Agricultural Water Use for Homestead Gardening Systems
Volume 2: Resource Material
for Facilitators and Food Gardeners
Part 1:
Introduction, Chapters 1-3
Report to the
Water Research Commission
by
CM Stimie, E Kruger, M de Lange & CT Crosby
WRC Report No. TT 431/1/09
January 2010
Obtainable from
Water Research Commission
Private Bag X03
Gezina 0031
The publication of this reportemanates from a project entitled: “Participatory
Development of Training Material for Agricultural Water Use in Homestead Farming
Systems for Improved Livelihoods” (WRC Project number K5/1575/4).
This report forms part of a series of reports. The other report is entitled “Agricultural
Water Use in Homestead Gardening Systems – Main Report” (WRC report no.
TT 430/09).
DISCLAIMER
This report has been reviewed by the Water Research Commission (WRC) and
approved for publication. Approval does not signify that the contents necessarily
reflect the views and policies of the WRC, nor does mention of trade names or
commercial products constitute endorsement or recommendation for use.
ISBN 978-1-77005-918-4
Set No. 978-1-77005-919-1
Printed in the Republic of South Africa
Acknowledgements
WRC Research Project Reference Group:
Sanewe, AJ (Dr) Chairman (Water Research Commission)
Backeberg, GR (Dr) Water Research Commission
Crosby, CT (Mr) Private Consultant
Dladla, WR (Mr) Zakhe Training Institute
Ferreira, F (Ms) UNISA
Gabriel, MJM (Ms) DoA: WUID
Van Averbeke, W (Prof) Tshwane University of Technology
Williams, JHL (Mr) Independent Consultant
Sally, H (Dr) International Water Management Institute
Moabelo, KE (Mr) Tompi Seleka Agricultural College
Mariga, IK (Prof) University of Limpopo
Monde, N (Dr) Human Sciences Research Council
Engelbrecht, J (Mr) Agriseta
WRC Research Project Team:
CM Stimie (Mr) Project Leader Rural Integrated Engineering
M de Lange (Ms) Coordinator – Socio-Technical Interfacing
E Kruger (Ms) Principal Researcher – Mahlatini Organics
M Botha (Mr) Layout and Sketches – Tribal Zone
W van Averbeke (Prof)Urban agriculture Tshwane University of
Technology
J van Heerden (Mr) Engineering – Rural Integrated Engineering
CT Crosby (Mr) Advisor – Private consultant
The dedication and passion of Erna Kruger, Marna de Lange and Charles Crosby for
this project and its outcomes are acknowledged with gratitude.
Special recognition and acknowledgements to:
LIRAPA– Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security Nutrition and Home
Economics, Horticulture Division, PO Box 14915, Maseru 100, Lesotho.
Department of Crop Services, Horticulture Division, PO Box 7260, Maseru 100,
Lesotho
MaTshepo Kumbane and the Water for Food Movement
Collaborated with:
The Smallholder Systems Innovation (SSI) Programme from UKZN in Potshini,
The Farmer Support Group
School of Bio-resource Engineering, UKZN
Specific thanks to Michael Malinga and Monique Salomon (FSG), Prof
Graham Jewitt, Victor Kongo, Jody Sturdy (SSI).
DWAF pilot programme for Homestead Rainwater Harvesting
World Vision; Okahlamba Area Development Programme – specific thanks to
Jamie Wright and Monica Holtz
ARC (ISCW); Eco-Technologies Programme in Hlabisa – specific thanks to
Hendrik Smith and the local DAEA extension office
Pegasus, Mpumalanga
LIMA Rural Development Foundation – Eastern Cape
AWARD – Limpopo
Bush Resources – Bushbuckridge
Border Rural Committee – Eastern Cape.
Centre for Adult Education (UKZN) – specific thanks to Zamo Hlela and Kathy
Arbuckle.
Umbumbulu – thanks to the Ezemvelo Farmers Association and assistance by
Dr Albert Modi, Crop Science Department, UKZN
Agricultural Water Use for Homestead Gardening Systems
Resource Material
for
Facilitators and Food Gardeners
Introduction to the
Resource Material
Agricultural Water Use for Homestead Gardening Systems – Resource Material
ii
iii
Chapters: Resource Material
Introduction to the Learning Material (TT 431/1/09)
Chapter 1 Rural realities and homestead food gardening options (TT 431/2/09)
Chapter 2 - Facilitation of homestead food gardening (TT 431/2/09)
- Handouts: Chapter 2 – Homestead Food Gardener’s Resource Packs
Chapter 3 - Living and eating well (TT 431/2/09)
- Handouts: Chapter 3 – Homestead Food Gardener’s Resource Packs
Chapter 4 - Diversifying production in homestead food gardening (TT 431/3/09)
- Handouts: Chapter 4 – Homestead Food Gardener’s Resource Packs
Chapter 5 - Garden and homestead water management for food gardening
(TT 431/3/09)
- Handouts: Chapter 5 – Homestead Food Gardener’s Resource Packs
Chapter 6 - Soil fertility management: Optimising the productivity of soil and water
(TT 431/4/09)
- Handouts: Chapter 6 – Homestead Food Gardener’s Resource Packs
Chapter 7 Income opportunities from homestead food gardening (TT 431/4/09)
Agricultural Water Use for Homestead Gardening Systems – Resource Material
iv
Introduction to the Resource Material
v
Table of Contents:
Introduction to the Resource Material
Table of Contents: Introduction to the Resource Material................................ v
List of Figures ........................................................................................................... vi
List of Tables ............................................................................................................ vi
List of Activities ........................................................................................................ vi
List of Case Studies & Research ............................................................................ vi
The use of icons in the material ........................................................................... vii
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Rationale for this work............................................................................................. 1
How this resource material responds to rural realities ....................................... 2
Objectives of the research.................................................................................... 4
Overall objective .................................................................................................... 4
Specific objectives ................................................................................................. 4
Deliverables through the research process ........................................................ 4
Products of this research process (available documents) ................................ 5
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Cyclic, interactive learning processes: Look, learn, do ..................................... 9
Sensible approach to training needs assessments ............................................ 9
Defining ‘most promising’ methods and technologies ................................... 11
Development and testing of the Resource Material ....................................... 12
Impact of the use of the material ...................................................................... 12
Stakeholder consultation ..................................................................................... 13
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Incentives for homestead farming ..................................................................... 15
Different incentives for different people ........................................................... 16
Tools to help us differentiate between incentives ............................................ 22
Get growing! Mobilising people into production ............................................. 32
Keep on growing your garden: Motivators and disruptors ............................. 35
Purpose and targeting of mobilisation .............................................................. 39
The ‘first brick’: Food security and resilience through diversification ............. 39
Spin-off benefits: Healthy eating for all .............................................................. 39
Second-phase: Income opportunities ............................................................... 40
Emotional healing as a foundation for food security ...................................... 41
Psychological effects of hunger ......................................................................... 41
Hunger as the ultimate symbol of powerlessness ............................................. 42
The need for harmonious and supportive relationships................................... 44
Agricultural Water Use for Homestead Gardening Systems – Resource Material
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The role of support groups in healing and overcoming powerlessness ........ 45
The role of joy, fun and laughter in healing ...................................................... 46
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List of Figures
Figure 1: Maslow’s hierarchy of human needs................................................ 17
List of Tables
Table 1: Description of interactive learning processes used ........................... 9
Table 2: Alternative process for effective Training Needs Assessment ........ 10
Table 3: The ten human capabilities ................................................................. 20
Table 4: Linking household typologies to livelihoods and appropriate
interventions ........................................................................................................... 30
List of Activities
Activity 1: ‘Pull factors’ for homestead production ........................................ 21
Activity 2: Identifying incentives and disincentives within the different
household typologies............................................................................................ 31
Activity 3: The effects of hunger ....................................................................... 42
Activity 4: Universal feelings experienced by the hungry ............................ 44
List of Case Studies & Research
Case study 1: Ms Beauty Mbhele (Mantshalolo Village) ............................... 23
Case study 2: Mr Michel Mbhele (Kayeka Village) ........................................ 25
Case study 3: Mr Phelemon Mnguni (Ziqalabeni Village) ............................ 28
Introduction to the Resource Material
vii
The use of icons in the material
You will find that several different icons are used throughout the Learning Material.
These icons should assist you with navigation through the Chapter and orientation
within the material. This is what these icons mean:
Facilitation tools
Processes that you can use in workshop situations,
to support your work in the field.
Research /Case study
The results of research or case studies that
illustrate the ideas presented.
Looking at research, facts and figures
to help contextualise things.
Activity
This indicates an exercise that you should do
– either on your own (individual) or in a group.
Copy and handouts
These sections can be copied and used
as handouts to learners / participants.
Agricultural Water Use for Homestead Gardening Systems – Resource Material
viii
Introduction to the Resource Material
1
1. Introduction
Rationale for this work
In recent years, there has been a growing recognition among development
practitioners in South Africa of the central importance of household food security.
Particularly, greater appreciation developed of the impact of food insecurity and
malnutrition – especially among preschoolers – on the individual, the family, and the
wider economy. Focus started to shift to the potential role of the homestead yard in
food production for improved family diets, and government started to realise that
lack of water had prevented many people from growing crops in their backyards.
This Resource Material for Facilitators and Food Gardeners on Agricultural Water
Management in Homestead Farming Systems was developed with funding by the
Water Research Commission (WRC) of South Africa, and is the output of a research
project entitled: “Participatory development of training material for agricultural
water use in homestead farming systems for improved livelihoods”.
The process of ‘participatory development’ of the material entailed two main
aspects:
Drawing widely on the material and know-how of practitioners in the fields of
household food security, homestead farming, farmer training, rainwater
harvesting and homestead water management, thereby achieving a collation of
existing expertise and material; and
Field testing and refinement of the collated material with food secure and
insecure households in rural villages.
The material built particularly on existing material of the Food and Agriculture
Organisation of the United Nations (FAO, 1997), the LIRAPA manual (Kruger, 2007)
and various South African resources. Through this WRC research project, it has been
integrated with the practical experience of practitioners and then field tested – in its
integrated form – for local circumstances.
The following aspects of the resource
materials can be viewed as innovations or
useful adaptations of existing practices:
Well-known Ma Tshepo Khumbane
devoted forty working years to
household food security facilitation,
and had countless successes in
mobilising households for food security.
One of the more difficult challenges for
facilitators who wanted to learn from
her, is to use her ‘present situation
analysis’ in the Mind Mobilisation
process, because this can be very traumatic for participants, and thus for
facilitators. (See Chapter 2 for more details). It is however, a very effective
mobilisation tool… A breakthrough came when the research team developed
the Nutrition Workshop as an alternative mobilisation tool to be used within the
This resource material is aimed at
facilitators and tutors-of-
facilitators in household food
security, homestead farming and
rainwater harvesting.
It also contains handout materials
for food
g
ardeners.
Agricultural Water Use for Homestead Gardening Systems – Resource Material
2
overall Mind Mobilisation process. The Nutrition Workshop, measured effects of its
use, and later refinements of the process are described in Chapter 3.
This resource material draws, practically, on ways to understand and deal with
the psychological aspects that typically affect food insecure households. When
these are overcome, the journey to food security and wellbeing becomes much
more achievable.
The use of learning groups has been advocated and used with varying degrees
of success in agricultural development in recent years. Through this research, and
again, practical experience of a wide range of people, it was possible to better
define and refine the proper role for a ‘Garden Learning Group’ (or any other
name preferred by the particular group of households) to enable households to
support each other morally, while avoiding conflicts which most often stem from
some form of induced economic interdependence among group members.
In knowledge sharing with and among households, the successful use of
household experimentation as a learning process is well worth mentioning, and
discussed in more detail in Chapter 2.
On the technical side, a significant range of technologies were selected and
field-tested, based on their affordability for cash-strapped households, and on
how they build up rather than break down the environment. Of particular interest
is the practical integration of a range of rainwater harvesting techniques with
organic plant production practices.
This Resource Material complements the Household Food Security Facilitators’ short
learning course at UNISA, as well as further courses planned by UNISA’s Human
Ecology Department that will draw on this material.
The University of KwaZulu-Natal was a valuable partner in the development of this
material and is presenting an elective on household water management as part of
its CEPD (Certificate in Education; Participatory Development) programme,within
the School of Education.
The Department of Agriculture requested the project team to develop specific
training courses as part of the implementation of the Agricultural Education and
Training, drawing on this resource material.
How this resource material responds to rural
realities
In the decade or so after the 1994 elections, agricultural extension and assistance
was targeted at group projects, rather than at individual or household initiatives. This
approach was adopted to enable government to reach more people
simultaneously, but has meant that assistance was not targeted at households who
wanted to develop independently, rather than being part of a group project
(communal garden, chicken project, irrigation scheme, land reform project, etc.)
Several shifts in thinking have since taken place, including the following:
An increased realisation of the reality of malnutrition and food insecurity in South
African households, exacerbated by the rapid food and fuel price increases in
2007/08;
Introduction to the Resource Material
3
Better understanding of the challenges
inherent in group-based projects –
especially the typical conflicts around
the handling of group finances;
An appreciation of the potential for
food production in the homestead
yards – a neglected tradition – and the
need for water to enable production at
the homesteads; and
Awareness of the potential of a range
of water access options, over and
above the conventional bulk supply and piped distribution systems; namely
‘multiple-use-systems (MUS)’, and especially rainwater harvesting in its various
forms.
The strategy of homestead production was voiced by poor people during the World
Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) hosted in Johannesburg in 2002. Food
insecure women from various provinces gathered at the World Summit and declared
‘War on Hunger’. Calling themselves the Water for Food Movement, they vowed to
do everything they could to achieve Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 1a,
namely: “to reduce by half the number of people living with hunger, by 2015.”
