
)
FX)
Tc)
'.4-353,221./+)
JM_STgY)
JM_*TO)R-0.7@)
5,A2-07
h0.:)8,-7)0.:)
`"[')290.4-37)
=7-:B))
11
';2-.:9-)
$;020.-I-.1
_4A07089,R,)
)
)
)
TX)
'.4-353,221./+)
JM_STgY)
JM_*TO)R-0.7@)
;1E-:)R3,A.)
5,A2-07)
h0.:)8,-7)0.:)
`"[')290.4-37)
=7-:B)
TOTAL$
@O*
>F*
O@*
H>*
>?O*
;@FOBP*
OQ>*=-*&1'-7*472&)*
@QR*=-*%28&127*472&)*
NOTE*:!204!Participants!undertook!the!experimentation!at!the!beginning!of!the!season!and!164!
(80%)!participants!actually!planted!and!obtained!yields!from!their!CA!trials.!Most!to!the!
attrition!in!the!group!was!due!to!late!onset!of!summer!rains.!
Overall!process!
As!this!is!an!existing!‘technology’!the!farmer!level!experimentation!is!in!essence!an!adaptation!
trial!process.!!
Year%1:%
Experimental!design!is!pre-defined!by!the!research!team!(based!on!previous!implementation!in!
the! area! in! an! action! research! process! with! smallholders).! It! includes! a! number! of! different!
aspects:!
Intercropping!of!maize,!beans!and!cowpeas!
Introduction!of!OPV!and!hybrid!varieties!for!comparison!(1!variety!of!maize!and!beans!
respectively)!
Close!spacing!(based!on!Argentinean!system)!
Mixture!of!basin!and!row!planting!models!!
Use!of!no-till!planters!(hand!held,!animal!drawn!and!tractor!drawn)!
Use! of! micro-dosing! of! fertilizers! based! on! a! generic! recommendation! from! local! soil!
samples!!
Herbicides!sprayed!before!or!at!planting!only!
Decis!Forte!used!at!planting!and!top-!dressing!stage!for!cutworm!and!stalk!borer!
Planting!of!cover!crops;!summer!and!winter!mixes!
Experimental!design!includes!2!treatments;!planter!type!(2)!and!intercrop!(2).!See!the!diagram!
below.!
(
8-4+&'%?@%AB#"2$'%)1%2$)(%$#6)+(!%1)&%(0'%?!(%$'C'$%1#&"'&%(&-#$!%
PLOT 1: Hand HoePLOT 2: Planter
Maize1, bean1Maize2, Bean 1Maize1, bean1Maize2, Bean 1
Maize1, Bean 2Maize2,Bean 2Maize1,Bean2Maize 2, Bean 2
PLOT 3: OR repeat plot 1 and 2PLOT4:
Hand hoePlanter Hand hoePlanter
Maize1,cowpeaMaize1,cowpea
Maize1, Dolichos
Maize1, dolichos
Maize 2, CowpeaMaize 2, Cowpea
Maize2, Dolichos
Maize2, Dolichos
10m or5m
10m or 5m
12
The! basic! process! for! planting! thus! includes:! Close! spacing! of! tramlines! (2! rows)! of! maize!
(50cmx50cm)!and!legumes!(20cmx10cm)!intercropped,!use!of!a!variety!of!OPV!and!hybrid!seed,!
weed! control! through! a! combination! of! pre-! planting! spraying! with! herbicide! and! manual!
weeding!during!the!planting!season!and!pest!control!using!Decis!Forte,!sprayed!once!at!planting!
and!once!at!top!dressing!stage.!
For!the!tractor!drawn!two!row!planter!the!layout!has!been!adapted!to!incorporate!both!close!
spacing!and!inter!cropping.!Rows!are!planted!with!the!following!order!and!spacing;!Maize-50cm!
-Beans-25cm-Beans-50cm!Maize!
Year%2:%
Based!on!evaluation!of!experimentation!progress!for!year!1,!farmers!have!additional!options!that!
they!can!choose!from.!Farmers!also!take!on!spraying!and!plot!layout!themselves:!
A!number!of!different!OPV!and!hybrid!varieties!for!maize,!inclusion!of!short!season!maize!
varieties!
A!number!of!different!options!for!legumes!(including!summer!cover!crops)!
Planting!method!of!choice!
Comparison!of!single!crop!and!intercropping!planting!methods!
Use!of!specific!soil!sample!results!for!fertilizer!recommendations!
Early!planting!
Own!choices!!
Year%3:%
Trials!are!based!on!evaluation!of!experimentation!process!to!date;!to!include!issues!of!cost!benefit!
analysis,!bulk!buying!for!input!supply,!joint!actions!around!storage,!processing!and!marketing.!
Farmers!design!their!experiments!for!themselves!to!include!some!of!the!following!potential!focus!
areas:!
Early!or!late!planting;!with!options!to!deal!with!more!weeds!and!increased!stalk!borer!
pressure.!
Herbicide!mix!to!be!used!pre!and!at!planting!(Round!up,!Dual!Gold,!Gramoxone)!
A!pest!control!programme!to!include!dealing!with!CMR!beetles!!
Intercropping!vs!crop!rotation!options!
Spacing!in!single!block!plantings!
Use! of! composted! manure! for! mulching! and! soil! improvement! in! combination! with!
fertilizer!
Soil!sample!results!and!specific!fertilizer!recommendations!
Planting!of!Dolichos!and!other!climbing!beans!
Summer! and! winter! cover! crops;! crop! mixes,! planting! dates,! management! systems,!
planting!methods!(furrows!vs!scatter)!
Seed!varieties;!conscious!decisions!around!OPVs,!hybrids!and!GM!seeds;!inclusion!of!short!
season!maize!varieties!
Rainfall!and!runoff!
Runoff!(stormflow!or!surface!runoff!of!water)!is!generated!by!rainstorms!and!its!occurrence!and!
quantity! are! dependent! on! the! characteristics! of! the! rainfall! event,! i.e.! intensity,! duration! and!
distribution!(Schulze,!2011).!There!are,!in!addition,!other!important!factors!which!influence!the!
runoff! generating! process.! These! factors! include! the! infiltration! capacity! of! the! soil,! the! soil!
moisture!content!when!the!rainfall!event!occurred,!the!soil!type,!presence!of!capping/crusting!
and!slope.!
13
In!addition,!the!presence!of!above!ground!vegetation!intercepts!some!of!the!rainfall!and!reduces!
raindrop! impact! and! thus! crusting! of! the! soil.! Vegetation! also! has! a! significant! effect! on! the!
infiltration!capacity!of!the!soil.!The!root!system!as!well!as!organic!matter!in!the!soil!increase!the!
soil! porosity! thus! allowing! more! water! to! infiltrate.! Vegetation! also! retards! the! surface! flow!
particularly! on! gentle! slopes,! giving! the! water! more! time! to! infiltrate! and! to! evaporate.! Thus,!
vegetation!reduces!runoff!substantially,!compared!to!bare!ground!(Critchley!&!Siegert,!1991).!
For!the!purposes!of!comparing!the!effect!of!Conservation!Agriculture!on!runoff!in!the!context!of!
an!agricultural!cropping!field,!only!surface!runoff!has!been!considered.!
Runoff!plots!are!used!to!measure!surface!runoff!as!well!as!erosion!through!removal!of!sediment.!
under!controlled!conditions.!In!this!instance!runoff!microplots,!as!designed!previously!by!UKZN!
researchers!(Mutema,!Jewitt,!Chivenge,!&!Kusangaya,!2017)!!!have!been!used.!
Runoff!microplots!consist!of!galvanised!metal!sheeting!frames!1mx1m,!inserted!10!cm!into!the!
ground!and!leaving!another!10!cm!above!ground!to!eliminate!run-on!water!during!rain!events.!A!
spirt!level!was!used!to!keep!the!runoff!plots!levelled!and!the!slope!has!been!considered!(runoff!
plots!were!not!installed!on!slopes!higher!that!7!%)!when!installing!the!runoff!plots.!Surface!water!
and!sediment!generated!are!collected!into!a!protected!gutter!through!openings!in!a!downslope!
side!metal!sheet.!The!gutter!is!fitted!with!a!delivery!pipe!connected!to!a!reservoir!(in!our!case,!a!
25!L!bucket,!with!a!lid)!about!1.5!m!downslope.!After!each!rainfall!event,!the!total!runoff!volume!
(ml)!from!each!micro-plot!replicate!was!measured!with!a!measuring!cylinder!(Dlamini,!Jewitt,!
Lorenz,!&!Orchard,!2011).!Sediment!was!noted!on!occasion,!but!not!recorded.!!
!
The!aims!of!the!experiments!are:!
1.To!ascertain!differences!in!runoff!when!comparing!minimal!tillage!to!conventional!tillage.!
!
METHOD:!
Run-off!pans!were!installed!for!Rita!Ngobese!in!Gobizembe!(Swayimane)!for!the!2018/19!and!
2019/20! cropping! seasons.! One! pan! was! installed! in! a! CA! plot!(M+B! intercrop)!and! one! in! a!
conventionally!tilled!plot,!planted!to!a!single!crop!of!maize.!!Mrs!Ngobese!also!has!a!rain!gauge!
set!up!in!her!homestead.!Participants!take!records!for!both!rainfall!and!runoff!for!the!cropping!
A"runoff"microplot"installed"in"a"
CA"trial"plot"with"maize"and"
beans"
Installing"a"runoff"microplot"
installed"in"a"conventionally"
tilled"plot"with"maize""
In"season"maintenance"of"collection"
buckets"
14
season;!usually!October-!April.!The!period!however!depends!on!the!start!and!end!of!the!rainy!
season.!
!
The! small! table! below! provides! a! summary! of! the! rainfall! and! runoff! data! recorded! by! Mrs!
Ngobese.!
S-&$*
C($*028&=7,*
1-'83-77*;.C.TUPB*
;00B*
T-'83-77*;00B*
T/8233* LC*
472&*;VB*
T/8233*
L28&127* 472&*
;VB*
6* L28($1)'28* 23*
1-'83-77*&2*1/8K233*
)
)
)
)
)
%M)
%,.43,9)
D-RNFX)
*TO)
*FS)
**)
HX)
)
))
`03NFX)
*FT)
TS@c)
T@g)
c)
)
))
M23NFX)
*XH)
FF*)
*X@c)
*c)
)
))
&,409)FXFX)
YcT)K#=.-e*YN#=.-)
eFXL)
HYH@c)
FS@F)
cX)
S@g)\)
*F@g)\)
&,409)FX*Y)
)
)
)
)
X@S)\)
*@F)\)
Note:*!Weather!station!data!from!New!Hanover,!the!closest!small!town,!was!provided!by!SASRI!
!
Mrs!Ngobese!has!been!implementing!CA!in!her!plot!for!a!period!of!three!years.!The!results!in!the!
table! provide! a! clear! indication! that! CA! and! intercropping! reduces! run-off! by! 50%! when!
compared!to!conventional!tillage!with!monocrop!options.!The!difference!in!runoff!between!the!
CA!and!conventionally!tilled!plots!is!much!higher!for!the!months!with!higher!rainfall,!which!also!
includes!high!intensity!rainfall!events,!and!further!indicates!the!advantages!of!CA!for!a!reduction!
in!runoff!and!by!inference!improvement!in!infiltration!of!these!plots.!
Soil!health!
The!intention!is!to!compare!the!soil!health!characteristics!for!a!number!of!cropping!options!within!
the!CA!trials!over!time!and!also!to!compare!conventionally!tilled!mono-cropped!control!plots!with!
CA!trial!plots!over!time.!!
The!Haney!soil!health!tests!(as!analysed!by!Soil!Health!Solutions!in!the!Western!Cape!and!Ward!
Laboratories!in!the!USA)!provides!insight!into!microbial!respiration!and!populations!in!the!soil,!
organic!and!inorganic!fractions!of!the!main!nutrients!N,!P!and!K,!and!assessment!of!organic!carbon!
and!percentage!organic!matter!(%OM).!An!overall!soil!health!score!(SH)!is!also!provided!for!each!
sample.!
Method$
1%-2*'"34(
Sampling!is!done!at!the!same!time!every!year;!during!September,!after!harvest!and!prior!to!start!
of!seasonal!rain,!according!to!international!conventions!(Stolbovoy,!et!al.,!2007).!
CA!plots:!10x10m!plots!are!marked!and!10cm!depth!cores!are!taken!(with!a!soil!auger),!
taking!20!samples!along!a!zig-zag!pattern!across!the!plot.!These!are!combined,!thoroughly!
mixed!and!then!500g!is!placed!in!a!plastic!bag!and!sealed.!These!bags!are!kept!in!a!cool,!
dark!place!until!delivery!to!the!soil!health!analysis!laboratory!–!usually!within!4-6!weeks!
of!taking!the!sample!
15
Control! plots;! 20! samples! are! taken! in! a! zig-zag! pattern! across! the! dimension! of! the!
control!plot;!these!vary!from!one!participant!to!the!next!and!are!otherwise!treated!in!the!
same!manner!as!the!CA!plot!samples!above.!
Veld!samples:!This!changed!after!the!first!two!seasons,!to!reduce!potential!variability!in!
the!samples.!A!patch!of!undisturbed!veld,!as!close!as!possible!to!the!participant’s!cropping!
field!is!chosen,!to!also!have!the!same!basic!visual!characteristics!as!the!field!in!question.!!
4!sub-samples!are!taken!at!10-15cm!depth!at!the!4!compass!positions!adjacent!to!the!
cropping! field.! ! NOTE:! It! has! been! the! team’s! experience! that! the! values! of! the! veld!
samples!vary!substantially!even!in!the!same!village!or!the!same!vicinity!as!a!field.!The!
practise!of!using!one!veld!sample!for!two!to!three!different!farmers!in!the!same!village!
was!thus!discontinued!and!a!decision!made!to!use!a!section!of!veld!as!close!as!possible!to!
the!cropping!field.!In!addition,!Veld!in!smallholder!farming!areas!under!communal!tenure,!
cannot!be!regarded!as!“pristine”,!given!heavy!grazing!patterns!and!frequent!burning.!It!is!
however!assumed!that!the!soil!is!undisturbed!in!terms!of!tillage!and!gives!an!indication!
of!the!general!conditions!of!the!soil!in!the!vicinity!of!the!cropping!fields.!
