First Rand Foundation Water Concept

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Water
Stakeholders
Rural people
NGO field workers
Government Officials
Researchers and other institutions
Buying water can
cost up to 30% of
our monthly budget
As the weather is
changing it is
becoming impossible
to do dryland
cropping the way we
used to
We need water for
household use and
productive purposes
25litre/per person
per day is not even
enough for
household use
We do not learn how to
do water wise farming
and soil and water
conservation at university
we can not apply what
we have learnt need
practical training
We need to
implement
agricultural
projects with
rural
communities,
but there is no
water
It is very difficult to get
government officials to
respond to needs and
requests from
communities and NGO
field workers
We are expected
to do miracles
with very little
time and
resources
We often do
not have a say
in how projects
are
implemented
depends on
donors and
management
There is
dishonesty in
Government and
people who do
not care. We have
no power to stop
them
We can not just
do what we
want- there are
programmes and
rules
Government
Departments work
in silos-
cooperation is
extremely difficult
Communities do
not look after the
infrastructure
and resources
that we provide
for them
The municipalities have to
implement all
programmes. But we do
not have funding. We have
to write proposals to other
Government Departments
and there are many
obstacles.
NGOs are negative
towards
Government and
want to implement
their own projects
instead of
supporting ours
Defining the issues
Needs and insights
What is the challenge
Household use; gardening
With
water
and
when the
water
runs out
June2016 November 2016
Rainfall in
Mametje-
Limpopo ~160mm
last year.
Municipal water
ran out 9 months
ago. Springs in
mountain now
also dry. People
are buying water
at R1/10l. (In
town it costs
~10c/10l)
Vegetable gardens
(100msq)
6000l/month
HH 17 000l/month
Household water
6000l/month (5hh
members)
Livestock (10 cattle,
10 goats)
5000l/month
DMs and LMs- 3 000- 4
000l / month
DWA, DEAT Reserve,
schedule 1. GENERAL
AUTHORISATION_ NOT
IN RESERVE, NEED TO
REGISTER
DWA and DARD
Irrigation, licences
NOT IN WATER
STRESSED
CATCHMENTS
How much water do we need and how can we access it?
RURAL AREAS
19 million people
(35% of
population).
6% GDP from
Agriculture, 42%
from mining.
64% of rural people
are not engaged in
agriculture, 34% in
non commercial
agriculture and only
2% in commercial
agriculture. still
declining.
2012 (34%) - 2016
(18%)
No economic or
physical ability/
incentive from
Government to
commit
RURAL
LIVELIHOODS
Ave HH income
from grants
R1300/month for
70% of HHs. still
increasing
Overall hh income
~R2400/month
decreasing.
Dryland cropping
~68%
Livestock~ 62%
Vegetables and
horticultural crops ~
28% - decreasing
Rainwater
harvesting,
management
and storage the
main option
How might we have reliable access to enough
water for household and productive uses in a
changing climate
Possible solutions-
Money
Financing
mechanisms for
water storage
Cheap options
for locally
developed
storage and
irrigation
solutions
Cost of local
alternatives-
boreholes etc
Local savings
and credit clubs
for access to
cash
Innovative
microfinance
options
Institutional
Work with LMs on
multiple use systems for
water in rural areas
Share existing resources
more equitably between
commercial farmers and
rural smallholders
Ensure smallholders are
included in water resource
planning
Mining?
Inclusive water-issues
discussed with multiple
departments
Building dams that are
accessible to communities
Assessment/Decision
making
Training staff in
decision support
around soil and water
conservation
implementation at
different localities
Design a decision
support process for
climate change
adaptation for
smallholders in South
Africa
Assess water resources
currently available and
accessible to
smallholder farmers
Creating possible
scenarios to suite
different environments
Implementation
Experimentation with
local innovations
Conservation agriculture
Water wise farming
Provide farmers with area
specific contextual
rainwater harvesting
solutions/trainings/
techniques
Try out basic climate
control and irrigation
options e.g. tunnels, drip
irrigation
Install high capacity rain
water harvesting systems
Encourage water
conservation agricultural
production systems at all
levels (non commercial
and commercial)
Research
Research into more
appropriate soil and
water conservation
techniques
Ways to explore water
management options
with communities and
stakeholders
Explore drought
resistant crops/
cultivars, and drought
management
strategies in farming.