To diplomats, ministers, and officials at the World Summit, they said: “We are the ones
going hungry, not you. Therefore we are the ones who must beat hunger and
achieve MDG1. Please don’t block us. If you can, walk next to us,but not in front of
us, dictating to us. We know our situation better than you do; this is our ‘war’.”
These women then returned home and showed practically at their homes what they
meant, by harvesting rainwater and digging underground rainwater tanks (or
‘dams’) to support their homestead production. Stemming from their demonstrated
success, the then Department of Water Affairs and Forestry approved a subsidy to
introduce rural households across the country to this type of low-cost, but intensive
home food production, and to finance the construction of homestead rainwater
dams to enable people to grow nutritious food at home – throughout the year.
The Water Research Commission (WRC) recognised homestead farming (and
especially food gardening) as poor households’ own self-identified coping strategy
to help protect themselves against the vulnerabilities of poverty. WRC then decided
to develop this resource material for facilitators on ‘Agricultural Water Management
in Homestead Farming Systems’ to help support poor households in their efforts to
grow food.
This resource material thus responds to people's initiatives, and is aimed at helping
households to grow more food at home, while using as little as possible of their
scarce cash resources.
It also provides some ideas for value-adding and marketing strategies to support
those households that decide to take their production to the next level.
(See Chapter 7: Income opportunities from homestead farming)
There developed a new focus on
the household itself – in its
existing context – and how they
could produce food (and possibly
a bit of income) in their own
homesteads, to improve their
f
oo
d
secu
r
ity
situati
o
n!
Agricultural Water Use for Homestead Gardening Systems – Resource Material
4
Objectives of the research
Overall objective
The overall objective of the research sets its focus clearly on home food security, and
practical testing of the learning materials, as follows:
The specific objectives, deliverables and products for the research were as follows:
Specific objectives
1.Identify current indigenous crop/livestock production practices.
2.Describe water related practices and efficiency of water use.
3.Identify developmental constraints on opportunities from natural resources,
infrastructure, human resources, HIV/AIDS, gender considerations, nutrition,
institutions and culture, for both rural and urban households.
4.Specify alternative and improved agricultural practices for use in
homestead gardens.
5.Determine economic incentives and entrepreneurial opportunities with
specific reference to the youth.
6.Identify value adding opportunities and appropriate marketing systems.
7.Determine training needs of household/home gardeners in relation to
available knowledge.
8.Develop and test training material to address needs.
9.Implement the training programme and interactively refine materials with
trainers and households.
10.Assess the impact of the project on food security of trained households.
Deliverables through the research process
1.Situation analysis report for South Africa.
2.Situation report for the selected target communities.
3.Report on how to use or to improve indigenous practices/systems, and on
possible alternative agricultural practices/systems for the selected areas.
4.Report on potential economic incentives and opportunities with specific
reference to the youth and value adding opportunities and appropriate
marketing systems.
5.Report on training needs of households/home gardeners in the selected
Improve food security through homestead food gardening,
by developing and evaluating the appropriateness and
acceptability of training material for water use
management, training the trainers and training household
members in selected areas.
Introduction to the Resource Material
5
areas in relation to most promising opportunities.
6.Proceedings of the first stakeholder workshop to obtain feedback from
stakeholders on the previous two reports.
7.Report on the refinement of practices and technologies after participatory
evaluation.
8.Progress reports on development and testing of training material.
9.Report on the effectiveness of the training methodology and
implementation
10.Proceedings of the second stakeholder workshop to obtain feedback from
stakeholders on the previous two reports.
11.Final training material.
12.Final report.
Products of this research process (available documents)
1.Situation analysis report for South Africa (Raise awareness of potential and
constraints of household agricultural production).
2.Situation analysis for selected target communities (selected areas report)
(Inform policy makers of the scope for and constraints on household
agricultural production).
3.Report on existing practices and technologies (Inform policy makers of the
scope for and constraints on household agricultural production).
4.Impact analysis of introduced technologies and training (Informing for
policy and budget considerations).
5.Training material (The Resource Materials for facilitators to implement
training).
6.Final report (Informing policy and implementation programmes).
Agricultural Water Use for Homestead Gardening Systems – Resource Material
6
2. Guiding Principles and Overview
The Chapters contained in this resource material follow a certain logic, based on key
questions the WRC research team had to ask itself.
On household mobilisation
Acknowledging that, while more and more households are starting home food
gardens, many others don’t believe it is possible or worthwhile, the research team
asked itself: “
The research team developed and field tested the ‘nutrition workshop’, and found it
a very effective method to ‘create discomfort’ – which we know is where all
changes in habit springs from. The nutrition workshop enables the household to
analyse their own diets, discover the gaps, and choose crops to plant in their home
gardens to fill those gaps.
On ‘need-to-know’:
Deeply aware of the bewildering amount of information on organic production
methods, family nutrition, irrigation and water management, the researchers asked
themselves:
The topics of the chapters in this Facilitators’ Resource Materials manual stems from
that analysis, namely:
Chapter 1 Rural realities and homestead food gardening options
Chapter 2 Facilitation of homestead food gardening
Chapter 3 Living and eating well
Chapter 4 Diversifying production in homestead food gardening
Chapter 5 Garden and homestead water management for food gardening
Chapter 6 Soil fertility management: Optimising the productivity of soil and water
Chapter 7 Income opportunities from homestead food gardening
Handouts Homestead Food Gardener’s Resource Packs
“What is the minimum, essential knowledge a household
would need to successfully grow an intensive, worthwhile
home food garden? And then, what does the facilitator need
to understand to accompany these households on that
journey of discovery?”
How can the significance of
food gardening become a
reality in people’s minds?”
Introduction to the Resource Material
7
These chapters contain a lot more than the essential information. They enable a
facilitator to select what is appropriate to any specific garden learning group.
On cash-scarcity:
Recognising that these households are growing their own food precisely because
they have too little cash to buy enough nutritious food, the research team asked
itself:
Because of the reality of cash-scarcity, we believe the Low-External-Input Sustainable
Agriculture (LEISA) farming system (See Chapter 1: Rural realities and homestead
farming options) works best for homestead farming.
How can we select the
methods included in this
resource material to be
appropriate to the context
they will be used in?”
Agricultural Water Use for Homestead Gardening Systems – Resource Material
8
3. Project process:
Developing the Resource Material
The research process and the development of the resource materials can be
summarised as follows.
The Water Research Commission research team:
-Collated existing material;
-Consulted other practitioners in three different ways, namely:
One-on-one consultations;
Worked together in the field; and
Held two well-attended stakeholder workshops;
-Developed and implemented draft learning material with households in
several villages, with Potshini as the main site. In implementing the draft
learning material, the research team:
Worked through learning groups;
Emphasised follow-up home visits;
Emphasised learning processes that spanned at least one full growing
season, but preferably longer;
Used household experimentation as a learning tool;
Refined the mobilisation, facilitation and support processes; and
Refined the technologies with households, based on their experiences
with them;
-Wrote the required deliverables and built these into the Chapters of the
Resource Material where relevant. Of special significance were the following
deliverables (these are described in more detail in section 4 of this document
and in the Final Report: Participatory Development of Training Material for
Agricultural Water use in Homestead Farming Systems for Improved
Livelihoods):
An alternative approach to training needs assessment;
Refinement of practices and technologies after participatory
evaluation; and
Impact assessment on the effectiveness of the training methodology
and implementation of technologies;
-Tried several approaches for training and support of facilitators, and built
these lessons into the chapters of the resource material where relevant;
-Refined and finalised the Resource Materials; and
-Wrote a final report (WRC, 2009).
Introduction to the Resource Material
9
4. Lessons learnt and impact of the
research process
Herewith an overview of the key lessons learned and impacts achieved in this
research and implementation process.
Cyclic, interactive learning processes: Look, learn, do
In the report on training needs assessment, the research team argued that cyclic,
interactive learning processes were most appropriate and effective in the
homestead food gardening context. Adults learn best:
from each other;
when there is an immediate need; and
in cyclic, practical processes.
Table 1: Description of interactive learning processes used
PROCESS ACTIVITIES METHODS/TOOLS
ASSESSMENTOBSERVATION
LAYOUT DRAWINGS
FOCUS GROUP DISCUSSIONS
SUSTAINABLE LIVELIHOODS
PARTICIPATORY RURAL APPRAISAL
ANALYSISLEARNING
ADULT EDUCATION
FARMER-TO-FARMER
LEARNING GROUPS
IN SITU ANALYSIS OF GARDENS
EXPERIMENTATION
- FOR PROBLEM
SOLVING
ACTION
FARMER EXPERIMENTATION
ACTIVITY CHARTS
DEMONSTRATIONS
EMPOWERMENT
-FOR OWN CHOICES
TO CHANGE
PLANNING
MINDMOBILIZATION
VISIONING
INDIVIDUAL RECORD-KEEPING
By using a greater variety of methods/tools, as shown in the table above,
opportunities for interactive, practical learning were maximised. In each cycle,
learning is reinforced and deepened.
Sensible approach to training needs assessments
Conventional training needs assessments attempt to produce a list of ‘training
needs’ for a geographical area. This inevitably results in a ‘shopping list’ of training
needs which may well be generally applicable, but almost certainly fail to fit the
specific training needs of any particular individual within that area.This results in
ineffective spending on ‘training needs assessments’, and subsequently less-than-
Examples
New ideas
Agricultural Water Use for Homestead Gardening Systems – Resource Material
10
ideal content of learning processes.
In contrast, we propose an alternative approach to training needs assessment for
homestead food gardening.
It starts with the generic (which is broad enough to cover the overall topic in
most contexts);
Followed by an approximate contextualisation (for instance,according to the
local natural resource base); and
Then eventually, specific training needs are defined only once the learning
group has been formed and prior learning of the participating households
established.
Table 2: Alternative process for effective Training Needs Assessment
GENERIC:
LEARNING
CONTENT
AREAS
The WRC Facilitators’ Resource Material contains a generic set of learning
content areas applicable to homestead agriculture. This is effectively
what is “on offer”, from which an applicable combination of material can
be extracted for any particular set of needs.
The WRC Research team collated this resource material through wide
consultation and in-field testing. Facilitators can further augment this from
other sources, should peculiar needs arise in a particular learning group.
SITUATION
ANALYSIS:
REVIEW
BROAD
CONTEXT
It is NOT necessary to perform a detailed training needs assessment at the
village or regional level
Establish whether there is an expressed need for household gardening,
and specifically for training in household gardening
Look at physical factors to see whether (and which of) the
recommended soil and water management practices would work in the
local context. Walk around the area and use external data sources to find
out more about the conditions for gardening in the area.
Find out what related processes have already taken place in the area.
Are people gardening? How well are they doing? Have they had training
before? What types of learning processes are preferred? Who is the
specific target group for further training interventions?
Establish whether there are any socio-political issues which may help or
hamper the implementation of a training programme in homestead
agriculture
SPECIFIC
TRAINING
NEEDS OF
HOUSEHOLD
LEARNING
GROUP:
“LEARNING
AND
ACTION
AGENDA”
Confirm that the members of the household learning group are clear
about what they want and can expect from participation in the
homestead food gardening training programme; their expressed training
need/learning agenda
Facilitate a group process through which members can express their
know-how in gardening. This provides a way to recognise prior learning
(RPL) in the group.
Facilitate a “nutrition gap analysis” with the learning group. The
households’ shortfalls in the “Go,Grow and Glow” food categories are
then used to plan their garden production and their “learning and action
agenda” for the current season.
Pick the actual training content from the WRC Facilitators’ Learning Toolkit
to suit theirlearning agenda.
Incorporate own experimentation throughout the learning plan.
Throughout the training programme, ask households about whether any
specific problems are arising and where appropriate and possible, adapt
the learning agenda to cover such issues.
Introduction to the Resource Material
11
Defining ‘most promising’ methods and technologies
After much debate, the team reached agreement on how to define the “most
promising” methods and technologies.
We believe this definition provides a handy way of identifying further “promising
technologies” in future. The most promising technologies identified to date include
LEISA, (See Chapter 1) deep trenching and tower gardens (See Chapter 4), the run-
on water system, home-based water storage, and treadle pumps (See Chapter 5).
Following practical implementation, experimentation and evaluation in the field, we
were able, in the “Report on the refinement of practices and technologies after
participatory evaluation”, to analyse each of the technologies that were introduced
at the hand of the following questions:
1.A description and/or analysis of the method/technology (What does it
entail?);
2.How the method differed from existing local practice (How is it different?);
3.How the method had been refined or adapted to improve it or make it more
suitable (How has it been refined?)
4.The outcome of assessments with households on how their performance
compared to existing local practice (Do people say it works better?); and
5.Measurements (where possible) of the performance of these methods and
technologies (How much better/worse?).
These questions provided a framework for systematic and comparative analysis and
reporting on the refinement of the technologies, as well as the effects of the
refinement. It provided a framework within which bothpeople’s opinion on the
usefulness of a technology, and available scientific work on the subject, could
contribute to the analysis. (For more detail on this, please see the Final Report.)
This set of questions also provides a mechanism for analysis and comparison of
further technologies as they become apparent in future. For instance, in field visits
subsequent to the completion of this report, we found it easier to assess the suitability
of the newly developed ‘pipe pump’ and the diaphragm pump, and a home-made
innovation for water-storage-and-irrigation which we discovered in one of the sites.
These methods and technologies have in common that
they help people get more for their effort in a cash
scarce situation.