Samples!were!air!dried!and!stored!for!a!period!of!2-4!weeks!at!room!temperature!(20-24°C),!prior!
to!analysis.!
Samples!have!been!collected!for!the!2018/19!and!2019/20!seasons!in!two!villages:!!
Mayizekanye!(3!participants_:!3rd!year!of!implementation!
Gobizembe!(1!participant);!3rd!year!of!CA!implementation!
5%6#,%&#,7(%"%*7.'.(
Laboratory!analysis!was!undertaken!by!Soil!Health!Solutions,!linked!to!WARD!Laboratories!in!the!
USA.!Each!soil!sample!received!in!the!lab!is!dried!at!50°C!for!24!hr!and!ground!to!pass!a!4,75!mm!
sieve.!The!dried!and!ground!samples!are!scooped,!with!the!weight!recorded!using!a!Sartorius!
Practum!2102-1S,!into!two!50!ml!centrifuge!tubes!(4!g!each)!and!one!50!ml!plastic!beaker!(40!g)!
that!is!perforated!and!has!a!Whatman!GF/D!glass!microfiber!filter!to!allow!water!infiltration.!The!
two!4!g!samples!are!extracted!with!40!ml!of!DI!water!and!40!ml!of!H3A!respectively,!for!a!10:1!
dilution!factor.!The!samples!are!shaken!for!10!minutes,!centrifuged!for!5!minutes,!and!filtered!
through!Whatman!2V!filter!paper.!The!water!and!H3A!extracts!are!analysed!on!a!Seal!Analytical!
rapid! flow! analyser! for! NO3-N,! NH4-N,! and! PO4-P.! The! water! extract! is! also! analysed! on! an!
Elementar!TOC!select!C:!N!analyser!for!water-extractable!organic!C!and!total!N.!The!H3A!extract!
is!also!analysed!on!an!Agilent!MP-4200!microwave!plasma!for!Al,!Fe,!P,!Ca,!and!K.!
The!40!g!soil!sample!is!analysed!for!CO2-C!ppm!after!a!24-!our!incubation!at!25o!C.!Initially,!the!
sample!is!wetted!through!capillary!action!by!adding!18!ml!of!DI!water!to!an!8!oz.!glass!jar!(ball!
jar!with!a!convex!bottom)!and!placed!in!the!jar!and!then!capped.!Solvita!paddles!can!be!placed!in!
the!jar!at!this!time!and!analysed!after!24!hrs!with!a!Solvita!digital!reader.!Alternatively,!we!use!a!
system!that!we!call!HT-1,!where!at!the!end!of!24-hour!incubation,!the!CO2!in!the!jar!can!be!pulled!
through!a!LiCor!840A!IRGA,!which!is!a!non-dispersive!infrared!(NDIR)!gas!analyser!based!upon!a!
single!path,!dual!wavelength!infrared!detection!system.!
SOM%!is!a!gravimetric!expression!of!the!organic!material!fraction!lost!from!combustion!at!360°C!
for!3!hours.!Also!termed!the!loss!in!ignition!calculation!method,!(LOI%).!
16
Soil$health$tests$parameters
1
$
The! Haney! method! uses! nature’s! biology! and! chemistry! by:! (1)! using! a! soil! microbial! activity!
indicator;!(2)!a!soil!water!extract!(nature’s!solvent);!and!(3)!the!H3A!extractant,!which!mimics!
the!production!of!organic!acids!by!living!plant!roots!to!temporarily!change!the!soil!pH!thereby!
increasing!nutrient!availability.!
These! analyses! are! benchmarked! against! natural! veld! for! each! participant,! due! to! high! local!
variation!in!soil!health!properties,!measured!at!different!times.!The!veld!scores!provide!for!high!
benchmarks!to!compare!the!cropping!practices!against.!!!
Soil$Respiration$1-day$CO2-C:!This!result!is!one!of!the!most!important!numbers!in!this!soil!test!
procedure.!This!number!in!ppm!is!the!amount!of!CO2-C!released!in!24!hours!from!soil!microbes!
after!soil!has!been!dried!and!rewetted!(as!occurs!naturally!in!the!field).!This!is!a!measure!of!the!
microbial!biomass!in!the!soil!and!is!related!to!soil!fertility!and!the!potential!for!microbial!activity.!
In!most!cases,!the!higher!the!number,!the!more!fertile!the!soil.!
Microbes!exist!in!soil!in!great!abundance.!They!are!highly!adaptable!to!their!environment!and!
their!composition,!adaptability,!and!structure!are!a!result!of!the!environment!they!inhabit.!They!
have!adapted!to!the!temperature,!moisture!levels,!soil!structure,!crop!and!management!inputs,!as!
well!as!soil!nutrient!content.!Since!soil!microbes!are!highly!adaptive!and!are!driven!by!their!need!
to!reproduce!and!by!their!need!for!acquiring!C,!N,!and!P!in!a!ratio!of!100:!10:!1!(C:N:P),!it!is!safe!
to!assume!that!soil!microbes!are!a!dependable!indicator!of!soil!health.!Carbon!is!the!driver!of!the!
soil!nutrient-microbial!recycling!system.!!
Water$ extractable$ organic$ C$ (WEOC):!!Consists! of! sugars! from! root! exudates,! plus! organic!
matter!degradation.!This!number!(in!ppm)!is!the!amount!of!organic!C!extracted!from!the!soil!with!
water.!This!C!pool!is!roughly!80!times!smaller!than!the!total!soil!organic!C!pool!(%!Organic!Matter)!
and!reflects!the!energy!source!feeding!soil!microbes.!A!soil!with!3%!soil!organic!matter!when!
measured!with!the!same!method!(combustion)!at!a!0-10cm!sampling!depth!produces!a!20,000!
ppm!C!concentration.!When!the!water!extract!from!the!same!soil!is!analysed,!the!number!typically!
ranges!from!100-300!ppm!C.!The!water!extractable!organic!C!reflects!the!quality!of!the!C!in!the!
soil!and!is!highly!related!to!the!microbial!activity.!On!the!other!hand,!%!SOM!is!about!the!quantity!
of!organic!C.!In!other!words,!soil!organic!matter!is!the!house!that!microbes!live!in,!but!what!is!
being!measured!is!the!food!they!eat!(WEOC!and!WEON).!
If!this!value!is!low,!it!will!reflect!in!the!C02!evolution,!which!will!also!be!low.!So!less!organic!carbon!
means!less!respiration!from!microorganisms,!but!again!this!relationship!is!unlikely!to!be!linear.!
The! Microbially! Active! Carbon! (MAC! =! WEOC! /! ppm! CO2)! content! is! an! expression! of! this!
relationship.!If!the!percentage!MAC!is!low,!it!means!that!nutrient!cycling!will!also!be!low.!One!
needs!a!%MAC!of!at!least!20%!for!efficient!nutrient!cycling.!
Water$ extractable$ organic$ N$ (WEON):!!Consists! of! Atmospheric! N2!sequestration! from! free!
living!N!fixers,!plus!organic!matter!degradation.!This!number!is!the!amount!of!the!total!water!
extractable!N!minus!the!inorganic!N!(NH4-N!+!NO3-N).!This!N!pool!is!highly!related!to!the!water!
extractable!organic!C!pool!and!will!be!easily!broken!down!by!soil!microbes!and!released!to!the!
soil!in!inorganic!N!forms!that!are!readily!plant!available.!
1
h0.-6UG,19)h-0948)&-74)'.>,3;041,.)P-<B)*BX)KFX*YLB)[0.5-)]=.:-37,.@)V03:)[0R,304,31-7)'.5B)
17
Organic$C:$Organic$N:!This!number!is!the!ratio!of!organic!C!from!the!water!extract!to!the!amount!
of!organic!N!in!the!water!extract.!This!C:N!ratio!is!a!critical!component!of!the!nutrient!cycle.!Soil!
organic! C! and! soil! organic! N! are! highly! related! to! each! other! as! well! as! the! water! extractable!
organic!C!and!organic!N!pools.!Therefore,!we!use!the!organic!C:N!ratio!of!the!water!extract!since!
this!is!the!ratio!the!soil!microbes!have!readily!available!to!them!and!is!a!more!sensitive!indicator!
than! the! soil! C:N! ratio.! A! soil! C:N! ratio! above! 20:1! generally! indicates! that! no! net! N! and! P!
mineralization!will!occur.!As!the!ratio!decreases,!more!N!and!P!are!released!to!the!soil!solution!
which!can!be!taken!up!by!growing!plants.!This!same!mechanism!is!applied!to!the!water!extract.!
The!lower!this!ratio!is,!the!more!organisms!are!active!and!the!more!available!the!food!is!to!the!
plants.! Good! C:N! ratios!for! plant! growth! are! <15:1.! The! most! ideal! values! for! this! ratio! are!
between!8:1!and!15:1.!
Soil$ Health$ Calculation:!This! number! is! calculated! as! 1-day! CO2-C/10! plus! WEOC/50! plus!
WEON/10!to!include!a!weighted!contribution!of!water!extractable!organic!C!and!organic!N.!It!
represents!the!overall!health!of!the!soil!system.!It!combines!5!independent!measurements!of!the!
soil’s! biological! properties.! The! calculation! looks! at! the! balance! of! soil! C! and! N! and! their!
relationship!to!microbial!activity.!This!soil!health!calculation!number!can!vary!from!0!to!more!
than!50.!This!number!should!be!above!7!and!increase!over!time.!
Soil$health$scores$
Three!assumptions!are!made!regarding!SH!scores:!
ØThat! SH! scores! for! the! CA! trial! plots! will! be! higher! than! for! the! conventionally! tilled!
control!plots!!
ØThat!SH!scores!will!increase!over!time!for!CA!trial!plots!and!
ØThat!SH!scores!for!different!cropping!combinations,!such!as!mono!cropped!plots,!inter!
cropped!plots!and!multi!cropped!plot!will!be!different!
!
18(.9#,:.(#$:,(&'-:(
!
Figure 2: Comparison of soil health scores for two villages in the Midlands across two seasons
Gobizembe 2018Gobizembe 2019Mayizekanye 2018Mayizekanye 2019
%OM 5,85 7,05 5,51 6,30
CO2 - C(ppm)32,05 50,70 25,93 36,86
Organic C (ppm)163,00 152,00 140,14 188,71
Organic N (ppm)11,10 17,009,9617,96
C:N ratio14,658,8514,30 10,55
Soil health calculation7,60 9,80 6,56 9,27
Soil aggregates26,00 41,50 19,86 24,00
0,00
20,00
40,00
60,00
80,00
100,00
120,00
140,00
160,00
180,00
200,00
Soil%Helath%scores%for%two%seasons:%2018-2020%
18
From!the!above!figure!the!following!can!be!seen:!
The!soil!health!scores!for!both!Gobizembe!and!Mayizekanye!have!increased!substantially!
from!2018/19!to!2019/20,!linked!to!increases!in!Co2-C!respiration,!Organic!C!and!organic!
N,!despite!a!slight!reduction!in!Organic!C!in!Gobizembe.!
Both!areas!have!shown!a!significant!increase!in!the!availability!of!Organic!N!comparative!
to! the! increase! in! organic! C,! which! is! likely! the! effect! of! continued! intercropping! with!
legumes! (beans! and! cowpeas)! in! their! CA! trial! plots.! This! increase! has! also! led! to! a!
reduction!in!the!C:N!ratio!and!a!subsequent!availability!of!nutrients!to!the!crops.!
The!percentage!soil!aggregate!stability!has!also!increased!for!both!areas.!
The!general!assumption!here!is!that!if!the!level!of!organic!C!in!a!plot!is!high,!then!the!microbial!
respiration!will!also!be!high,!as!will!the!soil!health!score!and!vice!versa.!This!is!not!always!the!
case,!as!the!relationship!is!not!necessarily!a!linear!one.!
The!CO2-C!respiration!also!gives!an!indication!of!the!potential!mineralisation!of!N!for!the!soil!as!
well!as!organic!matter!content.!The!small!table!below!indicates!these!relationships.!
W$)&* 1$)/7&)*
440*L!2KL*
X*0'8$1-7')-&'28*42&$8&'-7*
Y'20-))*
i*XX)
h1/8N_)2,4-.4109)7,19B)[1I-96)7=>>151-.4)
_)>,3);,74)53,27)
G,19)<-36)A-99)7=2291-:)A148),3/0.15);044-3B)
"1,;077iFcXX22;)
S*N*XX)
`,:-304-96N81/8B)&817)7,19)807)91;14-:)
.--:)>,3)_)7=229-;-.4041,.)
':-09) 7404-) ,>) R1,9,/1509) 0541<146) 0.:)
0:-Q=04-),3/0.15);044-3)
H*NSX)
`,:-304-B)G=229-;-.409)_)3-Q=13-:)
P-Q=13-7).-A)022915041,.7),>)740R9-),3/0.15)
;044-3B)"1,;077)j*FXX22;)
SNHX)
`,:-304-N9,AB) V199) .,4) 23,<1:-)
7=>>151-.4)_)>,3);,74)53,27)
[,A) 1.) ,3/0.15) 743=54=3-) 0.:) ;153,R109)
0541<146)"1,;077)jcXX22;)
XNc)
[1449-) R1,9,/1509) 0541<146?) 3-Q=13-7)
71/.1>150.4)>-341917041,.)
(-36) 1.0541<-) 7,19B) "1,;077j*XX22;B)
%,.71:-3)9,./)4-3;)503-)
!
;<='++:,:"&(>?(9,#22'"3(#2&'#".(
!
Figure 3: Carbon respiration and organic C for different cropping options in the Midlands.
)
!
!
P]^ W1?; %:74/:? P]^ P]%! W1?; %:74/:?
\:E5810E1 P.D581T.71
P5;?.7;2
L61/.A1,:@,%&J,$,%I,990,% OBI_NBS`IRNaRIRN OSIRO SbIbN _bIBN OSIbN
L61/.A1,:@,&/A.753,%,990,% BbSINN B`OINN BJNINN B`bIOO J_NINN BaaINN B`bIa`
NINN
_NINN
BNNINN
B_NINN
JNNINN
J_NINN
ONNINN
Comparison!of!CO2-C!respiration!and!Organic!C!for!different!cropping!
options!in!the!Midlands
19
For!the!above!figure!the!following!trends!can!be!seen:!