PES systems linked to
water infrastructure
development and
financing
Decision Support System
Farmers
Local experimentation
Innovations explored
New ideas
Appropriate social
organization and systems
Staff
Access to resources and
programmes for support
Practical training in
techniques
Decision support system on
how , what and when to
implement certain ideas
Other
stakeholders
Forums for decision making
support, information sharing,
Financing mechanisms
Appropriate mechanisms for
assessment, prioritization and
engagement
Governance
Research
Explore existing techniques
and processes for good
options
Research more appropriate
techniques
Research methodologies for
cooperation and planning
Ways to coherently plan for
climate change
Land use
Soil and water Conservation
Climate change adaptation
Rain water harvesting
Water Storage options
Social systems and organisations
Microfinance and financial
inclusion
Stakeholder engagement options
Planning methodologies and
frameworks
The prototype
A process for implementation of a basket of options using a decision support
system within a managed environment
The Need The Product
Communities need assistance A basket of options for
implementation in specific localities
The Need The Product
Staff want methods and ideasA decision support system and
for how to helpmethodology for implementation
The Need The Product
Other Stakeholders want to know what’sManagement and financing options working
happening and how they are involvedwithin the decision support system
The Need The Product
Researchers want to know how best to do Social, financial, sustainability and
things and what impact the doing is having.implementation research to gauge
progress and impact
Partnership and prototype testing
Work in existing project and partnership
arrangements to test the idea further
Design the actual decision support process and set up
learning and testing events for field staff
Design baskets of options for localities (e.g. Botshabelo
Limpopo, Bergville- KZN, Matatiele- Eastern Cape) and
test implementation with local partners
Work with existing platforms for management and
financing options (e.g Amanzi for Food , UCPP..) and set
up new forums
Design an appropriate research agenda (e.g WRC, GrainSA
Conservation Agriculture Unit…)
BUDGET
R360 000
TIME FRAME
18 months
Rainfall harvesting for homestead gardening:
Estimates of rainfall collection areasand water storagerequired
(for a trench garden with a gross area of 100m2)
Limpopo North-
West FreestateEastern CapeKwaZulu-
Natal
Polokwane HoedspruitMadibogoBloemfonteinTweespruitAliceUmtataDundee
Summer – supplementary irrigation through ‘run-on’
Summerrainfall (mm) 395 444 371430 483416 490640
Run-on irrigation
required for 100 m
2(m3)3426 432726 26 17 17
Rainfall collection
area required
(impermeable) (m2)126 86 172937990 52 39
Winter full irrigation from storage
Winter rainfall (mm)627058 122 152153 164118
Winter irrigation
requirement-100 m2(m3)3434 432617 26 17 34
Rainfall collection
area (impermeable)
required to catch
rain for storage
(m2)9787 130623560 34 59
Water storage
volume required for
winter irrigation(m3)27 29 372013 19 13 29
With domestic water recycling (2 m
3/month)
Reduced water
storage volume
required (m3)17 19 2711 410 419
Run-off collection from permeable surfaces
Run-off coefficient (%) 9 8 4711 918 12
Technologies tested
Geofabric & bitumen
1mm HDPE plastic
Cement blocksFibre plaster
Growing food at home Winter 2002
On 222 m2area > 1 tonne of vegetables
including onions worth 6 months’staples
Food grown for family of 6
-Khumbane, Winter 2002
landfood months
(sq.m)(kg)offood
Beetroot 30 1267
Broccolli 23 572
Cabbage 12 968
Carrots 12 504
Cauliflower 10 694
Lettuce 20 642
Onion 50 35065
Peas 43 655
Spinash 14 422
Other8 34
TOTAL 222 953
Rainwater is channeled
along hard footpaths to
deep beds filled with
organic waste
Soft beds with
porous sides