These methods help people to intensify their
production thus getting better crop yield and quality,
while using low cost methods and locally available
inputs.
This im
p
roves efficienc
y
in the use of resources.
Agricultural Water Use for Homestead Gardening Systems – Resource Material
12
The method of analysis also helped highlight for us where we may not have been
clear enough in our own thinking on certain aspects. For instance, it was somewhat
difficult to explain the run-on concept to households, and working through the
theory and practice of it amongst ourselves, we all gained new insights and felt we
would be better able to explain it to others in future (see the section on ‘Turning
runoff into run-on’ in Chapter 5).
It is a well-known phenomenon that tension almost invariably arises in
multidisciplinary teams, typically because of the difference in points of departure
and thinking processes employed by technically and socially oriented people,
respectively. We feel that the development of the Resource Materials benefited
greatly from constructive interdisciplinary analysis and interaction among members
of our team. Possibly, the way in which the questions lent equal weight to technical
and social matters, helped the interdisciplinary process of analysis.
Development and testing of the Resource Material
The research team used the following two questions in selecting the basic content of
the learning material contained here:
-For Households’ learning content: What is the essential knowledge a
household needs to grow food at home?
-For Facilitators’ learning content: What would a facilitator need to know and
be able to do, to teach or facilitate this content for food gardeners?
This approach provided sufficient structure and logic to plan the layout and content
of the learning modules for facilitators, as well as the handouts for food gardeners,
the latter which is included here in several languages.
The feedback received on the draft material, both during the second stakeholder
workshop and independently from other individuals, has been positive. There is great
interest in the utilisation of the material by several public and private training
institutions. The process of developing and testing the training material is discussed in
detail in the Final Report (WRC, 2009).
Impact of the use of the material
The report on the effectiveness of the training methodology and implementation
sought to answer two main questions:
1.To what extent have people taken up and implemented the new ideas brought
to them through the training?
2.How has the process used to introduce people to the new ideas affected the
uptake of the new ideas?
From surveys undertaken by the WRC team and others, it was clear that both the
uptake and continued use of the technologies at Potshini had surpassed
expectations. (See Final Report for details).
On the second question, the research team felt that our point of departure on
effective training methodology for the rural homestead context had been validated.
Introduction to the Resource Material
13
Our approach is described in significant detail in the Training Needs Report, and our
conclusions after evaluation are, in a nutshell:
-The use of Garden Learning Groups and learning through own household
experimentation is highly effective.
-The use of household self-analysis of nutrition gaps (the Nutrition Workshop) is
an important innovation as a ‘mind mobilisation’ tool to catapult households
into action, i.e. to start gardening to address their nutrition gaps. (The most
common nutrition gaps are protein and micronutrient deficiencies which are
easily available from fruit and vegetable production at home).
-Rushed training without follow-up is worth very little, and training and support
should be spread over at least one to three seasons to allow people to
experience the entire agricultural calendar – with the necessary support for
seasonal problems as they arise.
The process of analysis of the impact of training had a useful side-effect for the
research team. It sharpened our minds to the challenge of ‘training the trainers’
especially trainers for whom this would be a relatively new and unknown field of
practice. Again, rushed, quick-fix approaches to the preparation of facilitators
yielded disappointing results.
In contrast, the material was used very effectively (with merely some telephonic
input from the WRC team members) by an experienced facilitator with appropriate
agricultural background.
This led us to identify two complementary strategies for the development of skilled
Household Food Security (HFS) Facilitators, namely:
-Longer term, structured academic and practical education of HFS Facilitators;
and
-Transfer of the material and concepts to skilled agricultural facilitators, who
could in turn provide a ‘learning-by-doing’ opportunity for new facilitators by
training and mentoring them in real-life implementation situations.
Stakeholder consultation
In addition to one-on-one discussions with other practitioners and various
stakeholders throughout the research period, two stakeholder workshops were held.
The first stakeholder workshop was well attended by a good cross-section of
practitioners, researchers and officials. It was held in Bergville, and included a field
visit to Potshini village, where stakeholders could interact with households that had
been part of the research process, and could witness the results of the facilitation
and learning processes. For the research team, the main outcome of the first
stakeholder workshop was a strong recommendation by stakeholders that the
research output should NOT be a single ‘training course’ or ‘training material’.
Stakeholders argued that due to the range of situations found in practice, resource
material or a “facilitator’s resource pack” would be of greater benefit. This would
enable practitioners to select material from the resource material and tailor make
their own learning processes in response to every new situation they may encounter
over time.
Agricultural Water Use for Homestead Gardening Systems – Resource Material
14
The Reference Group and the Water Research Commission accepted this change,
with the following consequence:
-The material in Chapters 1 to 7 was structured as resource material, rather
than a training course.
-The material was still structured along Outcomes Based Education principles,
using interactive layout, examples, case studies and activities for facilitators’
self-study.
-The material also contains structured facilitation tools which the facilitator can
use for interactions with target households in field situations.
-A set of handouts was added, namely the ‘Homestead Food Gardener’s
Resource Packs’, which contains material that facilitators may give to
participants in the facilitation processes that they undertake.
The second stakeholder workshop was not a large affair. Instead, the team aimed at
inviting skilled and knowledgeable individuals representing a cross-section of
fieldworkers, training and development practitioners and academics, who all have
an interest in the interface between household food security and homestead water
management.
The day was most valuable, with meaningful debate and concrete suggestions to
the WRC team towards the refinement of the material, its possible application
through various institutions and processes, and mechanisms for the future training
and establishment of Household Food Security facilitators.
Some of the key suggestions were to strengthen the Facilitators’ Resource Material as
much as possible with references to scientific work, where these were available; and
to seek opportunities to introduce and test the material in further test sites in follow-
up work to the current WRC project. This has been done, and references are
provided throughout Chapters of the Resource Material.
This material can be adapted for a variety of stakeholders to suit their needs. It can
also be augmented by developing material above and below NQF (National
Qualifications Framework) level 5.
Introduction to the Resource Material
15
5. Points of departure
Incentives for homestead farming
What motivates people to grow food at home, and particularly, to keep on doing it?
The possibility to save – and even earn – some money, is an obvious incentive to
engage in homestead farming, but is that all there is to it? Many never start, and
some start enthusiastically, but abandon the practice after some time. Households
who keep on growing their food gardens year after year, would appear to be those
who have succeeded in adopting it as a way of life – as part of their daily or weekly
routine, and as part of their planning for the season or the year.
A better understanding of the range of reasons that get people into home food
production, and of the motivating factors and processes that help people to stay
committed to this, should help to maximise the contribution of homestead farming to
the food security, healthy eating and even some income supplementation of
households in South Africa.
Key questions
1.What gets people into home food gardening and to keep on gardening
(incentives), and conversely, what keeps them from growing their own food or
stopping once they started (disincentives)? Are there proven ways to mobilise
more households into homestead farming and to avoid abandonment?
2.Can one use a variety of approaches to reach people who differ greatly in
their objectives and abilities?
3.How can food insecure people come to believe in themselves and their ability
to grow their own food with what they have?
4.How can one compensate for the inherent scarcity of cash in food insecure
households? Can one introduce production methods that reduce the cash
requirement for inputs?
5.How can people’s own seed storage and the revival of seed exchange
traditions help increase the diversity and robustness of local varieties over
time?
6.What is the role of local interest/learning groups in mutual encouragement
among gardening households? Can the collective memory for planting dates
and practices and the ‘annual planting calendar’ tradition be revived to
remind and encourage all households to start their preparations in time?
7.Is it achievable to save and even earn significant money from homestead
farming in South Africa? And are there opportunities for value-adding which
are achievable for resource-poor households?
8.Can one easily recognise and avoid seemingly attractive possibilities that
carry too much risk for already food insecure households?
Agricultural Water Use for Homestead Gardening Systems – Resource Material
16
Different incentives for different people
What people do, arise from what they think and believe. This is influenced by their
circumstances. People have different reasons for getting involved in homestead
farming.
For instance:
An established homestead farmer, like Mr Mapumulo in Umbumbulu, may be
thinking about planting out-of-season to capture lucrative markets;
A grandmother could be planning to plant a range of foodstuffs to be ready for
harvest during her children and grandchildren’s annual visit over Christmas;
A cash-strapped household may want to plant food to replace expenditure on
essential foodstuffs;
A concerned mother may wish to find an affordable way to increase the diversity
and attractiveness of family meals, and of having healthy snack foods for young
children; and
Some households may want to generate additional income by selling
vegetables, seed, adding value through preservation, packaging, etc.
The two ‘pull’ factors: Food and income
Professor Tushaar Shah (Shah, 2004) describes
what he calls ‘push’ and ‘pull’ factors for
agricultural development.
All the factors of production are ‘push factors’.
These are the things that enable production,
such as land, inputs, machinery, credit, and
even institutional arrangements and training. Often, shortfalls in these ‘push factors’
are what government support programmes offer in an attempt to stimulate
development, or production.
However, Professor Shah states that:
A ‘pull factor’ is needed to stimulate people into production. The main pull factor is
the market, which makes it worth people’s while to produce. The more lucrative a
market is, the stronger the pull factor. Further, if people perceive that it is within their
ability to provide what the market wants, they will
go to great lengths themselves to find the means
(the ‘push factors’), in order to benefit from that
market.
Shah then quotes an example of what he calls
‘runaway’ or ‘wildfire development’ – in the ideal
case where the market wants – in significant
quantities and at a worthwhile price – something
which is very easy for a large number of poor
...push factors in themselves do
not lead to development
production.
An even stronger and
primary ‘pull factor’, of
course, is one’s
stomach
– both actual hunger
and the fear of hunger.
Introduction to the Resource Material
17
households to produce – and with means already at their disposal. In such a case,
almost everyone can respond very quickly to the ‘market pull’, and the need
disappears for government to try to ‘push’ development along. For instance, such
‘wildfire development’ happened in West Africa, when the demand and price for
local fish soared, and poor households could suddenly earn good income from an
established and well-known traditional practice.
An old Chinese proverb says: “A hungry man sees only one problem. Once the
hunger is satisfied, he sees many.”
Maslow’s hierarchy of human needs
Maslow’s well-known hierarchy of human needs also argues that a person’s higher-
order needs become motivational factors only once the basic elements for survival
are in place. The satisfaction of lower level needs act like a stable foundation for
further personal development.
Figure 1: Maslow’s hierarchy of human needs
Maslow’s theory is useful to identify the different types of needs, even if not everyone
agrees that these needs follow in hierarchy. Chilean economist and philosopher
Manfred Max Neef (Neef, M.M.) argued that fundamental human needs are non-
hierarchical, and are part of the condition of being human. Poverty, he argues, is the
result of any one of these needs being frustrated, denied or unfulfilled.
Ma Tshepo Khumbane is a social worker and development activist who has worked
in many parts of South Africa and Lesotho for over 40 years. She points out that
where there are serious relationship clashes in a household, it becomes very hard for
the household caregiver to engage in visioning, planning and implementation for a
better future. Conversely, good relationships (social needs) and respect of
neighbours (esteem needs) provides motivation and a strong foundation for growth.
This points to the interrelatedness between human needs, whether or not they are
hierarchical.
Agricultural Water Use for Homestead Gardening Systems – Resource Material
18
An understanding of the interplay between human needs also goes a long way to
explain the role and usefulness of the Garden Learning Group approach to
facilitation. (See Chapter 2 for more detail).
It is interesting that in recent years, a sixth level of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs has
been proposed, namely ‘transcendence’, which is sometimes described as ‘helping
others to self-actualise’. This recognises the motivational value to oneself, of reaching
out to others. Participants in the Garden Learning Groups are encouraged to help
others around them, in spite of their own dire situation, because reaching out
actually helps their own healing process.
Understanding
Understanding the interrelatedness between
human needs helps a facilitator to become more
effective in motivating and mobilising
households, by:
Understanding why there might be a lack
of progress in a specific household;
Coming up with alternative mobilisation
and facilitation strategies to work
around such problems; and/or
Arranging for specific interventions or
assistance for a household to solve such
problems.
Introduction to the Resource Material
19
The Ten ‘Human Capabilities’
Martha Nussbaum (Nussbaum, 2007) takes the thinking about human needs further
with the ‘human capabilities’ theory, which shows the range of material and non-
material factors that enables a person to live a full life – in other words, a life where a
person can develop all ten their ‘human capabilities’.
Humans need to be all that they can be, by developing all ten of the human
capabilities (see Table 6 below). The capability approach contrasts with a common
view that sees ‘development’ purely in terms of Gross National Product (GNP)
growth, and ‘poverty’ purely as income-deprivation.
In this approach, poverty is understood as being not just income deprivation but also
encompassing capability-deprivation. It is noteworthy that the emphasis is not only
on how human beings actually function but on their having the capability, (which is
a practical choice), to function, (i.e. functional capability) in important ways if they
so wish. Someone could be deprived of such capabilities in many ways, e.g. by
ignorance, government oppression, lack of financial resources, or false
consciousness.
The approach emphasizes substantive freedoms, such as the ability to live to old
age, engage in economic transactions, or participate in political activities. These are
construed in terms of the substantive freedoms people have reason to value – such
as happiness, desire-fulfilment or choice – rather than mere access to utilities or
resources such as income, commodities and assets.
This understanding now underpins the Human Development Index and the Human
Development Report produced annually by the United Nations Development
Programme.
Personal responsibility, excellence and
faithfulness:
The ability to develop all the human
capabilities does not necessarily result
in them being developed. Personal
responsibility and faithfulness is also
necessary.
When everything is in place for
people to achieve something, they
can still choose whether or not to
try/persevere.