ØThe!CA!intercrops!(M+B!and!M+CP)!provide!for!higher!levels!of!Organic!C!accumulation!
than!the!CA!control,!where!a!maize!mono-crop!is!planted!year!after!year.!
ØThe! CO2-C! respiration! values!for! all! the! plots! are! however!between! 31-60,! indicating!
moderate!mineralization!potential!and!the!need!for!addition!of!stable!organic!matter!to!
the!system.!
!
Despite!this,!the!improvement!in!availability!of!organic!N!in!Mayizekanye!has!been!notable!this!
season.!
!
Figure 4: Analysis of availability of Organic N in Mayizekanye for the 2019/20 cropping season
When! the! results! of! the! three! participants! form! Mayizekanye! are! combined! there! is! a! clear!
indication!of!the!advantage!of!the!maize!and!cowpea!intercrop,!when!compared!to!maize!and!
beans! and! maize! planted! as! a! single! crop! under! CA.! The! M+CP! cropping! option! provides! the!
highest! levels! of! Long! term,! sort! term! and! immediate! release! nitrogen! and! can! provide! for! a!
saving! of! R454! in! inorganic! nitrogen! fertilizer! application. This! equates! to! a! 34%! saving! on!
inorganic!nitrogen!fertilizer!application.(
ØThese! observations!provide! further! support! to! the! general! management!
recommendations!for!the!area,!summarised!below:!
1.Ways!in!which!to!preserve!and!build!soil!carbon!are!important!in!this!area!(which!has!a!
high!potential!for!loss!of!organic!carbon):!!
a.Mulching!with!weeds!is!very!important!in!this!system!
b.Mulching!with!cut!grass!or!other!organic!matter!if!possible!
c.Ensuring!canopy!cover!as!early!in!the!season!as!possible!–!thus!close!spacing!
d.Introducing!a!large!diversity!of!crops!as!early!as!possible,!especially!legumes.!
e.Inclusion!of!manure!in!the!system!
2.Reduce!synthetic!fertilizers!over!time!!
3.Ensure!legumes!are!a!central!component!of!cover!crop!and!rotation!options.!
4.Cowpeas!are! an! important! inclusion! in! the! intercropping! process! showing! ability! to!
increase!organic!C!and!N!substantially!in!the!short!term.!
P]^P]%! 3:74/:? W1?;
',Z:7A,41/0,/1?1.21,F990H SIaa _INR OI`O BI_`
',K>:/4,41/0,/1?21.21,F990H BRI_B BbIBB BOIBJ BNIOS
',)001;5.41,/1?1.21,F990H JJIOa O_IaN OSIO_ BSIBN
",6.?<1,:@,' "OSSIaN "S_SINN "OJRIBR "J_RIJ`
NINN
BNNINN
JNNINN
ONNINN
SNNINN
_NNINN
Soil!health!sample!analysis:!Availability!of!organic!N!at!Mayizekane-
2019/20
20
Crop!water!productivity!
Crop!water!productivity!(CWP)!or!water!use!efficiency!(WUE)!relates!to!the!amount!of!yield!per!
unit!of!water!used.!It!is!an!important!measure!of!the!impact!of!different!practices!on!productivity!
in!rain!fed!agricultural!systems.!Methods!for!improving!CWP!at!field!level!include!crop!selection,!
planting! methods,! minimum! tillage,! nutrient! management! and! improved! drainage! where!
appropriate.!Average!WP!for!maize!is!1,2-2,3!kg/m3!(FAO,!2003).!
In!this!research!process!WP!has!been!compared!for!different!crops!and!crop!combinations!under!
CA.!
The!main!variables!used!in!calculating!water!productivity!(WP)!are!yields!and!volume!of!water!
used!to!produce!that!particular!yield.!There!are!standard!methods!used!in!working!out!the!yield!
(e.g.!putting!the!harvested!grain!or!biomass!on!a!scale!and!weighing!it,!weighing!a!sample!of!cobs!
for!maize!and!estimating!yield!using!the!plant!population).!The!challenge!is!in!determining!the!
volume! of! water! used! to! produce! the! yield.! There! are! a! couple! of! methods! (simple! and! more!
complicated)!used!in!determining!the!volume!of!water!used.!
In! determining! the! water! productivity,! parameters! (temperature,! relative! humanity,! solar!
radiation,!wind!speed,!wind!direction!to!calculated!ET0)!are!required!and!these!parameters!are!
gathered!from!automatic!weather!stations.!This!information!can!be!used!to!benchmark!simpler!
methods!used!in!the!field,!that!farmers!can!be!involved!in.!These!ET0!values!are!then!multiplied!
by!the!crop!coefficient!to!find!the!actual!evapotranspiration!(Etc),!which!is!the!volume!of!water!
used!to!produce!the!yield.!
To!calculate!the!ET0,!the!equation!below!is!used.!The!weather!station!calculates!the!reference!
evaporation!ET0!using!the!Penman!Monteith!equation!shown!below!!
!"
!=!"#!$%
&
'!()
*
+, "##
$%&'(-&&.)(.**
%+,&/+!"0#-&*
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!(1)!
Where,!!
#*0,/1@1/1731,16.9:4/.7295/.45:7,F00c;.DHI,
"n,714,/.;5.45:7,.4,4>1,3/:9,2</@.31,FPd,0-2,;.D-1HI,
\,2:5?,>1.4,@?<Q,;17254D,FPd,0-2,;.D-1HI,
*,.5/,41091/.4</1,.4,J,0,>15A>4,Fe%HI,
<2,=57;,2911;,.4,J,0,>15A>4,F0,2-1HI,
1s,2.4</.45:7,6.9:</,9/122</1,FT!.HI,
(,2?:91,6.9:</,9/122</1,3</61,FT!.,e%-1HI,
A,92D3>/:014/53,3:724.74,FT!.,e%-1HI,
!
Water! productivity! was! calculated! for! three!participants! in! Midlands!(2020),! Babhekile! Nene,!
Fikile! Maphumulo! and! Nomusa! Shandu! (All!from! Mayizekanye! -MAY),! who! have! been!
implementing!CA!for!a!period!of!2!to!3!years.!Water!productivity!for!different!CA!cropping!options!
was!calculated!for!these!participants,!using!both!grain!and!biomass!weights.!
The!options!were!a!M-CA!control!(consecutively!mono-cropped!maize);!M+CP-CA!trial!(maize!and!
cowpea!intercropped!plot!in!a!rotation!system)!and!CA-M+B!trial!(maize!and!bean!intercropped!
plot!in!a!rotation!system).!The!aim!was!to!ascertain!whether!the!different!cropping!options!within!
the!CA!system!provide!for!different!water!productivity!outcomes.!The!results!are!shown!in!the!
figure!below.!
21
Figure 5: Water productivity for grain weight for 3 Midlands participants, 2020.
In! all! three! cases! the! water! productivity! for! grain! production! is! higher! for! the! CA! maize!and!
legume!intercropped!plots!and!more!so!for!the!maize!and!cowpea!intercrops!than!the!maize!and!
bean!intercrops,!when!compared!to!single!cropped!maize!CA!plots.!This!trend!has!been!noted!also!
in!both!the!SKZN!and!Bergville!sites!and!gives!a!clear!indication!of!the!advantages!of!intercropping!
with!legumes!that!fix!high!levels!of!nitrogen!and!provide!for!good!soil!cover.!
The!CWP!was!also!calculated!for!the!above!
ground!maize!plant!material,!(stalks!and!
leaves).!The!small!figure!alongside!provides!
an!average!for!the!Midlands!(3!participants!
rom!Mayizekanye)!for!the!2019/20!cropping!
season.!!Here!it!is!also!clear!that!the!water!
productivity!for!biomass!production!is!much!
improved!by!the!intercropping!practice!and!
specifically!so!for!the!maize!and!cowpea!
intercropped!plots.!$
Progress!per!area!of!implementation!
Impacts(of(COVID-19(on(CA(Participants((
All!the!farmers!visited!were!aware!of!the!pandemic!and!had!been!affected!in!varying!degrees:!!
üSome!had!not!experienced!any!real!effects!of!COVID-19!with!respect!to!their!personal!lives!as!
they! were! unemployed! and! dependent! largely! on! farming! to! survive! which! had! not! been!
disrupted!in!a!major!way.!
üCA! proved! to! be! quite! beneficial! during! this! season! as! many! farmers! used! the! beans! and!
cowpeas!as!a!supplementary!source!of!food!and!managed!to!sell!their!maize!to!neighbours.!
Those!who!planted!winter!and!summer!cover!crops,!cut!them!and!gave!to!their!livestock,!thus!
saving!on!feed.!!
üMost!of!those!who!produce!for!market!were!negatively!affected!as!the!lock!down!resulted!in!
bakkie!traders!not!coming!into!the!community!to!purchase!maize,!hence!it!went!dry!in!the!
%L$P]% %LMP$
%:74/ %L$P]^ %L$P]%%LMP$
%:74/ %L$P]^ %L$P]^ %L$P]%%LMP$
%:74/
^' ^' ^'-P -P -P'K 'K 'K
P.DP.DP.DPLf PLf PLf PLf PLf PLf
P)(ZL'(K
g.41/,!/:;<345654D,FTAc0OH BI`a NIJN BINN NIbJ BIBJ BIJJ NIaS NI_R NI_R
NINN
NIJN
NISN
NIaN
NIbN
BINN
BIJN
BISN
BIaN
BIbN
JINN
>?@AB)0BCDEF@GH@I)2JKLMN8
WP#(kg/m3)
PhP.581I,
^h^1.72I
%h%:=91.2,
^'$^.E>1T5?1,'171
-P$-5T5?1,P.9><0<?:
'K$':0<2.,K>.7;<
%LMP$%:74/ %L$P]^%L$P]%
P.D
*:4.? _IJS RIO` RIaa
NINN
JINN
SINN
aINN
bINN
BNINN
BJINN
TAc03
Maize&biomass&(kg/m3);&Mayizekanye&
22
fields.!The!hardest!hit!area!in!this!regard!was!Ozwathini.!Mayizekanye!farmers!were!mostly!
unaffected!as!their!maize!was!ready!for!market!just!after!level!5!lockdown!was!relaxed!to!
level!4!and!bakkie!traders!as!well!as!street!vendors!were!allowed!to!operate!again.!
üIn!terms!of!everyday!life,!many!people!had!experienced!restricted!movement!which!affected!
them!negatively!as!taxis!were!now!available!before!10!am!and!after!4!pm.!During!the!day!they!
had!to!use!alternative!means!of!transport.!
üAcquiring!agricultural!inputs!also!proved!to!be!a!challenge!due!to!lack!of!transport!as!well!as!
the! requirement! of! a! permit/essential! service! certificate! when! travelling,! which! most!
participants!did!not!have.!!
üIn! terms! of! food! security,! many! households! considered! themselves! fairly! food! secure,!
although!there!were!concerns!about!the!future!if!lockdown!is!extended.!In!Gobizembe,!Mam!
Rita! Ngobese! and! Mrs! Mncanyana! had! already! sold! their! maize! from! the! CA! plots! to!
neighbours,!which!was!a!positive!outcome!of!the!lockdown!as!they!normally!use!the!maize!
purely!for!household!consumption.!$
$
In!summary,!subsequent!to!the!lockdown!which!took!place!from!the!27th!of!March!this!year,!the!
situation!appeared!quite!bleak!for!our!farmers!in!terms!of!their!maize!market!as!most!businesses!
were!not!operating.!However,!as!lockdown!regulations!eased!and!businesses!slowly!reopened,!
many!farmers!were!able!to!sell!their!maize!and!found!that!the!demand!had!even!increased!in!
some!areas.!!
In! terms! of! final! yields,! the! majority! of! the! farmers! reported! an! increase! in! yield,! which! they!
measure!through!the!amounts!of!income!earned!from!sales,!and!amounts!left!over!from!selling!
surplus.!!Farmers!commented!that!this!is!because!CA!allows!them!to!plant!closer!together.!Larger!
yield! responses! for! their! maize! has! also! resulted! from! intercropping! of! maize! with! beans! or!
cowpeas,!both!for!new!participants!and!for!older’!farmers!who!have!been!doing!CA!for!2-3!years.!
More!than!80%!of!the!farmers!had!sufficient!maize!to!sell!as!well!as!consume!with!their!families!
this! season,! meaning! that! their! cropping! systems! served! as! a! buffer! against! the! rising! food!
insecurity!that!is!becoming!more!prevalent!as!a!result!of!COVID!19.!!
MDF! entered! into! a! collaboration! with! a! sister! NGO,! AFRA! to! provide! fresh! produce! for! food!
parcels!for!vulnerable!families!in!the!Umgungundlovu!DM.!Below!is!a!snapshot!of!produce!sold!
and! incomes! made! through! this! process.! Participants! provided! green! maize,! dry! beans,!
avocadoes,!pumpkins,!sweet!potatoes!and!leafy!greens.!
23
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
The!table!below!provides!an!idea!of!maize!(both!from!CA!trial!and!control!plots)!sold!in!June!2020,!
indicating!local!sales!and!sales!to!AFRA.!When!it!comes!to!beans,!the!locally!popular!varieties!such!
as!Ukulinga!and!Khakhi!beans!sold!more!than!the!PAN!9292!tried!out!in!the!CA!trials.!!
!
Table 4
:"!EMM?BI)@?OPA)CQ)M?GRA)?SD)OA?ST)TCPD)@UGT)TA?TCS)QBCM)55)Q?BMABT)GS)!V?IGM?SA9)WESA)3434)
(?MA)CQ)X?BMAB))
*BA?))
,?GRA)TCPD)PCF?PPI)
)21N47NYLDCR8)
,?GRA)OCEKU@)OI)
*QB?)
21N47NYLDCR8)
ZA?ST)OCEKU@)OI)*X1*)
)2-JEPGSK?L;U?JUG)
ZA?S8)
,,
,
i4D,
!/531,
i4D,
!/531,
i4D,
!/531,
^.E>1T5?1,'171,
P.D581T.7D1,
B`,;:817,
"_R_INN,
,,
,,
BN,Z,
"JNNINN,
*>10E5,PT>581,,
P.D581T.7D1,
B_,;:817,
"_J_INN,
,,
,,
,,
,,
-5T5?1,P.9><0<?:,
P.D581T.7D1,
`,;:817,
"JS_INN,
,,
,,
,,
,,
'.4>.751?,PD18.,,
&8=.4>575,
B_,;:817,
"_J_INN,
_,;:817,
"B`_INN,
,,
,,
P/2,j<?<,
&8=.4>575,
Jb,;:817,
"B,NB_INN,
,,
,,
JN,Z,
"_J_INN,
(:/52,%>.0.71,
&8=.4>575,
,,
,,
,,
,,
,,
,,
KE:7A5?1,P>?:7A:,
&8=.4>575,
B_,;:817,
"S_NINN,
,,
,,
JN,Z,
"_NNINN,
P.31?<,^>17A<,,
&8=.4>575,
Bb,;:817,
"aONINN,
O,;:817,
"BN_INN,
,,
,,
*&*LZ,
1N)6[Y=44)
))
13[4=44)
))
15)33Y=44)
Figure 6: Some of the produce supplied by farmers to AFRA as well as locally
24
Summary(of(yield(measurements(for(Maize(
For!this!season!the!average!maize!yield!for!the!CA!trial!plots!across!all!areas!was!1,35!t/ha!and!
that!for!the!conventionally!tilled!controls!was!0,99!t/ha.!Although!these!yields!are!low!and!the!
average! is! in! fact! marginally! lower! than! for! the! 2018/19! season! (1,43!t/ha)! all! participants!
reported!producing!more!maize!and!overall!productivity!has!improved!from!the!previous!season.!
It! is! considered! due! to! the! difficulties! of! this! season!
and! most! maize! being! harvested! green,! which!
necessitated!a!yield!estimation!process!of!counting!the!
number!of!cobs!(linked!to!weighing!of!selected!cobs!
and! grain! only),! has! led! to! a! considerable! under-
estimation! of! the! actual! yield.! Yield! data! sheets! are!
shown!in!Appendix!1!of!this!document!
The!small!table!alongside!provides!an!assessment!of!the!yield!ranges!within!which!farmers!have!
fallen:!44,7%!of!the!participants!produced!between!1!and!2!tons/ha!of!maize,!a!further!40%!of!
participants!produced!between!2!and!4!t/ha!of!maize!and!3,5%!produced!more!than!4t/ha!of!
maize.!
The!table!below!is!a!depiction!of!the!total!number!of!participants,!varieties!planted!in!each!area,!
as!well!as!the!total!number!of!participants!for!whom!maize!yields!were!collected.!!
Table 5: Summary of maize yield production and collection numbers in Midlands 2019/20
!
Estcourt(
Villages!in!Estcourt!include!Cornfields,!Ntabamhlophe!and!Loskop.!For!the!latter!two!villages,!
yields! were! promising!and! many! farmers! expressed! that! planting! under! CA! was! not! only! an!
educational!experience!in!terms!of!improving!their!farming!practices,!but!they!also!had!sufficient!
food!for!themselves!and!their!families!during!the!lockdown!period.!Some!were!able!to!even!share!
with!poor!neighbours!who!were!left!in!dire!straits!as!a!result!of!the!pandemic.!Cornfields!farmers!
on!the!other!hand!a!rather!promising!start!to!the!season,!but!due!to!adverse!weather!conditions,!
flash! floods,! hail! storms! and! livestock! invasions,! only! 6! of! the! 13! participants! harvested! their!
C($*,'$79*
;&Z=-B*
X2*23*
4-1&'%'4-8&)*
:$1%$8&-5$*
4-1&'%'4-8&)*
<1
10
11,8%
>1<2
38
44,7%
>2<4
34
40,0%
>4
3
3,5%
*BA?))
(C)CQ)
$*)
@BG?PT))
3456)
(C)CQ)
$*)
@BG?PT)
3434)
#GMA))
,?GRA)
ZA?ST))
$CV\A?)
]ABOGFGDA)
0BC@AF@)
FPC@UGSK))
.GAPD)
FCPPAF@GC
S)SCT^)
P.D581T.7D1,
JS,
SO,
f12,
!L',
K%`NB,
!L',
RJRJ,
P5Q1;,
^/:=7,,
":<7;,
k9c\/.0:Q
:71,
':,
JS,,
\:E5810E1,,
BN,
BR,
f12,
!L'l,
K%`NB,
!L',
BSb,
P5Q1;,
E/:=7,
":<7;,k9,
':,
Ba,
%:/7@51?;2,
BN,
BO,
':,
!L',
aS`R,
!L',
RJRJ,
P5Q1;,
^/:=7,
\/.0:Q:71,
f12,,
_,
&8=.4>575,
B_,
SS,
f12,
F2<99
?51;,
ED,
(L"(
H,
!L',
K%`NB,
!L',
RJRJ,
^?.3T,
1D1;,
K9/57AE:T,
F2<99?51;,
ED,(L"(H,
':,
JN,
'4.E.0>?:9>1
Z:2T:9,
,
S_,
f12,,
!L',
_O,
!L',
BSb,
^?.3T,
1D1;,
":<7;,k9,
f12,
JN,
%'%*#)
Y6)
5_`)
)
)
)
)
)
)
[Y)
25
crops.!These!6!participants!re-planted!their!trials.!The!average!yield!this!season!for!Cornfields!
was!1,938!t/ha!compared!to!1,!99!t/ha!in!the!2018/19!growing!season,!meaning!there!was!no!
significant!change!in!terms!of!yields!in!the!current!season.!!
!
L!TXDUIVS.*<CU[I*\UIVS.*>?>?*
X-0$**
./18-0$*
W1$-&0$8&*
X2*
23*
Y-5)*
]1-'8*
^$'5=&*
;_5B*
-1$-*
;0>B*
^$'5=&*
;&Z=-B*
]0R1))
_/5,R,)
&3109)
F)
Fc@FTX)
FXX)
*@FSF)
`,7-7))
%8,.5,)
&3109)
*)
**@F*T)
TXX)
X@FOX)
]A0f0))
C8=;09,)
&3109)
*)
FF@gcc)
*XX)
F@FgS)
J-43,7))
C8=;09,)
&3109)
))
YO@OOX)
HXX)
H@FYS)
#0R=919-))
`:9-478-)
&3109)
F)
Fc@FTX)
FcX)
*@X*X)
`R=7,)
`I81W-)
&3109)
H)
Hg@OSX)
FcX)
*@c*T)
C($1-5$*\'$79*W1'-7*
**
**
**
**
@QA>H*
!
Figure 7: (from left) Mbuso Mkhize's maize, (centre) Gwaja Khumalo' Maize was already mixed, (right) Moses Chonco's
maize grain
Maize!quality!was!reduced!by!heat!and!pest!attacks!(including!rats!and!locusts).!Maize!performed!
quite!well!in!Ntabamhlophe!(ave!1,5!t/ha!!max!6,3t/ha)!Ntabmhlophe!!and!Loskop!(ave!1,1t/ha;!
max!3,7t/ha,!There!was!significant!variability!in!terms!of!yield,!with!most!participants!ranging!
between!2!and!4!t/ha.!None!of!the!participants!in!the!two!aforementioned!areas!have!controls!as!
they!all!have!small!plots!of!land!on!which!to!plant.!!
Figure 8: (left) Nphtali Mngadi's CA maize, (center) Mrs Xulu had already de-cobbed her maize, (right) Lindiwe
Ntshalintshali ‘s Maize Grain
26
Figure 9: Maize yields for CA trial participants in the Estcourt villages; 2019/20
uMshwathi(Maize(Yields((
uMshwathi! is! one! of! the! 7! local! Municipalities! under! uMgungundlovu! DM!and! within! this!
municipality! work! is! undertaken! in! 8! villages:! Swedi,! Bamshela,! Hlathikhulu,! Emathulini! in!
Ozwathini!and!Gobizembe,! Mayizekanye1,2,3! in! Swayimane.! This! season,! there! has! been! a!
significant!improvement!in!terms!of!maize!sales!and!overall!production!compared!to!the!previous!
season.!This!can!be!attributed!to!good!summer!rains!as!well!as!the!CA!system!which!incorporates!
closer!spacing!with!intercropping!improved!soil!water!retention!and!improved!soil!health.!CA!
trial! plots! had! a! higher! average! yield! (1,35t/ha)! than! the! conventionally! tilled! control! plots!
(0,99t/ha).!!Although!the!trials!had!a!higher!average!than!the!control!plots,!the!overall!yields!are!
still!very!low!as!the!financial!break-even!point!for!maize!is!4!t/ha.!Only!three!farmers!managed!to!
reach!the!break-even!point!in!terms!of!their!yields!and!only!on!their!CA!plots.!!
Figure 10: Maize yields for CA trial participants in the Umshwathi villages; 2019/20
)
1,228 3,048
2,559
1,000 1,858
1,024 3,000
1,250
1,250 3,784
2,514 5,080
4,265
1,667 3,096
1,280 5,000
2,083
2,083 6,306
2,524
0,467 2,276 4,944
1,010
01234567
Mbhekeni
Naphthali
Victoria
Thandiwe
Tholakele
Ntombi
Gabsile
Sibongile
Thabile
Thobile
Gabi
Gwaja
Jabulile
Loskop Ntabamhlophe Cornfields
Maize Yields for Escourt Areas (t/ha)
1,18
0,56
1,03
0,97
1,21
2,18
0,93
0,77
1,19
1,06
1,95
00,5 11,5 22,5
Gobizembe Trial
Mayizekanye 1
Mayizekanye 2
Mayizekanye 3
Ozwa-Bhamsh Control
Ozwa-Bhamsh Trial
Ozwa-Hlathikhulu Trial
Ozwa-Math Control
Ozwa-Math Trial
Ozwa-Swedi Cont
Ozwa-Swedi Trial
Average Yield (t/ha)
Village Name
Average Yields in uMshwathi Villages (t/ha)
27
Maize%Production%Income%
When!stage!5!lockdown!was!implemented!in!March,!most!of!the!farmers!said!the!demand!for!
maize!dropped!drastically.!This!was!especially!the!case!for!Ozwathini!farmers!whose!maize!was!
ready!around!the!beginning!of!April.!Mayizekanye!farmers!were!lucky!as!their!maize!was!ready!
by!May,!when!lockdown!level!5!had!been!relaxed!and!bakkie!traders!became!active!again!and!
local!demand!was!much!higher!than!usual.!Out!of!the!55!farmers!whose!yields!were!collected!in!
Ozwathini,!Gobizembe!and!Mayizekanye,!the$combined$total$income$for$green$mealies$sold$
from$their$CA$trials$was$R$32$164$compared$to$R$8$395$in$the$2018/19$growing$season.$The$
total$recorded$income$from$the$control$plots$across$the$same$number$of$farmers$in$the$
three$areas$was$R$38$155.$The$combined$income$from$the$trial$and$control$plots$translate$
to$an$average$of$R$1278.50$/farmer$which$is$equivalent$to$a$standard$pension$grant.!!
This!local!success!is!likely!to!increase!the!adoption!rate!of!the!CA!approach!substantially!in!the!
area,!as!farmers!have!now!realised!improved!yields!and!improved!maize!quality!in!these!plots,!
when!compared!to!their!conventional!practices.!The!additional!environmental!benefits!are!slowly!
becoming!better!appreciated.!!!
Figure 11: Incomes realized from sale of green mealies in the Umshwathi villages between May and July 2020
)
Short%season%maize%and%late%planting%
Despite!introduction!of!the!short!season!maize!varieties!only!2!
participants!planted!these!varieties,!very!late!and!without!a!
high!level!of!care,!resulting!in!extremely!low!yields!of!around!
0,76t/ha.!Very!late!planting!of!short!season!maize!was!not!a!
good!strategy!for!these!farmers.!
Zinhle! Cebekhulu!(shown! on! the! right)!from! Swayimane!
decided!to!plant!in!the!middle!of!March,and!planted!the!maize!!
(SC701)!and!bean!intercrop.!!Surprisingly!both!her!maize!and!
beans!grew!and!yielded!well,!which!indicates!that!late!plantings!
can!be!attempted!with!the!standard!varieties,!rather!than!using!
the!more!specialised!short!season!varieties.!!
R3 010
R4 934
R1 045
R5 250R5 670
R13 410
R4 395
R2 250
R11 845
R3 540
R7 650R7 320
0
2000
4000
6000
8000
10000
12000
14000
16000
Gobizembe
Mayizekanye 1
Mayizekanye 2
Mayizekanye 3Control
Mayizekanye 3Trial
Ozwa-Bhamsh Control
Ozwa-Bhamsh Trial
Ozwa-Hlathikhulu
Ozwa-Math Control
Ozwa-Math Trial
Ozwa-Swedi Cont
Ozwa-Swedi Trial
Total Income
Village Name
Total$Income$from$CA$Trials$and$Conventional$Plots$in$each$village
28
Case study: Rita Ngobese
Rita!Ngobese!is!a!dedicated!farmer,!who!unfortunately!has!had!challenges!with!growing!maize!
since!her!first!year!in!the!program.!Her!maize!plots!are!situated!just!below!a!line!of!avocado!trees,!
which!resulted!in!the!maize!growing!very!thin!stalks!and!producing!tiny!cobs.!In!the!previous!
season,!she!moved!her!CA!plot!a!bit!further!down!and!rotated!maize!and!cowpeas!with!maize!and!
beans! and! vice! versa.! Furthermore,! subsequent! to! harvesting! maize! she! planted! winter! cover!
crops!in!between!the!rows!and!on!an!adjacent!plot,!mainly!to!provide!feed!for!her!young!goats.!
For!the!first!time!this!season,!her!maize!cobs!appeared!significantly!larger!in!size!compared!to!
when!she!first!planted,!which!may!be!attributed!to!a!number!of!factors!such!as!good!rainfall!and!
the!incorporation!of!the!cover!crops,!which!helped!to!improve!her!soil!organic!matter.!!
$
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
Summary(of(yields(for(beans(and(legumes(
Weighing!of!legumes!was!completed!around!the!end!of!June!across!all!areas.!Cowpeas!did!not!do!
well!at!all!this!season!in!all!areas!except!for!Loskop,!where!a!handful!of!farmers!managed!to!get!
some!yield,!although!still!very!low.!Beans!performed!quite!well!in!most!of!the!areas,!with!most!
farmers!getting!yields!between!10!and!20!kg!and!some!obtaining!50!kg!in!Ntabamhlophe/Loskop.!