Agricultural Water Use for Homestead Gardening Systems – Resource Material
20
Table 3: The ten human capabilities
“A list of specific capabilities as a benchmark for a minimally decent human life”
1. Life.
Being able to live to the end of a human life of normal length; not dying prematurely, or
before one’s life is so reduced as to be not worth living.
2. Bodily Health.
Being able to have good health, including reproductive health; to be adequately nourished;
to have adequate shelter.
3. Bodily Integrity.
Being able to move freely from place to place; to be secure against violent assault, including
sexual assault and domestic violence; having opportunities for sexual satisfaction and for
choice in matters of reproduction.
4. Senses, Imagination and Thought.
Being able to use the senses, to imagine, think,and to reason – and to do these things in a
“truly human” way, a way informed and cultivated by an adequate education, including,
but by no means limited to, literacy and basic mathematical and scientific training. Being
able to use imagination and thought in connection with experiencing and producing works
and events of one’s own choice, religious, literary, musical, and so forth. Being able to use
one’s mind in ways protected by guarantees of freedom of expression with respect to both
political and artistic speech, and freedom of religious exercise. Being able to have
pleasurable experiences and to avoid non-beneficial pain.
5. Emotions.
Being able to have attachments to things and people outside ourselves; to love those who
love and care for us, to grieve at their absence; in general, to love, to grieve, to experience
longing, gratitude, and justified anger. Not having one’s emotional development blighted by
fear and anxiety. (Supporting this capability means supporting forms of human association
that can be shown to be crucial in their development.)
6. Practical Reason.
Being able to form a conception of the good and to engage in critical reflection about the
planning of one’s life (protection for the liberty of conscience and religious observance.)
7. Affiliation.
A. Being able to live with and toward others, to recognize and show concern for other human
beings, to engage in various forms of social interaction; to be able to imagine the situation of
another. (Protecting this capability means protecting institutions that constitute and nourish
such forms of affiliation, and also protecting the freedom of assembly and political speech.)
B. Having the social bases of self-respect and non-humiliation; being able to be treated as a
dignified being whose worth is equal to that of others. This entails provisions of non-
discrimination on the basis of race, sex, sexual orientation, ethnicity, caste, religion, national
origin.
8. Other Species.
Being able to live with concern for and in relation to animals, plants, and the world of nature.
9. Play.
Being able to laugh, to play, to enjoy recreational activities.
10. Control over One’s Environment.
A. Political. Being able to participate effectively in political choices that govern one’s life;
having the right of political participation and protections of free speech and association.
B. Material. Being able to hold property (both land and movable goods), and having
property rights on an equal basis with others; having the right to seek employment on an
equal basis with others; having the freedom from unwarranted search and seizure. In work,
being able to work as a human being, exercising practical reason and entering into
meaningful relationships of mutual recognition with other workers.
Introduction to the Resource Material
21
Summary
The desire to fulfil a ‘human need’ or to develop a ‘human capability’ is what
motivates a person to do something. We need to understand these motivational
factors if we want to become more successful at:
Mobilising people into homestead farming; and
Motivating them to keep on producing year after year.
We also need to learn more about those things that discourage or demotivate
gardeners, and events that cause a break in production which could make it hard to
get back into production again. Following the old adage ‘prevention is better than
cure’, we can then try to help people avoid demotivating situations and events.
For the mobilisation of households into homestead farming, we can focus on two
‘pull factors’, namely food, and income.
Activity 1:
‘Pull factors’ for homestead production
Aim:
To identify the ‘pull factors’ for homestead production in a given situation, and
understand its role in mobilisation and in the sustainability of homestead farming.
Instructions:
1. Read through the situations described under ‘different incentives for different
people’ above. In each situation, try to identify whether food or income/money is
the incentive for production. Do you think this can change over time for a specific
household?
2. Now read though the ‘human capabilities’. Which of these ten
‘needs/capabilities’ could possibly also provide incentives for home food
production? For each ‘need’ among these ten that you consider to be a possible
incentive for home food production, do the following:
i. Describe a situation where you think this could be the incentive.
ii. State whether you think this incentive would mobilise a person into production,
and/or motivate a person to carry on producing year after year.
3. Think about ‘7 Affiliation or the need to feel part of a group. Would you agree
that being part of an ongoing group of gardening friends could help motivate some
people to carry on planting their gardens? Because we realise that people want to
‘belong’, we may think of ways to make the Garden Learning Groups interesting and
meaningful. This can help to create that sense of belonging and shared experiences
– the good times and the hard times – which tie people together in a circle of
friendship.
4. Now you may also want to reflect on possible motivating factors for food
gardening related to 2 bodily health; 5 emotions; 6 practical reason; 8 other
species; and 10 control over one’s environment.
Agricultural Water Use for Homestead Gardening Systems – Resource Material
22
5. Now think about the Human Capability (=Need=Motivating Factor) to play. Can
you see the value of building lots of fun into the Garden Learning Group sessions?
Fun and laughter is not only a very strong motivator, it is also recognised in medical
circles as the single most effective antidote to stress. (Science Daily. April 10, 2008)
Tools to help us differentiate between incentives
A number of tools and approaches can help the facilitator to better target advice
and interventions.
‘Household typologies’ can be developed to categorise people with similar
objectives. This approach was used for smallholder irrigation schemes, and is also
suitable to help target facilitation and intervention strategies for households with
different objectives in homestead farming.
The Helicopter Planning method is a combined vision-building/action-
planning/self-monitoring process, which helps the household to think themselves
into a possible future, and to decide on a practical plan of action to achieve
their desired future through achievable and measurable steps. The method is
described in more detail in Chapter 2 of this document.
Both the ‘Helicopter Planning’ and the household typologies use scenario-based
planning to assess possibilities and their consequences, which can then also be used
to plan facilitation, training and intervention steps.
Later in the process, when the
facilitator starts working directly
with specific households, she can
use Helicopter Planning as a
tool to help each household to
get clarity about their own
objectives, and to plan their own
actions accordingly.
During initial scoping
(information gathering and
analysis) in a village, one gets a
broad idea of the types of
situations found in that village.
Household typologies or
categories can be developed at
that stage
Facilitator’s note:
Many people find the human
capabilities somewhat abstract and not
easy to understand. Do not get
discouraged if it does not make sense
to
y
ou immediatel
y
.
Introduction to the Resource Material
23
Some household typologies
The following case studies help us to think about the differences between
households’ situations. The facilitator needs to interpret what s/he sees and hears, in
order to plan effective facilitation strategies, and to do problem-solving in specific
cases.
Case study 1:
Ms Beauty Mbhele (Mantshalolo Village)
The situation:
Ms Mbhele (52) lives alone
with her two teenage
children (19 and 20 years)
and a younger severely
handicapped son. They
survive off her pension. She
is a traditional healer.
The homestead is small and
somewhat unkempt. She
had planted some maize in
her field, but her vegetable
garden was lying fallow at
the time.
Ms Mbhele paid a person
R800 that she had made
from selling potatoes she
had grown, to excavate
the hole for her
underground rainwater
harvesting tank. A
demonstration in trenchbed
production and channelling
rain water to the garden
was held at her home. The
family collected manure
and grass prior to the
demonstration.
Household Typology
summary:
People:
1 adult (active), 3
children; high
dependency ratio as
children are grown up
and could contribute,
and due to physical
disability of one child.
Income:
Pension and traditional
healing.
Cropping:
Maize, potatoes and
beans for household
use.
Livestock:
Some free range
chickens.
Intensification:
Rainwater harvesting
and vegetable
production.
Infrastructure:
Small homestead,
fenced, by vulnerable.
Human capacity:
Received some
training.
Possible enabling
interventions:
Assistance: Grants, food
support, health supporting
Vegetable production:
Intensification for household
use, to include fruit and small
livestock
Income replacement
interventions: For example
processing of food, grain
banks (for seed and food
security)
Assistance with productive
assets: fencing, water, fruit
trees, small livestock
Community services: Clinic,
crèches and school with
feeding schemes
Learning group support: For
sharing and supply of crops
(introduce new ideas), e.g.
potatoes, maize, beans,
sweet potatoes, onions,
tomatoes.
Supply of surplus produce to
local projects, where
possible,
Agricultural Water Use for Homestead Gardening Systems – Resource Material
24
A view of Miss Beauty Mbhele’s homestead.
Photo: E. Kruger, LIMA DWAF, 2006
Nonhlanhla, a community facilitator for the NGO working in the area, interviews her. The
disused vegetable garden is in the background.
Introduction to the Resource Material
25
Case study 2:
Mr Michel Mbhele (Kayeka Village)
The situation:
This is a reasonably
sized homestead (with
one large and 2 small
dwellings) with 2
adults and 7 children.
Income consists of 1
child grant and Mrs
Mbhele sells snacks at
the nearby school.
They have received
some food production
training from LIMA and
Vukani. Rainwater is
presently harvested in
2 × 200 l drums and
used for watering
plants.
The property is
fenced. Fields above
and below the
homestead have
been planted to
maize and traditional
beans.
Household Typology
summary:
People:
2 adults (active), 7
children; high
dependency ratio.
Income:
grants and small business
activities.
Cropping:
maize and beans for
household use.
Livestock:
Some free range chickens,
kraal for cattle and goats.
Intensification:
Rainwater harvesting and
vegetable production.
Infrastructure:
Well developed
homestead, fenced fields
and garden, rainwater
harvesting tanks.
Human capacity:
Received training,
entrepreneurial ability.
Possible enabling interventions:
Vegetable and crop
production intensification.
Supply of surplus produce to
local projects.
Learning group support for
sharing and supply of crops
(introduce new ideas), e.g.
potatoes, maize, beans, sweet
potatoes, onions, tomatoes.
More intensive production of
small livestock for use and sale
of surplus.
Cropping: Soil fertility
interventions for greater yield.
Livelihood diversification:
Further grants or part-time
employment.
Further development of
entrepreneurial activities.
Saving schemes for productive
purposes.
Grain banks.
Agricultural Water Use for Homestead Gardening Systems – Resource Material
26
Mr Mbhele stands next to his bean field talking to Nonhlanhla, the community facilitator for
that village in 2006.
The same view of the same field two years later, shows that the family have now planted fruit
trees (oranges, peaches and plums) inside the fence of the field, and evidence of ploughing and
planting of potatoes is
visible.
Photo: E Kruger, DWAF,
LIMA, 2008.
Introduction to the Resource Material
27
Mr Mbhele volunteered to dig
his own hole for his rainwater
harvesting tank. He had
completed a portion of his
excavation by the follow up visit
in 2006. Here Mrs. Mbhele
stands by their completed tank
which is now full of water, ready
for use for vegetable production.
Photo: E Kruger, DWAF, LIMA,
2008.
Agricultural Water Use for Homestead Gardening Systems – Resource Material
28
Case study 3:
Mr Phelemon Mnguni (Ziqalabeni Village)
The situation:
This is a well developed
homestead (7
dwellings) with 7
residents.
They have no stable
income outside of 2
child grants. Mr Mnguni
works on the roads from
time to time.
There are 2 small, well-
fenced vegetable
gardens. Water is led
into one of the gardens
by means of a furrow
from the yard. The
gardens are well
planted and well
tended. There are
numerous large fruit
trees (peaches, plums,
apples, grapevines).
Rainwater is harvested
also from 2 ×200 l drums
from the roofs and this is
used for watering
vegetables.
He also has an
enclosure for his geese
and a number of
chickens in the yard.
Household Typology
summary:
People:
4 adults (active),
3 children; low
dependency ratio.
Income:
Grants and part time
employment.
Cropping:
Maize, potatoes and
beans for household use
and sale.
Well developed
vegetable garden with
fruit trees.
Livestock:
Chickens, duck and
geese houses, kraal for
cattle and goats.
Intensification:
Rainwater harvesting
and vegetable
production.
Infrastructure:
Well developed
homestead, fenced
fields and garden, RWH
tanks.
Human capacity:
Received training,
entrepreneurial ability.
Possible enabling interventions:
Specific commercial cropping
or gardening ventures possible.
Learning and management of
marketing processes required.
Vegetable and crop production
management for efficiency and
diversification, e.g. low tillage,
inter-cropping, crop rotation
and new crops.
Supply of surplus produce to
local projects and markets
further afield.
Learning group support for
sharing and supply of crops
(introduce new ideas), e.g.
potatoes, maize, beans, sweet
potatoes, onions, tomatoes.
More intensive production of
small livestock for use and sale
of surplus.
Cropping: Soil fertility
interventions for greater yield.
Livelihood diversification: Further
grants or part-time employment.
Further development of
entrepreneurial activities.
Saving schemes for productive
purposes.
Grain banks.
Introduction to the Resource Material
29
Mr Mnguni’s homestead. He is standing in the
centre of the picture.
A view of his geese enclosure.
A view of Mr Mnguni’s vegetable garden. He already follows many good fertility and rainwater
harvesting practices in his garden shown here by trench beds with water harvesting furrows he
has constructed. He has been gardening in this way for some time and was originally trained in
these methods through Vukani.
Agricultural Water Use for Homestead Gardening Systems – Resource Material
30
Analysis of the Household Typology Case studies
The three case studies above were chosen to clearly represent different household
typologies (or as clearly as is possible in the real world, anyway!). The three
categories or typologies of households have different opportunities and constraints,
different incentives and disincentives, depending on their livelihood situations, which
we will briefly summarise in the table below. The idea is that this kind of
categorisation can help you as a facilitator to decide what interventions or grouping
of interventions are appropriate for different homesteads. Obviously, this is not set in
stone! Peoples' own motivation and ability plays an important role as well.