Overall!this!has!been!a!good!season,!as!farmers!were!also!able!to!sell!the!beans!on!top!of!using!
them!for!household!consumption.!It!was!quite!encouraging!to!see!the!most!farmers!took!the!effort!
to!do!intercropping,!despite!some!having!reservations!about!it!leading!to!competition!between!
the!maize!and!beans.!!
Figure 12: Rita Ngobese Maize yield, (left) trial maize from previous season, (right) trial maize fromcurrent season
Figure 13: Mawthi Choncoplanted potatoes next to beans and they all succumbed to late blight (l and c), Thukukani
Mthembu's cowpea plot (r), also affected by blight
!
29
In!terms!of!estimated!yields/ha,!Ozwathini!had!the!highest!average!yield/ha!which!was!1.32!t/ha!
and!Gobizembe!had!the!lowest!which!was!0.26!t/ha.!This!was!most!probably!because!they!had!an!
outbreak!of!blight!this!year,!which!completely!damaged!cowpeas!and!potatoes!as!well!as!beans,!
as!some!farmers!had!planted!these!close!together.!!
!
The! small! figure! alongside!
shows! the! average! bean!
yields!for!the!CA!trials!in!the!
Midlands!villages!
!
!
Figure 14: Average bean yields for
CA trials for Midlands areas;
2019/20
This!season,!black!eyed!cowpeas!were!
tried! out,! instead! of! the! usual! mixed!
brown.! This! variety! appears! to! be!
much! more! susceptible! to! blight! and!
other! fungal! diseases! and! very! few!
participants!received!a!yield.!Similarly,!
participants! were! not! impressed! by!
the!production!of!the!PAN9292!beans!
provided! and! much! prefer! the! Gadra!
and!Ukulinga!varieties!tried!out!in!the!
past.!
0,59 0,60
0,26
1,12
1,32
0
0,2
0,4
0,6
0,8
1
1,2
1,4
Mayizekanye Ntabamhlophe Gobizembe Loskop Ozwathini
Yield (t/ha)
Village
Average bean yields (t/ha)
Figure 15: Clockwise from the top, 1. Babhekile
Nene from Mayizekanye, 2. Mrs Chamane was
still busy with depodding,got 20 kg beans from
her trial 3. Mrs Mhlongo's beans looked very
nice (Ozwathini), Mr Myeza with his beans and
cowpeas (Ozwathini)
30
Ntombencane Gasacase study
Ntombencane!Gasa!is!a!66!years!old!pensioner!who!lives!with!her!grandchildren.!Farming!is!one!
of! her! activities.! She! also! has! a!
small! vegetable! garden! and! she!
likes!trying!out!new!crops!to!see!if!
they!will!grow!or!not.!She!planted!
a!range!of!cover!crops.!
@':*A.4(
Sunflower:!0.6!kg!
Mungbeans:!1.5!kg!
Sorghum:!!!!1.2!kg!
%
Figure 16: Mama Ntombencane Gasa and
her harvested crops
Cover(crops(
Generally,!farmers!are!a!bit!reluctant!to!grow!crops!that!they!cannot!eat!themselves.!Summer!
cover!crops!(Sun!hemp,!millet!and!sunflower)!were!planted!by!20!participants!across!Swayimne!
and!Ozwathini.!These!grew!well!but! farmers! lost! focus! during! lockdown! and! either! neglected!
these!plots!or!fed!their!livestock!using!a!cut!and!carry!system.!It!was!thus!not!possible!to!harvest!
seed!form!these!plots,!as!was!the!intention.!
Figure 17:SCC plots in Gobizembe: Khanyisile Xaba did not weed and SCC were over-run (L), FlominaMkhize’s SCC
plot grew and produced reasonably well, but she did not harvest seed. In Ozwathini Thembeni Mkhize intercropped one
of her maizeplots with SCC(R)
Mr!Miyeza!in!Ozwathini!experimented!with!both!SCC!and!WCC!(fodder!rye,!black!oats!and!fodder!
radish)!and!intercropped!these!in!both!cases!with!his!maize.!Having!seen!the!results!and!now!
having!supplementary!fodder!for!his!10!cattle!and!13!goats,!he!is!enthused!to!grow!larger!areas!
of!cover!crops!as!fodder!in!the!future.!
31
Figure 18:Above left: Mr Mieza’s intercropped plots of maize with SCC, Above center: his WCC and Above right; the
fodder radish which he harvested and kept aside, to feed in small regular amounts to his livestock
Ozwathini(Fodder(Experimentation(Workshops(
Introduction%
Between!the!13th!and!the!26th!of!May,!a!series!of!workshops!were!conducted!in!Ozwathini!on!
fodder!experimentation.!The!workshops!were!run!by!Brigid!Letty!(a!livestock!specialist!from!the!
INR),!with!Tema!as!the!translator!and!Ntokozo!as!the!recorder.!The!purpose!of!the!workshops!
was! to! equip! farmers! with! basic! knowledge! on! winter! supplementation,! hay! making,! disease!
control!as!well!as!calf!rearing.!Due!to!lockdown!restrictions,!Brigid!was!unable!to!join!the!team!in!
Ozwathini!and!the!workshop!was!run!using!the!Zoom!App.!It!was!an!interesting!approach!as!it!
was!the!first!time!we!had!hosted!an!online!meeting,!but!it!went!fairly!smoothly.!One!of!the!benefits!
of!using!Zoom!was!that!it!allows!for!sharing!of!information!and!when!people!have!questions!you!
can!easily!research!and!share!during!the!meeting.!However,!network!was!a!problem!on!the!first!
day,!which!made!it!slightly!challenging!to!run!the!workshop,!especially!in!the!first!hour.!!
Community!meetings!and!farmers!days!have!largely!come!to!a!halt!since!the!pandemic!broke!out!
but!an!exception!was!made!in!this!regard!as!farmers!were!really!keen!to!attend!the!workshop.!
The!team!ensured!that!all!regulations!were!followed;!including!getting!a!permission!letter!form!
the!local!police!station.!Farmers!were!informed!in!advance!that!they!were!required!to!wear!face!
masks!and!all!chairs!were!sanitized!on!arrival!at!the!meeting.!Each!farmer!was!given!a!bottle!of!
hand!soap!to!take!home!and!everyone!sanitized!their!hands!upon!arrival,!each!time!they!went!out!
and! came! back! and! upon!
departure! at! the! end! of! the!
meeting.! Chairs! were! placed! just!
over! 1! metre! apart.! Instead! of!
sandwiches,!which!would!require!
handling,! only! fruits! and! biscuits!
were! provided! as! refreshments!
after!the!meeting.!!
$
Figure 19: Zoom Meeting on Winter
Supplementation, run by Brigid Letty
)
32
Workshop%1:%Winter%Feed%Supplementation%
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
Introduction$
The! meeting! opened! with! a! discussion! on! whether! farmers! provide! supplements! for! their!
livestock!in!winter,!and!also!what!are!the!most!common!challenges.!Responses!given!were:!
- Grazing!grass!dries!up!in!winter,!leaving!livestock!with!little!to!no!food.!
- Some!farmers!cut!maize!stover!for!their!cattle!in!the!evenings!but!it!runs!out!before!winter!
season!ends!
- Ingongoni!grass!is!the!most!dominant!and!is!not!very!palatable!for!cattle!
- Cows!are!susceptible!to!diseases!when!pregnant!due!to!insufficient!nutritious!grass!
- Higher!disease!prevalence!and!mortality!rate!due!to!loss!of!body!condition!
!
To! help! mitigate! the! negative!
effects! of! winter! season,! one!
farmer! shared! that! he! normally!
feeds! his! cattle! amaranthus!and!
black! jack! leaves! in! winter,!
together! with! the! maize! stover.!
This!season!he!planted!WCC!and!
SCC! with! MDF! and! has! started!
cutting! some! for! his! cattle,! and!
believes!the!cover!crops!will!help!
a!lot!in!getting!his!cattle!through!
winter.!!
Figure 20: Bab Myeza's wcc (left), scc
(center and right) which he cuts to give
to his cattle
Farmers! were! asked! what! happens! when! a! cow! becomes! too! thin! and! they! explained! that! it!
becomes!susceptible!to!diseases,!there!is!increased!mortality!especially!in!pregnant!cows!and!
they!become!less!productive,!i.e.!have!fertility!issues.!Brigid!then!explained!that!the!reason!why!
grasses!become!less!nutritious!in!winter!is!because!when!winter!starts,!they!transfer!all!their!
nutrients!to!the!roots!before!drying!out,!thus!leaving!mainly!dead!fibre!above!the!ground.!She!also!
explained! body! condition! score! and! how! farmers! can! assess! whether! their! cars! are! in! good!
condition!or!not.!Between!a!scale!of!1-5,!the!farmers!unanimously!agreed!that!by!August,!their!
33
cows!normally!have!a!BCS!(body!condition!score)!of!1,!meaning!all!of!their!ribs!show!and!they!
have!large!hollow!spaces!on!their!tail!bone.!A!body!condition!score!of!one!is!very!dangerous!as!it!
means!the!cow!is!severely!undernourished.!!
The!primary!lessons!from!this!workshop!were:!
- Supplementation!is!important!as!it!aids!in!providing!nutrients!and!energy!and!also!improving!
the!palatability!of!hay/straws!and!also!improves!grazing.!!
- There!are!various!products!on!the!market!which!can!be!used!for!supplementation,!such!as!
premix!450,!a!protein!block!and!molasses,!!
- Molasses!provide!energy,!some!vitamins!but!has!no!urea,!thus!cattle!will!need!an!additional!
supplement.!!
- Premix!450!and!the!protein!block!both!contain!urea,!and!are!a!source!of!protein.!However,!
urea!can!be!harmful!and!even!fatal!to!cattle!when!taken!in!large!amounts.!Mr!Mkhize!from!
Montobello!testified!to!this!as!he!lost!one!of!his!calves!after!it!helped!itself!to!an!open!bag!of!
urea!that!had!been!left!uncovered.!!
- Measurement:!1!cup!of!premix!450/cow,!1!cup!of!molasses/cow!and!make!a!protein!block!
available! by! placing! on! an! iron! sheet! and! allowing! cattle! to! lick! it.! One! protein! block! is!
sufficient!for!10!cows.!!
- Supplements! are! not! a! substitute! for! feed! by! merely! help! provide! nutrients! that! make! be!
lacking!in!grass!or!hay,!therefore!provide!hay!or!allow!cattle!to!graze.!!
!
Most!of!the!farmers!said!that!they!do!not!supplement!but!give!their!cattle!maize!stalks!and!they!
purchase!bales!when!necessary.!Some!have!had!challenges!with!regards!to!buying!bales!in!that!
the!grass!is!sometimes!of!such!a!poor!quality,!the!cattle!struggle!to!eat!it.!The!farmers!agreed!to!
do!an!experiment!on!the!effect!of!supplementation!on!body!condition!score.!Each!farmer!will!
record! how! much! supplement! they! give! and! to! how! many! cattle! and! write! down! the! body!
condition!score!at!the!beginning!as!well!as!at!the!end!of!winter.!Recording!will!be!done!!to!include!
supplement!used,!number!of!cows!fed,!period!of!supplementation!and!the!body!condition!score!
before!and!after!supplementation.!
!
!
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34
Summary of fodder supplementation experimentation in Ozwathini
The!table!below!summarizes!the!supplementation!experimentation!undertaken!by!6!
participants!from!Ozwahtini!
Table 6: Summary of fodder supplementation experimentation In Ozwathini June to August 2020
!
Name$and$Surname$
Activity$
Description$
Comments$
`3)`048,R-90)
J3-;1E)TcX)
J3,4-1.)R9,5I)
G4199)4,):,)
*E)23,4-1.)R9,5I?)HA--I7)
O)50449-B)"%G)580./-:)>3,;)F)
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`3)d,.:1)
J3-;1E)TcX)
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h06)R09-7)
*EcXI/?)H@c)A--I7)
J3,<1:-:)7-20304-96)4,),.-)
715I)5,A7)
F)50449-N)-.f,6)4817))
G15I)5,A)807).,A)3-5,<-3-:)
`37)h9,28-)
J3-;1E)TcX)
`,9077-7)
h06)R09-7)
*I/)23-;1E)E)H)
*[);,9077-7)0.:)*)R09-7),>)
806)2-3):06)
F)50449-@)F)/3,A.)509<-7)
&8-6)74,22-:)-041./)48-)
23-;1E)0.:)23->-33-:)R09-7)
A148);,9077-7B)`,3-)R09-7)
03-)4,)R-)23-203-)
`3)_/=R0.-)
J3,4-1.)R9,5I)
J3-;1E)TcX)
`,9077-7)
h06)R09-7)
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*)5=2);,9077-7)2-3)5,A)
A148)0)903/-)R09-),>)806@)
A8158)9074-:)0);,.48)
T)50449-)^)48-6):1:).,4)91I-)
48-)23,4-1.)R9,5I)0.:)806)
A148);,9077-7)17)23->-33-:B)
`,3-)A199)R-)23-203-:B)
`37)&80.:1A-)
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J3-;1E)TcX)
`,9077-7)
h06)R09-7)
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V%%)
F5=27)23-;1E@)F)5=27)
;,9077-7)0.:)806)-<-36)
;,3.1./)0.:)/30W1./)
74,<-3)0.:)3-;01.-:),>)
V%%)29,4)
*EcXI/)23-;1E?)H)A--I7)
*)509>),3280.-:)04)H);,.487@)
.,A)*)6-03),9:B)%09>).,A)
A-1/87)TcXI/B)'4)17)7;099)>,3)
147)0/-@)17)09A067)-041./)0.:)
,>4-.)5,.741204-:B)"%G)>3,;)
*)4,)F)
`3)`I81W-)
J3,4-1.)R9,5I)
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R1503RL)
F)R9,5I7)2-3);,.48)
23,<1:-:)483,=/8,=4)48-)
6-03)
TEcXI/)0.1;09)>--:);1E-:)
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%09>)>-:)>,3)F;,.487@)
3-5,<-3-:)A-99)>3,;)1.14109)
:10338,-0@)R=4)17)7;099)>,3)
147)0/-)
Figure 21: Above left: Mrs Nzimande’s 1 year old calf, fed on premix, molasses, hay and WCC stove, Center Mr Mkhize
measuring the calf with a weighing band to estimate it’s weight and Above Righ;t the 2 month old calf
35
Workshop%2:%Diseases%and%Parasites%
Introduction$
Workshop! 2! focused!
mainly! on! controlling!
internal! and! external!
parasites! where! emphasis!
was!placed!on!that!farmers!
must! ensure! that! their!
cattle! are! vaccinated!
regularly.! When! asked!
about! the! most! common!
parasites! and! diseases!
they! struggle! with! in!
livestock,! these! were! the!
responses:!
- Tapeworm! and!
roundworm!
- Ticks!
- Heart!water!(grey!tick,!
mostly! in! hot!
temperatures)!
- Red!water!
- Lumpy!skin!
- Scours!!
!
The!farmers!were!advised!to!always!have!Lectade,!Terramycin!and!Maxitet,!especially!for!young!
livestock! as! they! tend! to! be! more! susceptible.! Vaccination! was! also! recommended! against!
brucellosis,! black! quarter,! and! lumpy! skin.! Regular! deworming! of! calves! was! also! said! to! be!
essential.! For! tickborne! diseases! (heartwater! and! red! water),! farmers! were! advised!to! use!
Terramycin!for!the!former!and!Berenil!for!the!latter.!!
A!question!was!asked!about!how!to!control!amathuku!(worms)!often!seen!on!the!head!of!goats!
which!causes!them!to!go!mad!and!run!around!in!circles.!Brigid!explained!that!the!worm!is!spread!
by!dogs!and!is!dangerous!for!goats!as!they!normally!die!from!it.!It!can!be!prevented!by!throwing!
away!goat!heads!after!slaughter!instead!of!giving!it!to!dogs!as!that!is!how!the!diseases!stays!in!
cycle.!!
Important!points!that!farmers!have!to!remember:!
- Always!vaccinate!cows!for!vibriosis,!especially!when!they!graze!on!communal!land!and!mix!
with!other!herds,!because!if!mounted!by!an!infected!bull!it!may!lead!to!fertility!issues!
- Always!use!recommended!dosage!on!medication,!no!more!and!no!less!than!that!
- Separate!sick!cows!from!the!herd!to!prevent!spread!
- Always!ensure!that!cows!have!access!to!good!grazing!grass!or!provide!supplements!as!proper!
nutrition!will!minimize!the!risk!of!diseases!!
- Use!tick!grease!as!a!spot!treatment!for!ticks.!Important!to!control!ticks,!because!they!can!cause!
damage!to!the!skin!apart!from!transmitting!diseases.!
36
- Proper!handling!of!all!medical!equipment!is!highly!important,!sterilise!all!containers!prior!to!
use!and!confiscate!vaccines!that!have!already!been!open!
- Vaccines!must!be!stored!under!cold!temperatures,!if!travelling!by!taxi,!and!you!don’t!have!a!
fridge,!carry!a!cooler!box!with!ice!and!first!ensure!that!your!cattle!are!close!by!so!that!when!
you!return!you!can!vaccinate!immediately.!!
!
!
!
!
$
Figure 22: Farmers must always have the above at home, to treat bacterial infections and scours, as delayed
treatment may lead to premature death
,
Practical%Demonstration%
At!the!end!of!the!workshop,!there!was!a!practical!demonstration!of!the!baler,!which!the!farmers!
found!to!be!quite!interesting.!The!process!was!fairly!easy!and!straightforward,!as!the!grass!had!
already!been!collected.!A!string!was!placed!on!the!two!grooves!at!the!top!and!ran!down!the!bottom!
and!brought!out!of!the!two!front!slits,!thereafter!the!container!was!stacked!with!grass!which!was!
then!pressed!down!and!stacked!some!more!and!pressed!until!full.!The!string!was!then!used!to!tie!
the!bale!and!it!was!weighed!afterwards.!A!total!of!four!bales!were!made,!which!weighed!between!
7!to!9!kg.!The!courser!and!harder!the!grass,!the!harder!it!was!to!stack!closely,!hence!the!lighter!
weight.!Finer!grass!such!as!kikuyu!worked!well!as!it!was!easy!to!stack!and!form!into!a!ball,!and!
also!weighed!more!as!there!were!less!air!spaces.!The!pictures!on!the!following!page!show!the!
demonstration!process.!!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
Figure 23: A range of picturesoutlining the baling workshop, showing the grass, the baler,andcompleted bales.
)
37
Workshop%3:%Calf%Management%
Figure 24: Right: Mr Sikhakhane’s calves, grazing in
his SCC plot.
)
Introduction$
At! the! first! workshop,! it! emerged! that!the!
majority! of! farmers! were! fairly! new! to!
livestock! ownership.! They! bought! calves! in!
March! and! were! unsure! about! some! of! the!
important! things! to! consider! when! rearing!
calves.! Some! had! a! challenge! with! feed,! as!
their!calves!tended!to!be!picky!when!it!came!
to! super! 18! feed,! and! also! frequently! had!
diarrhoea,!with!some!fatalities.!Having!taken!
all!of!the!aforementioned!into!consideration,!
Brigid! and! the! MDF! team! decided! to! run! a!
workshop!on!calf!management.!!
!
Primary!lessons!from!the!workshop!were!as!follows:!
- Calves!need!to!get!plenty!of!colostrum!between!24!hours!and!up!to!3!days!after!birth!
- It!is!important!to!supply!the!right!feed,!as!certain!feed!types!contain!fifth!grade!urea!which!
may!be!harmful!to!calves.!!
- In! terms! of! feeding,! buy! a! milk! replacement! and! give! to! calve! twice! a! day.! For! Suromel,!
normally!its!200g!in!the!morning!and!200!g!in!the!evening!in!one!litre!of!water!and!a!bag!of!
25!kg!lasts!for!55!days.!!
- Deworm!calves!regularly!and!vaccinate!female!calves!against!CA,!between!4!and!8!months.!!
- In! case! of! scours,! stop! giving! milk! and! give! either! Lectade! or! glucose! together! with!
Terramycin!which!will!kill!the!infection.!!
Below!is!a!short!table!on!basic!calf!management!(shared!by!Mr!Mkhize,!the!KZNDARD!extension!
officer)!
*KA)
XAAD)%I\A)
]A?P@U)$?BA)
B,=11T,
d1/21D,
B,?54/1,05?T,F0:/757AH,
B,?54/1,05?T,F161757AH,
L7A<2,Q,J,
,
J,=11T2,
J,?54/1,05?T,F0:/757AH,
J,?54/1,05?T,F161757AH,
,
O,=11T2,
J,?54/1,05?T,F0:/757AH,
J,?54/1,05?T,F161757AH,],3.?@,01.?,
,
B$J,0:74>2,
J,?54/1,05?T,F0:/757AH,
J,?54/1,05?T,F161757AH,],3.?@,01.?,],>.D,
,
(1=:/0, @:/, 4.91=:/0, .7;, /:<7;,
=:/0CL99?D, 29:4, 4/1.40174, @:/, 453T2,
F453T,A/1.21c2<91/,;59H,
O,0:74>2,
\/.;<.??D,;13/1.21,.0:<74,:@,05?T,,
B,?54/1,05?T,F0:/757AH,
B,?54/1,05?T,F161757AH,],3.?@,01.?,],2=114,@11;,
,
S,0:74>2,
K=114,@11;I,24./4,2<99?1017457A,
!/105Q,S_N,
!/:4157,E?:3T,
P:?.2212,
W.3357.41,@:/,,
^/<31??:252I,3?:24/5;5<0,.7;,65E/5:252,
38
Farmers!asked!for!assistance!with!buying!more!calves!and!paid!a!total!of!R!19!650!to!procure!
them.!!
Conclusion$$
Overall,!the!workshops!went!well,!with!some!challenging!questions!and!points!of!reflection!in!
between.!The!farmers!were!very!pleased!and!said!they!gained!a!lot!and!what!they!learned!would!
be!useful!in!taken!them!forward.!!
!
Procurement of Calves
Between!June!and!August!farmers!have!bought!three!sets!of!calves,!one!from!Estcourt!and!two!
Creighton.!The!three!sets!of!calves!were!procured!with!Brigid’s!assistance,!who!linked!the!farmers!
with!commercial!farmers!who!sell!calves.!The!calves!bought!were!different!mixed!breeds,!which!
included!Holstein!and!Inguni,!Holstein!and!Angus!and!other!breeds.!The!calves!cost!between!R!
300!and!R850!each,!with!the!ones!from!Escourt!being!the!most!expensive.!The!farmers!raised!R!
11!400!for!the!first!set!of!10!calves!at!R850!each,!and!then!another!R!2400!for!8!calves!at!R!300!
each! and! finally! R! 5! 850! for! 13! calves! at! R! 450!each! which! were! procured! from! Creighton.! A!
Whatsapp!group!was!opened!by!Tema!and!Brigid!as!a!platform!for!farmers!to!share!updates!on!
how!their!calves!are!doing.!Some!of!the!pictures!below!come!from!this!group.!The!calves!have!
adjusted!very!well!and!are!healthy!and!growing,!with!the!farmers!being!very!grateful!to!Brigid!
and!MDF!for!their!support!in!both!acquiring!and!looking!after!the!calves.!This!has!meant!that!
there!has!only!been!one!fatality!and!all!other!calves!are!now!doing!well.!The!reason!for!buying!
calves! is! because! the!
farmers! want! to!
venture! into! livestock!
farming!and!raise!cattle!
to! sell! for! ceremonies!
such! as! weddings! and!
also! for! dowry!
payments.! In! addition,!
cattle! are! seen! as! a!
symbol! of! wealth! and!
success! in! the! African!
culture.!!
Figure 25: From top left,
Mam Xulu, Bab Ngcobo and
Bab Skhakhane's calves
)
(
!
Farmer!Innovation!Platforms!
Two!events!were!held!towards!the!end!of!2019,!one!in!Ozwathini!focussing!on!cover!crops!and!
one!in!Ntabamhlophe!in!association!with!LandCare!as!an!introduction!to!CA!in!the!area.!!!The!
annual!farmers’!days!could!not!be!held!due!to!the!COVID-19!pandemic,!but!a!further!3!learning!
39
and! stakeholder! engagement! workshops! related! to! crop-livestock! integration! were! held! in!
Ozwathini!in!may!and!June!2020.!!In!addition,!Temakholo!Mathebula!has!given!presentations!in!
two!webinars,!outlining!and!promoting!the!CA!SFIP:!
1.!“Heal!the!Land,!heal!the!people,”!national!webinar!hosted!by!the!Integra!trust!on!the!6th!of!
June!2020!and!!
2.!“The!gendered!impacts!of!COVID-19:!Women!in!informal!work”,!national!webinar!hosted!by!
PLAAS!at!UWC!on!the!6th!August!2020.!
References!
Critchley,!W.,!&!Siegert,!K.!(1991).!B%&:,(C%,$:.&'"3(/?D5EF!1>EGHEIG0<(?(F%"J%*(+#,(&C:(=:.'3"(
%"A(>#".&,J9&'#"(#+(B%&:,(8%,$:.&'"3(19C:-:.(+#,()*%"&(),#AJ9&'#"<!Rome:!FAO.%
Dlamini,!P.,!Jewitt,!G.,!Lorenz,!S.,!&!Orchard,!C.!(2011).!Controlling!factors!of!sheet!erosion!under!
degraded!grasslands!in!the!sloping!lands!of!KwaZulu-Natal,!South!Africa.!?3,'9J*&J,%*(
B%&:,(F%"%3:-:"&K(IL(/GG0,!1711-1718.!doi:10.1016/j.agwat.2010.07.016!!
FAO.!(2003).!M"*#9N'"3(&C:(B%&:,()#&:"&'%*(#+(?3,'9J*&J,:<!Retrieved!from!
http://www.fao.org/3/y4525e/y4525e00.htm#Contents!
Mutema,!M.,!Jewitt,!G.,!Chivenge,!P.,!&!Kusangaya,!S.!(2017).!Spatial!scale!impact!on!daily!surface!
water!and!sediment!fluxes!in!Thukela!river,!South!Africa.!Retrieved!from!
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/309720071!
Schulze,!R.!E.!(2011).!?(;OGG():,.2:9&'$:(#"(>*'-%&:(>C%"3:(%"A(&C:(1#J&C(?+,'9%"B%&:,(1:9&#,<(
P:2#,&(QQ(RGLEG;<!Pretoria,!RSA.:!Water!Research!Commission.!
Stolbovoy,!V.,!Montanarella,!L.,!Filippi,!N.,!Jones,!A.,!Gallego,!J.,!&!Grassi,!G.!(2007).!1#'*(.%-2*'"3(
2,#&#9#*(&#(9:,&'+7(&C:(9C%"3:.(#+(#,3%"'9(9%,6#"(.&#9N('"(-'"&:,%*(.#'*(#+(&C:(SJ,#2:%"(
M"'#"<(T:,.'#"(;<!Luxembourg.!ISBN:!978-92-79-05379-5:!EUR!21576!EN/2.!56!pp.!
Office!for!Official!Publications!of!the!European!Communities.!
!
! !