Table 4: Linking household typologies to livelihoods and appropriate interventions
Case
study
Livelihood
summary
Interventions
1: Mrs
Mbhele
Woman headed
household, with a
large dependency
ratio and little or no
income. Resources
and infrastructure
limited.
NO RISK CAN BE TAKEN!
DIVERSIFICATION, MAINTENANCE AND PROTECTION OF
INCOME.
Assistance, e.g. grants, food support, health supporting.
Vegetable production intensification for household use, to
include fruit and small livestock.
Income replacement interventions, e.g. processing of
food, grain banks (for seed and food security).
Assistance with productive assets, e.g. fencing, water, fruit
trees, small livestock.
Community services: clinic, crèches and school with
feeding schemes.
2: Mr
Mbhele
(different
family to
Case 1
above!)
Male headed
(husband and wife)
household with a
large dependency
ratio. More diverse
source of income.
Reasonable
infrastructure and
resources.
SLIGHTLY MORE RISK CAN BE TAKEN.
DIVERSIFICATION AND INTENSIFICATION OF PRODUCTION
AND INCOME GENERATING ACTIVITIES, MOSTLY LOCAL.
Vegetable and crop production intensification.
Supply of surplus produce to local projects.
3: Mr
Mnguni
Family headed
household (2
generations of
family members),
small dependency
ratio. Diverse
source of income.
Infrastructure and
resource
development
evident and well
established
MORE RISK CAN BE TAKEN.
DIVERSIFICATION OF INCOME, AND PRODUCTION OF
SPECIFIC PRODUCE (crops, livestock) FOR SALE.
Specific commercial cropping or gardening ventures
possible.
Learning and management of marketing processes
required.
Vegetable and crop production management for
improved efficiency and diversification, e.g. low tillage,
inter-cropping, crop rotation, new crops...
Supply of surplus produce to local projects and markets
further afield.
Look at the activity below. It will assist you to further think through incentives and
disincentives of the households in the three case studies presented above.
Introduction to the Resource Material
31
Activity 2:
Identifying incentives and disincentives
within the different household typologies
Aim
To identify the opportunities and constraints that are likely to be relevant for different
households, and to plan facilitation activities with that household accordingly.
Instructions
By now you should have a good idea of the typical issues involved in people’s
decisions to start and continue gardening.
Analyse each of the Case studies 1-3 and write down your opinion about what is
likely to act as incentives and disincentives for each of these homesteads. Use your
experience of similar situations to guide you.
Incentives Disincentives
Case study 1 For example Mrs Mbhele's
interest in growing and
using traditional
medicine.
…...
For example Mrs Mbhele
needs to spend a lot of
time and effort looking
after her handicapped
son.
...
Case study 2
Case study 3
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32
Get growing! Mobilising people into
production
Have you noticed that all the households in
the three examples above were already
gardening?
Thereafter, the first food cooked from their
own harvest is a wonderful motivating factor,
but it is surprising how many households forget
to plant follow-up crops!
Incentives that mobilise people into home food production
The following are examples of incentives that may help to get people gardening:
Family practise/tradition;
Natural interest/inclination;
Shortages: of food; of money to buy food, of availability of the desired foodstuffs
to buy, of health that would be improved by access to more nutritious food;
Lucrative and accessible market, which in the best-case scenario would result in
‘wildfire’-development (as described above by Professor Shah);
When it becomes fashionable to grow one’s own food;and
When external incentives entice people into production, such as subsidies or
rewards. Recurring subsidies, such as for seed, fertiliser and other inputs, tend to
create dependencies and mostly fail to lead to sustainable production. Once-off,
so-called ‘smart subsidies’ are non-recurring and aimed at permanently removing
specific identified obstacles to independent and ongoing production (e.g.
rainwater storage, manual pumping technologies, and enduring tools).
Disincentives which prevent people from starting home food production
If a person believes that s/he does not have the means to garden, not even a
great shortage of food would get them to start growing their own food.
Therefore, when a person realises that it may in fact be possible to grow food with
what is already within their reach, a great stumbling block is removed.
The most powerful way to bring home this realisation, is for a person to see an
example of someone just like her, who is gardening successfully – someone who
has overcome the main issues, which are usually:
I don’t have money (use low external input production methods);
I don’t have water (use rainwater harvesting techniques and recycling);
I don’t know how, I am afraid (we will learn as we go; we will learn
together as a Garden learning Group).
If a person has real difficulties due to physical circumstances, or a
disproportionate burden to carry (time, labour, health constraints, for instance a
single adult with a large number of dependents), the facilitator may need to help
her plan how to overcome or circumvent some of these constraints. The Garden
Learning Group may decide to help such a person to get her garden established
(e.g. help her dig and prepare the planting trenches), which may then put her in
a position to keep it going thereafter.
If a person just simply doesn’t want to garden,because s/he just does not like
gardening at all, or do not wish to associate themselves with it, there is very little
that a facilitator can do!
Get Growing!
The facilitator’s greater
challenge is to motivate non-
gardening food insecure
households into production.
Introduction to the Resource Material
33
Catalysing action
Most often, even when there are sufficient incentives, and the disincentives have
been addressed, there still needs to be some event, or intervention, to get non-
gardening people going – something that would catalyse action.
For instance, one may know for many years that it would be good to get more
exercise, and that this would be as easy as going for a walk or a jog in the morning.
But maybe only once you learn that you have a serious health problem, or maybe
someone insults you, you would actually make the effort to get up a bit earlier and
go for that walk/jog!
Mind Mobilisation Workshop
Ma Tshepo Khumbane has developed the ‘Mind Mobilisation Workshop’ for this
purpose. In this workshop, which may run over four or five days, she takes the
participants through a process where they have time to analyse and face up to their
own situation honestly, and plan practically how to improve it. These tools will be
described in more detail in Chapter 2.
Nutrition Workshop
One of the outcomes of the work done for the Water Research Commission was the
development of the Nutrition Workshop (Described in detail in Chapter 3).
The Nutrition Workshop provides a less emotionally charged alternative to the Present
Situation Charting, which often results in emotional breakdown of deeply food
insecure persons. However, it could be argued that the failure to create an
opportunity for these emotions to surface and be dealt with may detract from the
depth and effectiveness of the healing process.
Choice of mobilisation method:
The choice of mobilisation method would
thus need to depend on
the needs of the participants (their
level of food insecurity and
traumatisation); and
the skills and experience of the
particular facilitator(s) working with
them...
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34
Giving seedlings: Creating urgency
In both mobilisation methods, participants are given seedlings to start their gardens
with. If the upfront processes were done well, meaning that people would now be
keen and eager to get going with their gardens, the seedlings provide the urgency
to delay no further! They will have to plant the seedlings before they wilt and die.
There have been many debates about whether or not to supply households with
recurring inputs like seedlings, seed, fertilisers and pest remedies.
Often, households fail to replant unless they continue to receive these inputs, in
other words, the intervention is not sustainable.
On the other hand, many of the poorest households never really get started
unless they are assisted with some inputs. Further, they can harvest much more
quickly and reliably if they can plant seedlings instead of relying on seed to
actually germinate well.
The recommendation of the research team is:
To provide seedlings as an incentive and to create urgency. People can
start planting while the excitement of the mobilisation process still runs
high.
In the follow-up training households learn how to successfully harvest and
safely store their own seed and to germinate their own seedlings from
these.
Production methods are promoted that avoid the need for external inputs
like bought seeds, seedlings, fertilisers and pest and disease remedies.
Introduction to the Resource Material
35
Keep on growing your garden: Motivators and disruptors
We know that a large proportion of households that start food gardens may later
stop growing their own food again. Why is this? Can we foresee some of the dangers
and help households to plan against them upfront?
Incentives for continued food gardening
First harvest
Success breeds success. Many people describe the deep satisfaction of – literally –
eating from the fruits of their own labour. This achievement should be reinforced
through a celebration. The Garden Learning Group members together could cook
up a feast from their own harvest, and if they wish, invite neighbours and leaders to
share in their joy. This also creates broader recognition of their achievement, and
much-needed moral support from those around them.
First replanting and planting calendars
The first replanting is critical, and thereafter, some form of reminder to replant is
useful, especially for households that are new to gardening:
Once the first crop is growing well, and even before it is harvested, the facilitator
should take the household through the process of getting their next beds
prepared and further crops planted.
This can be done in a planned manner, so that the household can choose crops
to plant in accordance with the family’s diet gaps identified through the Nutrition
Workshop. (See if you can simplify the ‘Planning what to plant’ chart provided in
Chapter 3).
As an ongoing reminder to their members to keep replanting their gardens in the
different growing seasons, the Garden Learning Group can fall back onto old
traditions, such as the Annual Planting Calendar, Harvest Festivals, Environmental
Cleansing Ceremonies before the rainy season starts, etc.
Keeping it interesting
Very often, it is relatively easy to keep people’s interest going during the initial
facilitated process. This should normally be a 6 to 12 month period,and includes an
agreed programme of learning workshops for at least one full growing season,
regular follow-up visits to the households’ home gardens, and further planning and
feedback sessions of the Garden Learning Group. During this initial period, there are
often also visitors from outside the village, and maybe some research taking place.
All of these activities help to keep people interested.
The great challenge comes when these activities start to taper off. The households’
interest may then also start to dwindle, and more people may fail to tend and
replant their gardens. The facilitator can usually remain with a particular group or
Agricultural Water Use for Homestead Gardening Systems – Resource Material
36
village only for a limited period. How can this loss of interest then be avoided,
especially after the facilitator is no longer working with those particular households?
The only approach that stands a chance of being sustainable in the long run is to
strengthen the Garden Learning Group and capacity of the households themselves.
The long-term role of the Garden Learning Group is to act as friendship circle and an
ongoing source of mutual support and inspiration for all its members.
The typical tasks that a Garden Learning Group can assign to itself are discussed in
greater detail in Chapter 2.
Income generation
When a household can earn some extra cash from selling some of their home
garden produce, this also helps to keep their interest going. We know that it is
advisable to start off with a food focus for home food production, but this first phase
can be followed rapidly by income generation activities for those households that
have an interest in going this route. These aspects are discussed in detail in
Chapter 7.
The following aspects are particularly important to consider:
No-one should be forced into ‘business’ just because the majority of the group
wishes to go this route. Make sure that everyone can choose whether or not they
wish to go into selling. As we have seen from the three case studies above, there
are great differences in the level of risk different households can afford to take
therefore there is no ‘one-size-fits-all’ solution.
Help households to do a realistic assessment of the risk of different income
generation options. For instance, ideas that would require of them to pay a
monthly electricity bill even when they are not producing are too risky for food
insecure households.
Fights over money are as common as sand to the sea. Many groups have broken
up irreparably over such disputes. Therefore our advice would be to avoid
While the facilitator is still with the group, s/he should do
all s/he can to enable them, from the start, to do their
own planning and to be aware of the long-term
challenges they will face.
By getting them into a habit of regular self-evaluation
and re-planning, the facilitator helps the Garden Learning
Group to adopt a way of working through which they can
continually renew their focus and activities over the years
to come.
Introduction to the Resource Material
37
projects that create economic interdependence between households. As far as
possible, plan things in such a way that each household can handle its own
finances independently. If joint marketing is done, help the members to agree
clearly upfront how matters will be handled to avoid disputes.
Value adding and diversification
There are many value-adding and preservation ideas which households can
experiment with over time. (See Chapter 4: Diversifying production in homestead
framing for more detail) These also add to the level of interest that can be
maintained in the long run.
One idea would be for the Garden Learning Group to have a ‘new idea of the week
or month’, where each member must bring a new idea on a rotational basis.
Regular celebrations
Remember how strong people’s need is for friendship (Maslow’s third
level) and “play” (human capabilities). Regular celebrations keep the energy levels
up and create something to look forward to on the annual calendar.
Agricultural Water Use for Homestead Gardening Systems – Resource Material
38
Disincentives, disruptions and discouragements
Poverty and vulnerability go hand in hand. Illness in the family, a wedding or a
funeral, or natural disasters like droughts or floods, may all place sudden strain on the
household.
Just as easily, unexpected opportunities may disrupt sustainable activities. For
instance, the chance for short-term employment on a government construction
project in the area may bring some much-needed cash to the household, but at the
same time, may leave them with insufficient time or labour to replant their home
food garden. Similarly, if the person responsible for the gardening needs to go away
for a period, for instance to care for a sick relative, the garden may fall into disarray.
What can be done to plan ahead for such incidents?
By planting hardy crops which self-propagate and go on yielding year after year,
a household can establish a ‘core garden’ which would be easier to resuscitate
after a period of neglect or absence. There are several vegetables and fruit
crops that can be used for this purpose.
By paying attention to the garden layout so that rainfall run-off would always flow
automatically to the planting beds even in one’s absence (i.e. run-on), the
chances of survival of the garden is much improved.
The Garden Learning Group may decide to play a role in helping each other
through such periods.
Further, the Garden Learning Group maydevelop a system of following up on
members who stop growing their gardens for any other reason, so as to help the
member to overcome problems and get back into production.
It is useful to remember that the gardening skills are never lost, and that the low
external input methods enable a person to grow food almost anywhere, anytime.
Therefore, should a person stop producing because she finds fulltime employment,
she could always go back to production whenever the job falls away again.
Probably one of the most serious disruptors to food gardening is local conflicts. The
stability of the Garden Learning Group should therefore be protected at all costs.
The very large number of funerals held in villages in recent years is very time
consuming and a drag on emotions, labour hours available and cash resources. This
is simply a current reality in rural communities.