Appendix(1:(Maize(yield(data(for(the(Midlands(villages;(2019/20(
AREA$
Name$$
Surname$
Treatme
nt$
No$
of$
Cob
s$$$
No$
of$
Bag
s$
Av.$
weight$
(kg)/b
ag$
Av.$
Weig
ht$of$
cob$
Av.$
weig
ht$of$
grain$
weig
ht$of$
cob$+$
grain$$
%grai
n$
weigh
t$
Grain$
weigh
t$(kg)$
are
a$
(m2
)$
Weig
ht$(t)$
weigh
t$
(t/ha
)$
Income$
(total$
dozens)$
(R)$
$
Mavis&Shezi&
Nkomo&
Trial&
200&
2&
22,594&
0,084&
0,173&
0,258&
0,673&
30,398&
400&
0,030&
0,760&
R0,00&
&
Bongiwe&&
Shezi&
Trial&
300&
3&
22,594&
0,084&
0,173&
0,258&
0,673&
45,597&
400&
0,046&
1,140&
R800,00&
&
Thandazile&&
Maduna&
Trial&
240&
2,4&
22,594&
0,084&
0,173&
0,258&
0,673&
36,478&
400&
0,036&
0,912&
R300,00&
&
Dudu&
Shezi&
Trial&
480&
4,8&
22,594&
0,084&
0,173&
0,258&
0,673&
72,956&
400&
0,073&
1,824&
R240,00&
&
Ntombi&&
Shandu&
Trial&
600&
6&
22,594&
0,084&
0,173&
0,258&
0,673&
91,194&
400&
0,091&
2,280&
R0,00&
&
Nomusa&&
Shandu&
Trial&
300&
3&
22,594&
0,084&
0,173&
0,258&
0,673&
45,597&
600&
0,046&
0,760&
R750,00&
&
Fikile&
Maphumulo&
Trial&
0&
0&
22,594&
0,084&
0,173&
0,258&
0,673&
0,000&
400&
0,000&
0,000&
R600,00&
&
Lungile&&
Phungula&
Trial&
360&
3,6&
22,594&
0,084&
0,173&
0,258&
0,673&
54,717&
400&
0,055&
1,368&
R1&200,00&
&
Sbongile&&
Nene&
Trial&
0&
0&
0&
0&
0&
0&
0&
0,000&
400&
0,000&
0,000&
R0,00&
&
Sbongile&&
Zondi&
Trial&
0&
0&
0&
0&
0&
0&
0&
0,000&
0&
0,000&
0,000&
R0,00&
&
Lindeni&&
Nkala&
Trial&
444&
4,44&
22,594&
0,084&
0,173&
0,258&
0,673&
67,484&
400&
0,067&
1,687&
R444,00&
&
Agnes&
Gabela&
Trial&
240&
2,4&
22,594&
0,084&
0,173&
0,258&
0,673&
36,478&
800&
0,036&
0,456&
R300,00&
&
Ntmobikho
na&
Mchunu&
Trial&
0&
0&
0&
0&
0&
0&
0&
0,000&
400&
0,000&
0,000&
R0,00&
&
Philile&
Mthethwa&
Trial&
60&
0,6&
22,594&
0,084&
0,173&
0,258&
0,673&
9,119&
0&
0,009&
0,000&
R240,00&
&
Bab&&
Shangase&
Trial&
12&
0,12&
22,594&
0,084&
0,173&
0,258&
0,673&
1,824&
300&
0,002&
0,061&
R60,00&
&
Mrs&Msomi&
Ndokweni&
Trial&
36&
0,36&
22,594&
0,084&
0,173&
0,258&
0,673&
5,472&
400&
0,005&
0,137&
R0,00&
&
Total$(Trial):$$
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
5,639$
$$
Mayizekanye$1$
Average$Yield$Trial$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
0,564$
R4$
934,000$
$
Name$$
Surname$
Treatme
nt$
No$
of$
Cob
s$$$
No$
of$
Bag
s$
Av.$
weight$
(kg)/b
ag$
Av.$
Weig
ht$of$
cob$
Av.$
weig
ht$of$
grain$
weig
ht$of$
cob$+$
grain$$
%grai
n$
weigh
t$
Grain$
weigh
t$(kg)$
are
a$
(m2
)$
Weig
ht$(t)$
weigh
t$
(t/ha
)$
Income$
(total$
dozens)$
(R)$
41
$
Nakeni&
Ngubane&
Trial&
804&
8&
22,594&
0,084&
0,173&
0,258&
0,673&
121,59
3&
400&
0,122&
3,040&
R800,00&
&
MaNene&
Mkhize&&
Trial&
240&
2,4&
22,594&
0,084&
0,173&
0,258&
0,673&
65,373&
400&
0,065&
1,634&
R600,00&
&
Fikile&&
Maphumulo&
Trial&
284&
2,84&
22,594&
0,084&
0,173&
0,258&
0,673&
43,165&
400&
0,043&
1,079&
R245,00&
&
Sbongile&
Ndlovu&
Trial&
288&
3&
22,594&
0,084&
0,173&
0,258&
0,673&
45,597&
400&
0,046&
1,140&
R2&100,00&
&
Total$(Trial):$$
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
4,119$
R1$
045,000$
Mayizekanye$2$
Average$Yield$Trial$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
1,030$
$$
$
Name$$
Surname$
Treatme
nt$
No$
of$
Cob
s$$$
No$
of$
Bag
s$
Av.$
weight$
(kg)/b
ag$
Av.$
Weig
ht$of$
cob$
Av.$
weig
ht$of$
grain$
weig
ht$of$
cob$+$
grain$$
%grai
n$
weigh
t$
Grain$
weigh
t$(kg)$
are
a$
(m2
)$
Weig
ht$(t)$
weigh
t$
(t/ha
)$
Income$
(total$
dozens)$
(R)$
$
Babhekile&&
Nene&
Trial&
420&
4,2&
22,594&
0,084&
0,173&
0,258&
0,673&
63,836&
400&
0,064&
1,596&
R420,00&
&
&&
&&
Control&
108
0&
10,8&
22,594&
0,084&
0,173&
0,258&
0,673&
164,15
0&
600&
0,164&
2,736&
R3&150,00&
&
Dumazile&&
Nxusa&
Trial&
180
0&
18&
22,594&
0,084&
0,173&
0,258&
0,673&
273,58
3&
120
0&
0,274&
2,280&
R5&250,00&
&
&&
&&
Control&
720&
7,2&
22,594&
0,084&
0,173&
0,258&
0,673&
109,43
3&
800&
0,109&
1,368&
R2&100,00&
&
Total$(Trial):$$
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
3,876$
R5$
670,000$
Mayizekanye$3$
Average$Yield$Trial$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
0,969$
R5$250,00$
$
Name$$
Surname$
Treatme
nt$
No$
of$
Cob
s$$$
No$
of$
Bag
s$
Av.$
weight$
(kg)/b
ag$
Av.$
Weig
ht$of$
cob$
Av.$
weig
ht$of$
grain$
weig
ht$of$
cob$+$
grain$$
%grai
n$
weigh
t$
Grain$
weigh
t$(kg)$
are
a$
(m2
)$
Weig
ht$(t)$
weigh
t$
(t/ha
)$
Income$
(total$
dozens)$$
(R)$
$
Doris&&&
Chamane&&
Trial&
720&
7,2&
22,594&
0,024&
0,173&
0,198&
0,877&
142,65
1&
400&
0,143&
3,566&
R1&800,00&
&
&&
&&
Control&
180
0&
18&
22,594&
0,024&
0,173&
0,198&
0,877&
356,62
7&
200
0&
0,357&
1,783&
R6&000,00&
&
Sibongile&
Mhlongo&
Trial&
360&
3,6&
22,594&
0,024&
0,173&
0,198&
0,877&
71,325&
400&
0,071&
1,783&
R450,00&
&
&&
&&
Control&
800&
8&
22,594&
0,024&
0,173&
0,198&
0,877&
158,50
1&
100
0&
0,159&
1,585&
R2&345,00&
&
Macelu&
Bhengu&
Trial&
105&
1,05&
22,594&
0,024&
0,173&
0,198&
0,877&
20,803&
400&
0,021&
0,520&
R90,00&
&
&&
&&
Control&
250&
2,5&
22,594&
0,024&
0,173&
0,198&
0,877&
49,532&
600&
0,050&
0,826&
R0,00&
&
Joice&&
Makhoba&
Trial&
500&
5&
22,594&
0,024&
0,173&
0,198&
0,877&
99,063&
400&
0,099&
2,477&
R1&200,00&
42
&
&&
&&
Control&
120
0&
12&
22,594&
0,024&
0,173&
0,198&
0,877&
237,75
1&
200
0&
0,238&
1,189&
R3&500,00&
&
Total$(Trial):$$
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
8,346$
R3$
540,000$
$
Total$(Control):$$
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
5,382$
R11$
845,000$
Ozwa-Math$Trial$
Average$Yield$Trial$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
1,192$
R15$
385,000$
Ozwa-Math$Control$
Average$Yield$Control$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
0,769$
$$
$
Name$$
Surname$
Treatme
nt$
No$
of$
Cob
s$$$
No$
of$
Bag
s$
Av.$
weight$
(kg)/b
ag$
Av.$
Weig
ht$of$
cob$
Av.$
weig
ht$of$
grain$
weig
ht$of$
cob$+$
grain$$
%grai
n$
weigh
t$
Grain$
weigh
t$(kg)$
are
a$
(m2
)$
Weig
ht$(t)$
weigh
t$
(t/ha
)$
Income$
(total$
dozens$$
(R)$
$
Thembi&
Mkhize&&
Trial&
180&
6&
22,594&
0,024&
0,173&
0,198&
0,877&
118,87
6&
400&
0,119&
2,972&
R1&800,00&
&
&&
&&
Control&
180
0&
18&
22,594&
0,024&
0,173&
0,198&
0,877&
356,62
7&
200
0&
0,357&
1,783&
R0,00&
&
Nice&
Maize&
Trial&
360&
3,6&
22,594&
0,024&
0,173&
0,198&
0,877&
71,325&
400&
0,071&
1,783&
R450,00&
&
&&
&&
Control&
0&
0&
22,594&
0,024&
0,173&
0,198&
0,877&
0,000&
100
0&
0,000&
0,000&
R0,00&
&
Bab&&
Zondi&
Trial&
0&
0&
22,594&
0,024&
0,173&
0,198&
0,877&
0,000&
400&
0,000&
0,000&
R0,00&
&
&&
&&
Control&
&&
0&
0,000&
0,000&
0,000&
0,000&
0,000&
0,000&
400&
0,000&
0,000&
R0,00&
&
Total$(Trial):$$
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
4,755$
R2$
250,000$
$
Total$(Control):$$
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
1,783$
R0,000$
Ozwa-Hlathikhulu$
Trial$
Average$Yield$Trial$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
0,679$
R2$
250,000$
Ozwa-Hlathikhulu$
Trial$
Average$Yield$Control$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
0,255$
$$
$
Name$$
Surname$
Treatme
nt$
No$
of$
Cob
s$$$
No$
of$
Bag
s$
Av.$
weight$
(kg)/b
ag$
Av.$
Weig
ht$of$
cob$
Av.$
weig
ht$of$
grain$
weig
ht$of$
cob$+$
grain$$
%grai
n$
weigh
t$
Grain$
weigh
t$(kg)$
are
a$
(m2
)$
Weig
ht$(t)$
weigh
t$
(t/ha
)$
Income$
(total$
dozens)$$
(R)$
$
Selaphi&&
&Mthuli&
Trial&
840&
8,4&
22,594&
0,024&
0,173&
0,198&
0,877&
166,42
6&
400&
0,166&
4,161&
R2&100,00&
&
&&
&&
Control&
960&
9,6&
22,594&
0,024&
0,173&
0,198&
0,877&
190,20
1&
100
0&
0,190&
1,902&
R2&400,00&
&
Nokuthula&&&
Sibiya&
Trial&
150&
5&
22,594&
0,024&
0,173&
0,198&
0,877&
99,063&
400&
0,099&
2,477&
R450,00&
43
&
&&
&&
Control&
240
0&
24&
22,594&
0,024&
0,173&
0,198&
0,877&
475,50
3&
500
0&
0,476&
0,951&
R6&000,00&
&
Mnto&
&Mthuli&
Trial&
180&
1,8&
22,594&
0,024&
0,173&
0,198&
0,877&
35,663&
400&
0,036&
0,892&
R450,00&
&
&&
&&
Control&
804&
8,04&
22,594&
0,024&
0,173&
0,198&
0,877&
159,29
3&
600&
0,159&
2,655&
R2&010,00&
&
Euginia&&
Ndimande&&
Trial&
192&
4&
22,594&
0,024&
0,173&
0,198&
0,877&
79,250&
400&
0,079&
1,981&
R480,00&
&
&&
&&
Control&
0&
0&
0,000&
0,024&
0,000&
0,024&
0,000&
0,000&
400&
0,000&
0,000&
R0,00&
&
Lindiwe&&
Khanyile&
Trial&
96&
0,96&
22,594&
0,024&
0,173&
0,198&
0,877&
19,020&
400&
0,019&
0,476&
R240,00&
&
&&
&&
Control&
0&
0&
22,594&
0,024&
0,000&
0,000&
0,000&
0,000&
0&
0,000&
0,000&
R0,00&
&
Lina&&
Mthuli&
Trial&
180&
10&
22,594&
0,024&
0,173&
0,198&
0,877&
198,12
6&
400&
0,198&
4,953&
R525,00&
&
&&
&&
Control&
120
0&
12&
22,594&
0,024&
0,173&
0,198&
0,877&
237,75
1&
800&
0,238&
2,972&
R3&000,00&
&
Jane&&&
Ngcobo&
Trial&
60&
0,6&
22,594&
0,024&
0,173&
0,198&
0,877&
11,888&
400&
0,012&
0,297&
R150,00&
&
&&
&&
Control&
0&
0&
22,594&
0,024&
0,173&
0,198&
0,877&
0,000&
0&
0,000&
0,000&
R0,00&
&
Total$(Trial):$$
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
15,23
6$
R4$
395,000$
$
Total$(Control):$$
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
8,480$
R13$
410,000$
Ozwa-Bhamsh$Trial$
Average$Yield$Trial$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
2,177$
R627,857$
Ozwa-Bhamsh$
Control$
Average$Yield$Control$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
1,211$
1915,714$
$
Name$$
Surname$
Treatme
nt$
No$
of$
Cob
s$$$
No$
of$
Bag
s$
Av.$
weight$
(kg)/b
ag$
Av.$
Weig
ht$of$
cob$
Av.$
weig
ht$of$
grain$
weig
ht$of$
cob$+$
grain$$
%$
grain$
weigh
t$
Grain$