Introduction to the Resource Material
39
Purpose and targeting of mobilisation
The ‘first brick’: Food security and resilience through
diversification
When we want to mobilise and support food insecure households to engage in
home food production, the most effective mobilisation strategy is usually to first focus
on food security, and to leave the income generation aspects to emerge much later
in the process.
Households in low income categories are also very vulnerable to risks and shocks.
Any natural disaster or illness in the family or events that require money, like school
clothes, weddings and funerals, can leave such a family in a state of disarray.
Spin-off benefits: Healthy eating for all
In Chapter 3 we will see that in South Africa, malnutrition is not limited to the low
income households. Most of our more common health problems, like diabetes and
obesity, are directly related to our poor lifelong eating habits.
Home food gardening and a better
understanding of our nutritional
needs, can equip families in all
income categories to eat better and
avoid preventable diseases.
We have already seen that diet
diversification is one of the most
important ways to improve food
nutrition security and the family’s
health. (This will be discussed further
in Chapter 3: Living and eating well).
Therefore, diversification in the garden
also helps to protect the family against
health risks.
Agricultural Water Use for Homestead Gardening Systems – Resource Material
40
Permanent damage to children under the age of five – in both poor and non-poor
families – through chronic malnutrition, can easily be prevented through better food
habits.
Therefore, among all households, a focus on better health can provide a strong
incentive for home food production.
Second-phase: Income opportunities
We have seen that the income earned from home production of vegetables, could
push up the family income of low income households by 10-30%, sometimes already
in the first season of production.
As people’s gardens expand and their diversity of production increases, the income
potential also grows significantly. The following aspects can enhance the overall
income and the stability of income streams from homestead farming:
Expansion and further intensification of production, for instance, by planting a
specific bed three or more times per year;
More fruit production, through planting of a variety of fruit trees with different
harvesting dates;
Diversification into production of a variety of livestock, poultry and fish, and using
waste from each component of the homestead farming system to feed into other
components (for instance, chicken manure to fertilise the vegetable beds and
feed the fish, and vegetable scraps to feed the chickens); and
Processing, preserving and value adding of food, so that it keeps longer and can
be used and/or sold throughout the year.
In Chapter 7, we will look in more detail at income opportunities from homestead
farming. We will also look particularly at how to help households to recognise and
avoid those income opportunities which may carry too much risk for low income
households.
Introduction to the Resource Material
41
Emotional healing as a foundation for food security
We have seen above that the first target of homestead farming – and its most
immediate impact – is on food security. Therefore we need to develop a deeper
understanding of hunger and malnutrition, and how to use this knowledge to
improve the effectiveness of our facilitation strategies. This is also discussed in
Chapter 3.
Psychological effects of hunger
Josué de Castro (De Castro, J) lived as a child among permanently malnourished
communities in the mangrove swamps of Brazil, and has made it his life’s task to
break the silence on hunger. In 1996, the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO)
Council “honoured the memory of Professor Josué de Castro who made an
outstanding contribution to the understanding of the problems of hunger, particularly
with the publication of his book "Geography of Hunger" in 1946”.
De Castro explains the nature of two types of severe hunger:
There are two ways of dying of hunger: one is not to eat at all and rapidly
waste away until death, and the other is to eat inadequately and begin a
cycle of specific deficiencies which might ultimately end up in death. Partial
or chronic hunger is more pressing than total hunger (starvation). The latter
has social and economical impact but the former (chronic hunger) will silently
destroy and undermine countless populations.
He also describes some of the effects of severe hunger on the individual’s way of
thinking about life:
Hunger not only acts on the body of the
victims… wasting the flesh, eating away the
organs and opening wounds, it also destroys
the spirit, the mental structure and the moral
conduct of these people. No other calamity
can disassemble the human character as
deeply and as harmfully as hunger.
The literature confirms such links between malnutrition and psychological problems:
According to Dawes (Dawes et al., 2000), recent reviews and theoretical
analyses support the view that prolonged nutritional deficiencies produce lasting
changes in emotional control and motivation, with wide-ranging effects on all
aspects of personal functioning, including cognition (Barret & Frank, 1987; Pollit et
al., 1996; Strupp & Levitsky, 1998)
Steinfeld(Steinfeld, 1956) investigated the hypothetical 'hunger trauma' in babies
and its relation to later schizophrenia.
Jahoda (Jahoda, 1958, reprinted 1999) highlights at least three mental health
problems related to malnutrition: nutritional problems of pregnancy; toxic deliria
associated with certain vitamin deficiencies; and some of the confusions of
elderly persons associated with both drug intoxications and malnutrition.
Prolonged hunger
produces traumatised
individuals.
Agricultural Water Use for Homestead Gardening Systems – Resource Material
42
Activity 3:
The effects of hunger
Aim
To think about how humans react to prolonged hunger.
Instructions
Carefully read the quotations and literature references above.
Describe in which ways the human character can be disassembled by the calamity
of chronic hunger? Think about what you know that people do when they are
desperate for food and cannot see a way out. How do they behave? What do they
do and say which people normally wouldn’t do or say?
You may also want to read the following website to get a better understanding of
this: [ http://www.josuedecastro.com.br/engl/hunger.html ]
Hunger as the ultimate symbol of powerlessness
In the book “World Hunger: 12 Myths“(Lappe et al., 1998), the authors argue that
hunger should not be viewed merely as the statistics of numbers of people suffering
from deficient nutrition and thus the volume of food aid needed by them. Instead,
hunger should be understood in terms of universal feelings experienced by the
hungry, such as the anguish of impossible choices, the grief of seeing loved ones
suffer or even die, the humiliation of living in impoverished circumstances and fear of
powerful people.
Dawes (Dawes et al., 2000) found that psychosocial and economic reconstruction
go hand in hand. People who suffer war stresses (and other stresses -authors’
addition), are not in a good position to learn new skills, to benefit from education, or
to work and plan effectively. At the same time, economic reconstruction is a source
of psychosocial well-being. They found that “Economic issues motivated projects
aimed at structural rebuilding, and physical rebuilding became part of the healing
process.”
Introduction to the Resource Material
43
Since the early 1970s, Ma Tshepo Khumbane has lived and worked with food
insecure households across South Africa and Lesotho as a beloved and respected
social worker and development activist, and has a deep understanding of the
effects of chronic hunger on the mental state of ‘household caregivers’ who fail to
feed their families adequately.
In the food insecure household also, their successes at food production provides a
great boost to their healing
process.
Ma Tshepo Khumbane, social worker and
development activist across South
Africa and Lesotho for more than forty
years.
Photo: Courtesy of’ The Star’ newspaper.
Household caregiver
This term refers to that individual in a household who shoulders the main
responsibility for the household’s daily meal.
Note that this is not the same as the ‘breadwinner’ which is not a very useful
concept in rural South Africa where mostly the household survives through a
range of contributions by several members of the household and/or
extended family.
The household caregiver is most often the mother, grandmother or other
head female of the household.
Agricultural Water Use for Homestead Gardening Systems – Resource Material
44
Activity 4:
Universal feelings experienced by the hungry
Aim
To develop empathy with the feelings of insecurity and rejection experienced by
food insecure mothers/caregivers.
Instructions
Have you ever been in such a position? How would you feel if you were unable to
put food on the table for your family, day after day?
1. First describe how you would feel towards the following people:
Your children;
The adults in your household;
The neighbours;
Leaders in your community, church, etc.
2. Next, describe what you feel each of these people might be thinking or even
saying about you.
Your children;
The adults in your household;
The neighbours;
Leaders in your community, church, etc.
The need for harmonious and supportive relationships
Ma Tshepo has found that:
(i)Emotional healing of the household caregiver; and
(ii)The healing of family relations are essential to create a secure base from
where an individual can plan and act with confidence and joy. Often,
when this is achieved, family members all start helping to shoulder the tasks
for food security and harmony.
The individual’s need for such a ‘secure base’ is described by Bowlby (quoted in
Braun, 2003), who says that:
Human beings of all ages are happiest and able to deploy their talents to best
advantage when they are confident that, standing behind them, are one or
more trusted persons who will come to their aid should difficulties arise.
Imagine a baby at its mother’s knee, willing to crawl away to look at something
interesting across the room, because he knows mom is there to save him if trouble
should arise. By contrast, a child living with constant criticism may become too afraid
to try anything. Adults’ reactions are influenced in similar ways by people around
them when they have to face difficult situations in life.
Introduction to the Resource Material
45
The role of support groups in healing and overcoming
powerlessness
In food security facilitation, the household caregiver’s personal confidence is further
stimulated through the creation of ‘support groups’ such as the Garden Learning
Group among household caregivers/ mothers in the village who are facing similar
challenges.
You will learn more about how to create and work with these learning/support
groups in Chapter 2. These ‘support groups’ fulfil the same functions as those used in
substance abuse counselling: “People who have the same problems than me, best
understand what I am going through and can provide legitimate moral support and
first-hand advice. And they also need me for the same reason.”
‘Reaching out to others’ is often an underestimated element of healing. People
need to feel needed by others. This gives meaning and fulfilment to life and helps to
prevent backsliding into former patterns of behaviour. It helps to keep quiet those
‘voices in the head’.
The Household Food Security Self-evaluation Tool (See ‘Self-monitoring’ in Chapter 2)
reminds food insecure people to regularly think about those activities that help them
heal, as well as those around them. With this tool, the facilitator helps the household
and the support group to self-evaluate their progress with improved food security,
but also with improved relationships and the healing of their natural environment –
and their creativity in finding solutions for all these aspects. The Food Security Self-
evaluation Tool also stimulates forward-looking mind processes, to keep people’s
interest and commitment alive.
Case study: Potshini
In an evaluation of the impact of
GardenLearning Groups in Potshini,
KZN, two years after they were created,
households said that one of the most
significant outcomes of these learning
groups wasimproved relationships
among communitymembers.
We may say they managed to “say
thatha (
g
oodb
y
e) to
g
ossi
p
”!
Agricultural Water Use for Homestead Gardening Systems – Resource Material
46
The role of joy, fun and laughter in healing
Joy plays a practical role in addressing all trauma (including the trauma caused by
chronic hunger and malnutrition), and in the healing of relationships (family,
community) as a foundation for a healthy society. A happy society is a healthy
society that produces ‘mature’ (i.e. not just ‘adult’) citizens. Mature societies actively
nurture the full development of its citizens, therefore healthy relationships are
fundamental.
We have all experienced how joy, fun and laughter can produce incredible energy,
which is why Ma Tshepo advises facilitators to “make it fun!” Singing, light-hearted
banter, dancing and other joy-building activities are wonderful and useful tools in the
facilitator’s hands. The ability of previously hungry households to produce their own
food also brings great joy to the family.
Introduction to the Resource Material
47
6. References
Barnett, T. and Grellier, R. 2003. Mitigation of the Impact of HIV/AIDS on Rural Livelihoods
through Low-labour Input Agriculture and Related Activities. Programme of Advisory
Support Services PASS Project Code HA0036/01. July 2003.
Bowlby, J., (1979). The Making and Breaking of Affectional Bonds. London, England: Tavistock
Publications Limited. Quoted in Braun, 2003. Separation Anxiety and Attachment in
Infants and Toddlers. http://www.goshen.edu/honors/braun2
Burns, J.C.; Suji, O.W. and Reynolds, A. 2008. Impact assessment of the Pastoralist Survival and
Recovery Project, Dakoro, Niger. Feinstein International Center, Medford.
Dawes, A.; Donald, D. 1994. Childhood & adversity: Psychological perspectives from South
African research. David Philip Publishers. 1994.
De Castro, J. http://www.josuedecastro.com.br/engl/hunger.html
Donald, D; Dawes, A.; and Louw. J. 2000. Addressing Childhood Adversity. New Africa Books.
2000.
DWAF, 2007. Programme Guidelines for Intensive Family Food Production and Rainwater
Harvesting. Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, Pretoria, South Africa. June 2007.
FAO/ILSI. 1997. Preventing Micronutrient Malnutrition. A Guide to Food Based Approaches: A
Manual for Policy Makers and Programme Planners. Washington DC. International Life
Science Institute (ILSI)
Jahoda, M. 1958. Current Concepts of Positive Mental Health. Ayer Company Publishers. 1999
reprint. (Also reprinted in 1980 by Arno Press Inc.)
Kruger, E. (ed). LIRAPA. 2007. How to get the Best from your Garden: A Manual for Farmers
and their Service Providers. Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security. Lesotho.
Lappe, F.M.; Collins, J.; Rosset, P.; and Esparza, L. 1998. World hunger: Twelve myths. Second
edition. Grove Press, New York. ISBN 0-8021-3591-9.
Maslow, A.H. 1943. The Theory of Human Motivation. Psychological Review 50 (4), pg 370-396.
http://psychclassic.yorku.ca/Maslow/motivation.htm
Max-Neef, M.A. 1981. From the Outside Looking In: Experiences in Barefoot Economics. Dag
Hammarskjöld Foundation. ISBN 1-85649-188-9. Cited on
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manfred_Max_Neef
Nussbaum, M. 2007. Human Rights and Human Capabilities. Twentieth Anniversary
Reflections. Harvard Human Rights Journal. Vol 20. http://www.
lawharvardedu/students/orgs/hrj/iss20/Nussbaum.pdf
Science daily. April 10, 2008.Anticipating a Laugh Reduces you Stress Hormones, Study
Shows. American Physiology Society.
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases2008/04/0800407114617.htm
Shah T; van Koppen B; Merrey D; de Lange M; Samad M. 2002. Institutional Alternatives in
African Smallholder Irrigation. International Water Management Institute.
Steinfeld, J.I. 1956. A New Approach to Schizophrenia. MD. New York. Merlin Press, Inc. pg195.
WRC project (K5/1575/4). 2009. Final Report: Participatory Development of Training Material
for Agricultural Water Use in Homestead Farming Systems for Improved Livelihoods.
Deliverable 20: Final Report. March. RIENG – Rural Integrated Engineering.
Agricultural Water Use for Homestead Gardening Systems – Resource Material
48
Index
A
A-frame 2-83
B
Balanced diets 3-35
Bed design 6-52
Biodiversity 1-16
Boreholes 5-34
C
Channelling water 5-3, 5-11, 5-36
Check dams 5-22
Community action plan 2-46
Companion planting 4-10
Compost 6-39, 6-40, 6-51
Contours 1-47, 2-83, 5-64, 5-85
Cover crops 6-50
Crop rotation 4-12
D
Deep trenches (see trench beds)
Dietary diversity 1-5, 3-2
Ditches 2-83, 5-56
Diversification i-39,1-3, 4-6, 7-7, 7-11
Diversity i-16, 4-2, 4-16, 5-26, 6-1
Drip irrigation 5-5, 5-94, 5-97
Double digging 6-63
E
Economic incentives
Ecosystem 1-25
Emotional healing i-14
Enabling interventions i-23
Environment I-15
Evaluation 2-76, 2-85
Evapotranspiration 5-19
Experimentation (household) i-8, 2-3, 2-
73, 4-16, 6-18, 6-25, 6-34, 6,49, 6-65
F
Facilitation 2-1, 2-3, 2-6
Facilitation Tools i-14, i-31, 1-35, 2-44, 2-
46, 2-66, 3-46, 3-48, 3-58, 4-16, 4-24,5-60,
5-74, 6-6, 6-11, 6-14, 6-25, 6-34, 6-49, 6-
65
Farmer handouts i-14
Farming systems 1-38
Flow diagrams 1-37
Follow-up ( see household visits)
Food based dietary guidelines 3-2, 3-29
Food behaviour 3-43
Food groups 3-2, 3-31
Food preservation 3-60, 4-7
Food security 3-1, 3-5, 3-15, 3-43
-interventions 3-25, 3-27
Frost protection 4-32
Fruit fly traps 4-28,4-51
Fruit production 3-56, 4-50
Furrows 1-48, 5-56
G
Garden layout i-38, 2-83, 5-7, 5-37, 5-41,
5-43, 44, 45, 5-47, 5-60
Garden Learning groups i-13, i-35, i-45,
2-55, 2-57, 2-60, 4-57
Grey water 4-60, 5-34, 5-88
Groundwater 1-23, 5-17, 5-19
H
Helicopter planning i-22, i-41, 2-3, 2-63,
2-70, 5-37
Herb and plant teas/brews 4-19
Hierarchy of human needs I-17
HIV/AIDS 1-25, 2-44, 3-21, 3-40
Homestead food gardening i-6
Homestead water management 5-2
Household i-2
- food security facilitation i-13
- typologies i-22
- visits i-13, 2-79,2-85
Human capabilities i-19
Introduction to the Resource Material
49
Hunger i-42, 3-1, 3-5
I
Impact assessment i-11, i-12
Incentives i-15, i-22, i-32, 7-1, 7-13
Income i-16, i-40, 1-29, 3-14, 7-1, 7-13, 7-
19, 7-24
Infiltration basins 5-23
Innovation 4-29, 4-42, 4-52, 5-96
Institutional profiles 2-41
Intensified production-10, i-23, 1-7,3-54,
5-77, 6-1
Iron 3-10, 3-57
Irrigation 1-23, 2-84, 5-3, 5-69, 5-74, 5-81
Infield rainwater harvesting 5-68
K
Keyhole gardens 6-64
L
Learning
- agenda i-10
- content 2-79
- needs assessment 2-59
- process i-9
LEISA (Low external input sustainable
agriculture 1-39, 1-41, 2-61, 4.1
Line level 5-64
Liquid manure 2-81, 6-43
Livelihoods i-30, 1-12
-assets 2-50, 3-18
- diversification 3-21
M
Ma Tshepo Khumbane i-17, i-33, i-43, 2-
63, 5-48
Malnutrition 1-5, 1-9,3-3, 3-7
Manure 6-35, 6-51
Marketing i-16, 3-19, 7-1, 7-23
Micronutrient deficiency 3-10
Millennium development goals 1-25, 3-
6
Mind mapping 1-36
Mind mobilisation i-33,2-3, 2-63
Mixed cropping 4-8
Mobilisation i-21, i-39, 7-2
Monitoring and evaluation tools 2-76
Motivation i-15, i-21
Mulching 6-31
Multiple use systems (MUS) 1-33, 5-9
N
Natural
-elements 5-41
-predators 2-82
-resources 2-81, 5-21
Nitrogen 6-20, 6-29
Nutrient fixing plants 6-29
Nutrition
- security 3-1
- gap analysis i-10, 3-47
- workshop 2-3, 3-2, 3-44, 4-46
Nutritious snacks 3-61
O
Organic food production 1-4
Organic matter 1-47, 2-81, 5-51, 6-3, 6-
16, 6-28
P
Pest and disease management 2-82, 4-
18, 4-25
Phosphorous 6-21, 6-30, 6-61
Plant succession 4-15
Planting calendars i-35, 2-77, 3-59
Potassium 6-22, 6-30, 6-60
Poverty 1-32, 4-57
Problem tree 5-14
Protein energy malnutrition 3-8
R
Rainwater harvesting 1-46, 5-23, 5-35
Ranking
-matrix 2-34
-pair wise 2-29
-preference 2-27
Recycling i-32
Resource mapping 2-18
Rope and washer pump 5-93
Agricultural Water Use for Homestead Gardening Systems – Resource Material
50
Run-off i-12, 5-3, 5-22, 5-37, 5-41, 5-55,
5-79, 6-16
Run-off supply furrow 5-56
Run-on water system 5-36, 5-48, 5-59, 5-
85
S
Scoping 2-7, 2-10, 2-53
Seed
- saving 4-35, 4-40
- storage i-15, 4-39
Seedlings i-34, 2-80, 4-42
Self monitoring i-45, 2-56, 2-77
Situation analysis i-10, 2-3, 2-8, 2-59, 2-
68
Slope 5-40
Small livestock 4-53
Soil
-acidity 6-23, 6-59
-fertility 2-81, 6-3
-nutrients 6-19
-structure 6-11, 6-16, 6-58
-types 6-6
Spring protection 5-17, 5-35
Stakeholders i-13, 2-38
Sustainability 1-34
Swales 5-25
SWOT analysis 1-43
Systems thinking 1-41
T
Technologies i-11, 5-82
Topography 5-37, 5-50
Traditional practises i-5, 3-49, 3-52, 4-2
Training needs assessments i-10, 2-59
Transect walks 2-23
Treadle pumps 2-84, 5-77, 5-90
Trench beds 2-80, 4-13,5-47, 5-67, 6-1,
6-17, 6-53, 6-62,
U
Underground storage tanks i-13, 5-83,
5-84
V
Value adding i-37
Venn diagrams 2-38
Visioning i-17
Vitamin A 3-9, 3-11, 3-57
Vitamin C 3-57, 4-6
Vulnerability 3-2, 3-15, 4-6
W
Water 1-21, 3-34, 5-1, 5-43
- cycle 1-22, 5-16, 5-21
- distribution 5-71, 5-73
- policies 1-27, 5-8
- sources 5-6, 5-11, 5-27, 5-32
- storage 5-7, 5-79, 5-83
- use 1-24, 5-27
Watering 5-30
Windbreaks 2-82, 4-28, 4-32, 5-43
Extra key words that could be added
Erosion i-16
Permaculture 1-39,
Dryland cropping i-23
Stunting i-9, 3-8
Anaemia 3-10
Kwashiorkor 3-8
Marasmus 3-8
Matrix scoring 2-34
Skills audit 2-59
High external input agriculture 1-39
Assets 3-18
Legumes 3-56
Inter planting 4-8
Pollination 4-36
Traditional foods 3-49
Livestock 4-53
Chicken tractor 4-54
Tower garden 4-58, 5-85
SWELL – 5-19
Base flow 5-18
Terraces 5-22
Watershed 5-39
Rainwater flow paths 5-47
Introduction to the Resource Material
51
Foliar spray 6-48
Earthworms 6-51
Niche marketing 7-11
Agricultural Water Use for Homestead Gardening Systems
Resource Material
for
Facilitators and Food Gardeners
Chapter 1
Rural Realities and Homestead Food
Gardening Options
Agricultural Water Use for Homestead Gardening Systems – Resource Material
ii
Chapter 1: Rural Realities and Homestead Food Gardening Options
iii
Chapters: Resource Material
Introduction to the Learning Material (TT 431/1/09)
Chapter 1 Rural realities and homestead food gardening options (TT 431/1/09)
Chapter 2 - Facilitation of homestead food gardening (TT 431/1/09)
- Handouts: Chapter – Homestead Food Gardener’s Resource Packs
Chapter 3 - Living and eating well (TT 431/1/09)
- Handouts: Chapter 3 – Homestead Food Gardener’s Resource Packs
Chapter 4 - Diversifying production in homestead food gardening (TT 431/2/09)
- Handouts: Chapter 4 – Homestead Food Gardener’s Resource Packs
Chapter 5 - Garden and homestead water management for food gardening
(TT 431/2/09)
- Handouts: Chapter 5 – Homestead Food Gardener’s Resource Packs
Chapter 6 - Soil fertility management: Optimising the productivity of soil and water
(TT431/3/09)
- Handouts: Chapter 6 – Homestead Food Gardener’s Resource Packs
Chapter 7 Income opportunities from homestead food gardening (TT 431/3/09)
Agricultural Water Use for Homestead Gardening Systems – Resource Material
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Chapter 1: Rural Realities and Homestead Food Gardening Options
v
Chapter 1 Table of Contents:
Rural realities and homestead
food gardening options
Table of Contents: Rural realities and homestead food gardening options .. v
List of Tables and Figures ...................................................................................... vii
List of Activities ....................................................................................................... vii
List of Case Studies & Research ........................................................................... vii
Aims ........................................................................................................................ viii
What am I going to learn? .................................................................................. viii
Icons ......................................................................................................................... xi
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Better opportunities, but serious challenges ....................................................... 1
What is a household to do? ................................................................................... 3
What food can people grow at home? ............................................................. 5
Is home food production worthwhile? ................................................................ 8
Is it worthwhile for the country? ............................................................................ 8
Impact of homestead food production on livelihoods ................................... 12
Households’ comments on the impact of gardening on their lives ............... 12
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Degradation everywhere.................................................................................... 15
Processes to rebuild our environment ................................................................ 17
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Our world in context ............................................................................................. 20
Water use in the world .......................................................................................... 21
The water situation in South Africa ..................................................................... 23
Policies related to water ...................................................................................... 25
International policies ............................................................................................ 25
Water policies in South Africa ............................................................................. 27
Water demand and supply in South Africa ...................................................... 28
The availability of water for all purposes ................................................................ 29
Agriculture and income ...................................................................................... 29
The potential role of water in poverty alleviation ............................................ 32
The importance of water for household productivity ...................................... 33
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Farming systems: Three approaches to farming .............................................. 38
Traditional Agriculture .......................................................................................... 38
High-External-Input Agriculture (HEIA) ............................................................... 39
Agricultural Water Use for Homestead Gardening Systems – Resource Material
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Low-External-Input and Sustainable Agriculture (LEISA) .................................. 39
The homestead as a farming system................................................................. 41
LEISA Principles ...................................................................................................... 41
Systems thinking .................................................................................................... 41
SWOT analysis ........................................................................................................ 43
A beautiful example of intensive food production and rainwater
harvesti ng ...................................................................................................... 46
Cropping in furrows and mounds ....................................................................... 49
Some interesting outcomes ................................................................................ 50
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Chapter 1: Rural Realities and Homestead Food Gardening Options
vii
List of Tables and Figures
Table 1: World Population by Region (in millions) ........................................... 22
Table 2: Water policies most directly relevant for homestead food
gardening: .................................................................................................... 27
Table 3: Non-urban population by category, province and sex (000s)* .... 28
Table 4: Distance from homestead to water: Nr of households(000s) ......... 29
Table 5: Household income after tax in month prior to survey province .. 30
Table 6: Worksheet on farming approaches ................................................... 40
Table 7: SWOT analysis on Food Security for a Rural Household .................. 44
Figure 1: An example of a mind map of a dairy farm (Wilson 1995). .......... 36
Figure 2: An example of resource flow in a homestead faremingsystem. . 36
Figure 3: An example of nutrient flows in a homestead farming system .... 38
Figure 4: Example of a systems diagram.......................................................... 42
List of Activities
Activity 1: Life in rural areas definitions ............................................................ 2
Activity 2: Life in rural areas descriptions ......................................................... 2
Activity 3: Life in rural areas concepts .............................................................. 7
Activity 4: Processes for systematic rebuilding of our environment ............. 18
Activity 5: Water use exercise ............................................................................. 24
Activity 6: Defining the role of water ................................................................. 26
Activity 7: Analysing different rural contexts .................................................... 31
Activity 8: Causes of Poverty .............................................................................. 32
Facilitation Tool 1: The Nuts Game (Van Veldhuizen et al., 1998)...... 35
Facilitation Tool 2: Elements of sustainability .......................................... 36
Activity 9: Analysing a known farming system ................................................ 40
Activity 10: The Homestead as a Farming System .......................................... 43
Facilitation tool 3: SWOT analysis for a homestead farming system .. 45
Activity 11: Analysis of the case study of a Homestead Farming System ..51
List of Case Studies & Research
Copy and handouts 1 Is homestead food production worthwhile? ........... 10
Case study 1: The power of starting small........................................................ 10
Case study 3: Augmenting household food and income............................ 14
Copy and handouts 2 Processes for systematic rebuilding of our
environment.: ............................................................................................. 18
Case study 4: Homestead Farming System example .................................... 46
Agricultural Water Use for Homestead Gardening Systems – Resource Material
viii
Aims
This chapter introduces you to the realities of life in rural areas. We will also introduce
different systems of farming, such as traditional farming, and high versus low external
input systems, to see which approaches are likely to fit better within the realities of
homestead farming.