weigh
t$(kg)$
are
a$
(m2
)$
Weig
ht$(t)$
weigh
t$
(t/ha
)$
Income$
(R)$
$
Bab&
Nkomo&
Trial&
936&
9,36&
28,105&
0,024&
0,173&
0,198&
0,877&
230,67
9&
400&
0,231&
5,767&
R2&340,00&
&
&&
&&
Control&
720&
7,2&
22,594&
0,024&
0,173&
0,198&
0,877&
142,65
1&
400&
0,143&
3,566&
R1&800,00&
&
Elina&&
Zondi&
Trial&
792&
7,92&
22,594&
0,024&
0,173&
0,198&
0,877&
156,91
6&
400&
0,157&
3,923&
R1&980,00&
&
&&
&&
Control&
144
0&
14,4&
22,594&
0,024&
0,173&
0,198&
0,877&
285,30
2&
100
0&
0,285&
2,853&
R3&600,00&
&
Thoko&&
&Zuma&
Trial&
480&
4,8&
22,594&
0,024&
0,173&
0,198&
0,877&
95,101&
400&
0,095&
2,378&
R1&200,00&
&
&&
&&
Control&
300&
3&
22,594&
0,024&
0,173&
0,198&
0,877&
59,438&
600&
0,059&
0,991&
R750,00&
44
&
Nathaniel&&
Myeza&
Trial&
180&
1,8&
22,594&
0,024&
0,173&
0,198&
0,877&
35,663&
400&
0,036&
0,892&
R450,00&
&
&&
&&
Control&
0&
0&
0,000&
0,024&
0,000&
0,024&
0,000&
0,000&
400&
0,000&
0,000&
R0,00&
&
Nokuthula&&
Dube&
Trial&
108&
1,08&
28,105&
0,024&
0,173&
0,198&
0,877&
26,617&
400&
0,027&
0,665&
R150,00&
&
&&
&&
Control&
0&
0&
22,594&
0,024&
0,000&
0,000&
0,000&
0,000&
0&
0,000&
0,000&
R0,00&
&
MaZondi&
Xulu&
Trial&
360&
3,6&
22,594&
0,024&
0,173&
0,198&
0,877&
71,325&
300&
0,071&
2,378&
R1&200,00&
&
&&
&&
Control&
600&
6&
22,594&
0,024&
0,173&
0,198&
0,877&
118,87
6&
400&
0,119&
2,972&
R1&500,00&
&
Total$(Trial):$$
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
13,62
4$
R7$
320,000$
$
Total$(Control):$$
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
7,410$
R7$
650,000$
Ozwa-Swedi$Trial$
Average$Yield$Trial$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
1,946$
R1$
220,000$
Ozwa-Swedi$Cont$
Average$Yield$Control$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
1,059$
1275,000$
$
Name$$
Surname$
Treatme
nt$
No$
of$
Cob
s$$$
No$
of$
Bag
s$
Av.$
weight$
(kg)/b
ag$
Av.$
Weig
ht$of$
cob$
Av.$
weig
ht$of$
grain$
weig
ht$of$
cob$+$
grain$$
%grai
n$
weigh
t$
Grain$
weigh
t$(kg)$
are
a$
(m2
)$
Weig
ht$(t)$
weigh
t$
(t/ha
)$
Income$
$
Thuthukani&
Mthembu&
Trial&
396&
3,96&
17,082&
0,084&
0,173&
0,258&
0,673&
45,506&
400&
0,046&
1,138&
R1&320,00&
&
Ntombenca
ne&&
Gasa&
Trial&
0&
0&
0,000&
0,000&
0,000&
0,000&
0,000&
67,335&
300&
0,067&
2,245&
&&
&
Thanda&
Mathonsi&
Trial&
0&
0&
0,000&
0,000&
0,000&
0,000&
0,000&
68,050&
200&
0,068&
3,403&
&&
&
Delisile&
Ngobeni&
Trial&
0&
0&
0,000&
0,000&
0,000&
0,000&
0,000&
66,600&
400&
0,067&
1,665&
R385,00&
&
smephi&&
choncho&
Trial&
0&
0&
0,000&
0,000&
0,000&
0,000&
0,000&
52,870&
200&
0,053&
2,644&
&&
&
Rita&&
Ngobese&
Trial&
300&
3&
23,010&
0,030&
0,208&
0,239&
0,874&
60,299&
400&
0,023&
0,575&
R105,00&
&
&&
&&
Control&
&&
3&
10,338&
0,030&
0,208&
0,239&
0,874&
27,092&
400&
0,010&
0,258&
&&
&
Khombisile&&
Mncanyane&
Trial&
500&
5&
15,530&
0,084&
0,173&
0,258&
0,673&
52,235&
400&
0,052&
1,306&
R1&200,00&
&
&&
&&
Control&
0&
0&
0,000&
0,000&
0,000&
0,000&
0,000&
0,000&
400&
0,000&
0,000&
&&
&
Nelisiwe&&
Ngcobo&
Trial&
0&
0&
0&
0&
0&
0&
0&
40,000&
400&
0,040&
1,000&
&&
&
Flomina&&
Mbatha&
Trial&
532&
5&
15,530&
0,084&
0,173&
0,258&
0,673&
52,235&
200&
0,052&
2,612&
&&
&
Thokozile&&
Mahlaba&
Trial&
660&
6,6&
15,530&
0,084&
0,173&
0,258&
0,673&
68,951&
200&
0,069&
3,448&
&&
&
Miriam&
Ngubane&
Trial&
84&
1&
15,530&
0,084&
0,173&
0,258&
0,673&
10,447&
200&
0,010&
0,522&
&&
45
&
Total$(Trial):$$
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
20,81
4$
&&
&
Total$(Control):$$
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
20,55
6$
&&
Gobizembe$Trial$
Averge$Yield$Trial$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
1,180$
R3$010,00$
$
Average$Yield$Control$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
2,937$
&&
&
Name$$
Surname$
Treatme
nt$
No$
of$
Cob
s$$
No$
of$
Bag
s$
Av.$
weight$
(kg)/b
ag$
Av.$
Weig
ht$of$
cob$
Av.$
weig
ht$of$
grain$
weig
ht$of$
cob$+$
grain$$
%grai
n$
weigh
t$
Grain$
weigh
t$(kg)$
are
a$
(m2
)$
Weig
ht$(t)$
weigh
t$
(t/ha
)$
$
&
Fikile&
Ntshingila&
Trial&
600&
6&
12,083&
0,037&
0,182&
0,218&
0,832&
60,324&
200&
0,060&
3,016&
&
&
Ntombi&&
Duma&
Trial&
0&
0&
17,082&
0,000&
0,000&
0,000&
0,000&
121,91
8&
400&
0,122&
3,048&
&
&
Thembi&
Xaba&
Trial&
100
0&
10&
17,082&
0,116&
0,173&
0,289&
0,599&
102,36
0&
400&
0,102&
2,559&
&
&
Gabsile&
Sithole&
Trial&
150&
1,5&
17,082&
0,116&
0,173&
0,289&
0,599&
40,000&
400&
0,040&
1,000&
&
&
Mrs&&
Xulu&
Trial&
0&
0&
0,000&
0,000&
0,000&
0,000&
0,000&
74,315&
400&
0,074&
1,858&
&
&
Sibongile&
Zuma&
Trial&
300&
3&
17,082&
0,116&
0,173&
0,289&
0,599&
30,708&
300&
0,031&
1,024&
&
&
Happy&&
Ntshangase&
Trial&
0&
0&
0&
0&
0&
0&
0&
120,00
0&
400&
0,120&
3,000&
&
&
Thabile&
Molo&
Trial&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
50,000&
400&
0,050&
1,250&
&
&
Mama&
Sibisi&
Trial&
150&
3&
17,082&
0,116&
0,173&
0,289&
0,599&
50,000&
400&
0,050&
1,250&
&
&
Thobile&
Mbanjwa&
Trial&
0&
0&
0&
0&
0&
0&
0&
151,35
0&
400&
0,151&
3,784&
&
&
Total$(Trial):$$
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
10,43
3$
$
Ntabamhlophe$
Average$Yield$Trial$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
1,490$
$
&
$$
Surname$
Treatme
nt$
No$
of$
Cob
s$$$
No$
of$
Bag
s$
Av.$
weight$
(kg)/b
ag$
Av.$
Weig
ht$of$
cob$
Av.$
weig
ht$of$
grain$
weig
ht$of$
cob$+$
grain$$
%grai
n$
weigh
t$
Grain$
weigh
t$(kg)$
are
a$
(m2
)$
Weig
ht$(t)$
weigh
t$
(t/ha
)$
$
&
Mbhekeni&
Mazibuko&
Trial&
96&
3&
13,665&
0,116&
0,173&
0,289&
0,599&
24,565&
200&
0,025&
1,228&
&
&
Khumbuzile&&
Nqubuka&
Trial&
0&
0&
0,000&
0,000&
0,000&
0,000&
0,000&
121,91
8&
400&
0,122&
3,048&
&
&
Naphthali&
Mngadi&
Trial&
100
0&
10&
17,082&
0,116&
0,173&
0,289&
0,599&
102,36
0&
400&
0,102&
2,559&
&
46
&
Michael&&
Nene&
Trial&
150&
1,5&
17,082&
0,116&
0,173&
0,289&
0,599&
40,000&
400&
0,040&
1,000&
&
&
Victoria&
Gumbi&
Trial&
0&
0&
0,000&
0,000&
0,000&
0,000&
0,000&
74,315&
400&
0,074&
1,858&
&
&
Ntokozo&
Khanyi&
Trial&
300&
3&
17,082&
0,116&
0,173&
0,289&
0,599&
30,708&
300&
0,031&
1,024&
&
&
Thandiwe&
Khanyi&
Trial&
0&
0&
0&
0&
0&
0&
0&
120,00
0&
400&
0,120&
3,000&
&
&
Lindiwe&&
Ntshalintsh
ali&
Trial&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
50,000&
400&
0,050&
1,250&
&
&
Tholakele&
Mdakane&&
Trial&
150&
3&
17,082&
0,116&
0,173&
0,289&
0,599&
50,000&
400&
0,050&
1,250&
&
&
Ntombi&
Mncube&
Trial&
0&
0&
0&
0&
0&
0&
0&
151,35
0&
400&
0,151&
3,784&
&
&
Total$(Trial):$$
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
20,00
0$
$
Loskop$
Average$Yield$Trial$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
2,000$
$
&
Name$$
Surname$
Treatme
nt$
No$
of$
Cob
s$$$
No$
of$
Bag
s$
Av.$
weight$
(kg)/b
ag$
Av.$
Weig
ht$of$
cob$
Av.$
weig
ht$of$
grain$
weig
ht$of$
cob$+$
grain$$
%grai
n$
weigh
t$
Grain$
weigh
t$(kg)$
are
a$
(m2
)$
Weig
ht$(t)$
weigh
t$
(t/ha
)$
$
&
Thuthukani&
Mthembu&
Trial&
396&
3,96&
17,082&
0,084&
0,173&
0,258&
0,673&
45,506&
400&
0,046&
1,138&
&
&
Ntombenca
ne&&
Gasa&
Trial&
0&
0&
0,000&
0,000&
0,000&
0,000&
0,000&
67,335&
300&
0,067&
2,245&
&
&
Thanda&
Mathonsi&
Trial&
0&
0&
0,000&
0,000&
0,000&
0,000&
0,000&
68,050&
200&
0,068&
3,403&
&
&
Delisile&
Ngobeni&
Trial&
0&
0&
0,000&
0,000&
0,000&
0,000&
0,000&
66,600&
400&
0,067&
1,665&
&
&
smephi&&
choncho&
Trial&
0&
0&
0,000&
0,000&
0,000&
0,000&
0,000&
52,870&
200&
0,053&
2,644&
&
&
Rita&&
Ngobese&
Trial&
300&
3&
23,010&
0,030&
0,208&
0,239&
0,874&
60,299&
400&
0,023&
0,575&
&
&
&&
&&
Control&
&&
3&
10,338&
0,030&
0,208&
0,239&
0,874&
27,092&
400&
0,010&
0,258&
&
&
Khombisile&&
Mncanyane&
Trial&
500&
5&
15,530&
0,084&
0,173&
0,258&
0,673&
52,235&
400&
0,052&
1,306&
&
&
&&
&&
Control&
0&
0&
0,000&
0,000&
0,000&
0,000&
0,000&
0,000&
400&
0,000&
0,000&
&
&
Nelisiwe&&
Ngcobo&
Trial&
0&
0&
0&
0&
0&
0&
0&
40,000&
400&
0,040&
1,000&
&
&
Flomina&&
Mbatha&
Trial&
532&
5&
15,530&
0,084&
0,173&
0,258&
0,673&
52,235&
200&
0,052&
2,612&
&
&
Thokozile&&
Mahlaba&
Trial&
660&
6,6&
15,530&
0,084&
0,173&
0,258&
0,673&
68,951&
200&
0,069&
3,448&
&
&
Miriam&
Ngubane&
Trial&
84&
1&
15,530&
0,084&
0,173&
0,258&
0,673&
10,447&
200&
0,010&
0,522&
&
&
Total$(Trial):$$
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
20,81
4$
$
47
&
Total$(Control):$$
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
4,485$
$
Gobizembe$
Averge$Yield$Trial$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
3,074$
$
&
Name$$
Surname$
Treatme
nt$
No$
of$
Cob
s$$$
No$
of$
Bag
s$
Av.$
weight$
(kg)/b
ag$
Av.$
Weig
ht$of$
cob$
Av.$
weig
ht$of$
grain$
weig
ht$of$
cob$+$
grain$$
%grai
n$
weigh
t$
Grain$
weigh
t$(kg)$
are
a$
(m2
)$
Weig
ht$(t)$
weigh
t$
(t/ha
)$
$
&
Gabi&&
Ngcobo&
Trial&
200&
2&
13,865&
0,017&
0,173&
0,190&
0,910&
25,240&
200&
0,025&
1,262&
&
&
Moses&&
Chonco&
Trial&
0&
1&
12,320&
0,017&
0,173&
0,190&
0,910&
11,214&
400&
0,011&
0,280&
&
&
Gwaja&&
Khumalo&
Trial&
100&
1&
25,000&
0,017&
0,173&
0,190&
0,910&
22,755&
100&
0,023&
2,276&
&
&
Petros&&
Khumalo&
Trial&
0&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
0,000&
98,880&
300&
0,099&
3,296&
&
&
Jabulile&&
Mdletshe&
Trial&
200&
2&
13,865&
0,017&
0,173&
0,190&
0,910&
25,240&
250&
0,025&
1,010&
&
&
Total$(Trial):$$
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
&&
8,123$
$
Cornfields$
Average$Yield$Trial$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
$$
1,625$
$