The aim of this Chapter is to create an awareness of the issues that influence how
poor rural households can use water for production in their homestead yards. To
achieve this, it is necessary to first look at the rural context as opposed to the urban
context, poverty issues, and rural resources, including the farming systems within
which rural people live and work. Furthermore, we need to look at the ‘bigger
picture’ – the realities of water availability and water use worldwide and how it
affects us. This will support your learning and decision-making around participatory
planning (Chapter 2) and water and soil management options (Chapter 4) at a
homestead level. In Chapter 5, you will use this background to further explore the
meaning of water management from a number of different perspectives.
What am I going to learn?
You will notice that each Chapter starts with a list of the things you should be able to
do when you have successfully completed the chapter. This list will give you some
idea of what to expect when you start working on the chapter, but, more
importantly, you should come back to the list when you have completed the
chapter to check if you have achieved all the objectives set out for the chapter. This
means that you can monitor your own progress quite accurately. On the following
page is the list of these outcomes for this chapter:
Chapter 1: Rural Realities and Homestead Food Gardening Options
ix
What am I going to learn? What should I be able to
do
after
completing this unit?
Done
Can’t do
explain the role of water in society
explain the role of water in the environment
2
Identify the role of
water in society and
in the environment
describe the rural context in terms of its
opportunities and threats
1
Characterise the rural
context in terms of its
threats and
opportunities
3 discuss the causes of poverty
discuss poverty in terms of its impact on
society
Define poverty in terms
of its causes and its
impact on society
define farming systems in terms of their
different practices
define farming systems in terms of their
different outcomes
4
Differentiate between
the main farming
systems in terms of
their practices and
outcomes
identify the elements of sustainability of
farming systems
compare the elements of sustainability of
farming systems
5
Evaluate the
elements of
sustainability of
farming systems
apply mind mapping and/or flow diagrams
as brainstorming tools
apply SWOT-analysis as a planning and
decision making tool
6
Apply the use of mind
mapping, flow
diagrams and SWOT
analysis
identify the three major approaches to
farming
discuss the characteristics of the three
major approaches to farming
7
Differentiate between
the three major
approaches to
farming and their
characteristics
describe the homestead as a farming
system
8
Discuss the
homestead as a
farming system
Agricultural Water Use for Homestead Gardening Systems – Resource Material
x
Chapter 1: Rural Realities and Homestead Food Gardening Options
xi
Icons
You will find that several different icons are used throughout the Chapter.These icons
should assist you with navigation through the Chapter and orientation within the
material. This is what these icons mean:
Facilitation tools
Processes that you can use in workshop situations,
to support your work in the field.
Research /Case study
The results of research or case studies that
illustrate the ideas presented.
Looking at research, facts and figures
to help contextualise things.
Activity
This indicates an exercise that you should do
– either on your own (individual) or in a group.
Copy and handouts
These sections can be copied and used
as handouts to learners / participants.
Agricultural Water Use for Homestead Gardening Systems – Resource Material
xii
Chapter 1: Rural Realities and Homestead Food Gardening Options
1-1
Dependency ratios:
Number of people dependent
on the person or persons in a
family that earn an income.
Remittances:
The act of sending money to
family in the rural areas.
1.1 What is life like in rural areas?
Better opportunities, but serious challenges
Life in the rural areas of South Africa is not easy.
Most rural households are poor. There is hunger,
poor health, high dependency ratios, difficult
family
situations
and crime.
More
children now attend schoolboth girls and boys
– and there are more opportunities for tertiary
education. However, employment prospects remain poor for graduated youth, and
are worse the more uneducated and unskilled a person is.
The main source of income for rural households is social grants especially old-age
grants. (Department of Social Development, Nov. 2006). Often, extended families
rely for their survival on a single grandfather or grandmother’s old-age grant. Should
such a person pass away the family is left destitute. More recently, the payment of a
child support and foster care grants has brought relief. The aim of the grants was to
increase the quality of life for children, and in some households this has happened.
However, small children still suffer from malnutrition. Further, when the child turns 15,
they no longer qualify for the grant, yet are too young to start contributing to family
income. Families with member/s who have HIV/AIDS can apply for care dependency
grants.
A number of large modern houses are arising among the more typically traditional
homesteads in the rural areas – showing those fortunate families who have managed
to improve their incomes substantially. This does not necessarily mean that the rural
economy is growing. We know that the more times money, goods or services
exchange hands within a village, the more the economy of that village is stimulated
(Local Currency Book). However, little economic activity or value adding takes place
in most rural villages. Cash flows into the village
through grants and remittances. It often flows directly
out of the village again through the purchase of food
and other products that are produced and
purchased elsewhere. Even the foods consumed in
rural areas are purchased outside of the village. The maize is grown elsewhere and
none of its processing and distribution contributes to the village’s economy. The
same applies to meat, bread, vegetables, drinks and tinned food, cell phones and
other services.
In most rural areas, the agricultural activity is very low, using a fraction of the natural
resource potential. Former traditions where villagers used their homesteads, cropping
fields and grazing areas for family food production, have all but disappeared. It has
become almost impossible in many areas for households to use their cropping fields,
due to lack of fencing, high input costs, lack of mechanisation, increased crime
levels and the disintegration of traditional rules and systems which ensured that crops
in the fields were protected from roaming livestock. The threat of livestock theft is rife.
Agricultural Water Use for Homestead Gardening Systems – Resource Material
1-2
Activity 1:
Life in rural areas definitions
Aim
To make our own definitions for concepts used.
Instructions
Take the following terms and describe what you think they mean. Decide on one
description for the whole group, if you are working in a group.
Rural as opposed to urban Vulnerability and risk
Dependency ratio Malnutrition
Cash based economy Value adding
Mechanisation
Activity 2:
Life in rural areas descriptions
Aim
Explore some of the concepts used in the introduction to gain a more personal
understanding of what they mean to you.
Instructions
Consider one of the following statements.
- Does this statement make sense to you?
- Do you agree with the statement?
- How would you say it?
STATEMENT 1:
The aim of the child support grant was to increase the quality of life for children. Often this has
not happened, as many small children still suffer from difficulties related to malnutrition.
Further when the child turns 15, they no longerqualify for the grant, yet are too young to start
contributing to family income.
STATEMENT 2:
Former traditions where villagers used their homesteads, cropping fields and grazing areas for
family food production have all but disappeared.
Chapter 1: Rural Realities and Homestead Food Gardening Options
1-3
Reduced vulnerability:
Lessen chances of being
more poor or destitute.
What is a household to do?
Jobs are scarce… money is scarce… food is expensive… field cropping is difficult,
hard work and low value. The environment has deteriorated badly, and there is little
water available for agriculture…
Worldwide, poor people try to reduce their vulnerability
by doing more and different things (diversification). One
example of this is a study in the Eastern Cape (Minkley et
al., 2006) that showed that there is now an increase in
agricultural activity in homestead yards. This is because
people are not able to use their cropping fields and many do not have enough
money to buy even the basic goods they need.
The tremendous rise in food prices worldwide in 2008, motivated more households to
start growing food. Many leading politicians and organisations are urging people to
grow their own food.
Grow your OWN food!
(Mr. Trevor Manuel, Min. of
Finance, 1999-2009)
Grow your OWN food!
(Mr. Julius Malema, Leader –
ANC Youth League)
Grow your OWN food!
(Ms. Lulama Xingwana, Min.
of Agriculture, 2004-2009)
Agricultural Water Use for Homestead Gardening Systems – Resource Material
1-4
Organic food production
For food insecure people organic food production methods
make a lot of sense, because it makes it possible to grow a
lot of food without having to buy expensive seeds and
fertilizers.
Organic food production methods are also good for the
environment because they set in motion processes that
build up the environment rather than polluting and
eroding it
In this Chapter we will investigate three different farming systems, and recommend
the one we believe is most suitable for people without money. The other chapters in
this resource material are also based on this basic point of departure: low cost
methods, which are good for people, and for the environment.
Chapter 1: Rural Realities and Homestead Food Gardening Options
1-5
These days we no longer have
time to queue every month for
the grant payouts.They now pay
it into our bank accounts so that
we can use the time to work in
our gardens.
Diet diversity for good health
Different types of vegetables can supply
different diet needs, like:
Important micronutrients (especially
deep-coloured vegetables);
Starches (potato, sweet potato); and
even
Non-meat protein (legumes, peas,
beans, peanuts).
In Chapter 3, we will see how the family can
plan their gardening to eat healthy, balanced
meals every day to overcome malnutrition.
Malnutrition:
Absence of certain
foods or essential
elements necessary for
health this results in illness
or death
What food can people grow
at home?
1.The easiest way for households
who want to start growing their
own food, is to use the area
around their homes (i.e. the
homestead yard) to plant
vegetables as a source of
nutritious family food.
Vegetables grow quickly, and if
water is available, the household
can grow a great variety so that
they can harvest fresh food for
daily use throughout the year.
2.In season, most families also
plant some maize (staple food)
in the yard, but often there is not
enough space to harvest
enough for the maize meal
needs for the whole year.
Green maize is also a favourite vegetable. Prof Marais of the
University of Fort Hare (Eastern Cape Province) developed a
planting programme, which enabled him to harvest green
mealies (different varieties) right through the year at his
home in the Eastern Cape.
3.Over time, households can diversify their homestead food gardening by adding
fruit trees, poultry and small livestock.
When possible, people barter or sell surplus produce to boost family income.
Vegetables are often given away as gifts, which helps strengthen social bonds of
goodwill (social safety nets). This plays an important
role as a social buffer for the family when they may
experience hardship.
Agricultural Water Use for Homestead Gardening Systems – Resource Material
1-6
I like the recipes for drying. I can’t afford to
buy such a lot of sugar to make jams and it
also takes a lot of wood to cook them.
Some households also try out various ways to preserve their excess produce, mainly
through drying or bottling.
When people discover that they can also sell some of these preserved foods, this
encourages them to find more ways to add value and earn some extra cash.
The homestead is preferred for food gardening over field cropping for several
reasons, including the following:
It is easier to protect against animals and theft. The yard can even be fenced in,
often using a combination of available materials, scrap metal and fast-growing
hedge-forming plants;
People spend most of their time in and around their homes, often caring for the
sick. Being able to produce without the need to walk long distances to the fields,
is a clear advantage; and
It is easier to intensify production close to the house,where it is easier to collect
organic matter, vegetable peelings, and animal manure from livestock pens in
the yard.
Chapter 1: Rural Realities and Homestead Food Gardening Options
1-7
Intensification
Through intensification,
people’s production
efforts become
worthwhile, which
encourages them to keep
up the effort.
My whole family helps me in the
garden now, because it is
“double-double”:
Double because we can now grow
food in both summer and winter,
and double again, because our
yields are so much higher with
these methods.”
- Andile, Upper Ngqumeya,
Eastern Cape, 2007.
Activity 3: Life in rural areas – concepts
Aim
Make our own definitions for concepts used.
Instructions
Take the following terms and give an example that will show what this term means.
- Diversification
- High value crops
- Staple food
- Nutritious food
- Social safety nets
- Intensification of production
Agricultural Water Use for Homestead Gardening Systems – Resource Material
1-8
Household expenditure
patterns
Every amount a household can save on
food expenditure, they can instead spend
on overall improvement of their
livelihood. This increases the
effectiveness of the social assistance
provided by the state and injects cash
into the local economy.
Livelihood:
“A means of
living”.
Is home food production worthwhile?
Is it worthwhile for the country?
Household expenditure patterns
The Department of Social Development and Welfare spent R75.3 billion on
comprehensive social security (Kruger, 2009). The purpose was to provide income
support to the elderly, the disabled and children in need through social assistance
grants as provided for in law.
Specific activities included the following:
Providing social assistance to all eligible beneficiaries, notably the old aged in
rural areas;
Providing child support grants, foster care grants and care dependency grants;
Improving income security for workers and their dependants by means of the
Unemployment Insurance Fund; and thereby
Improving the access of household beneficiaries of social assistance to economic
opportunities.
How can home food production help to make this significant state investment more
effective?
According to the national income and expenditure survey (National Income and
Expenditure Survey, 2007), 36% of poor households’ income is spent on buying food.
If the state should invest an amount of
R2.3bn (equal to 3% of the annual
social security budget) in support of
home food production, this would
enable about 60 000 new households
every year to start saving money on
food, and invest in family development
instead. Almost a million households
could be reached over a 15-year
period.
Chapter 1: Rural Realities and Homestead Food Gardening Options
1-9
Homestead food
gardening...
...enables mothers to ensure that
their children get a balanced diet.
This helps the children to reach their
full potential. This in turn is good
for the country’s economic growth
potential.
The importance of balanced nutrition to the country
Homestead food gardening makes economic sense in financial terms. It also
addresses – very directly – the problem that a quarter of all South African children’s
growth is stunted through malnutrition before they reach the age of five. Stunting
means that such a child will never reach its full physical and mental potential in life.
This could create a vicious poverty cycle when following generations suffer the same
fate.
In South Africa, malnutrition is caused
predominantly by a lack of micronutrients
and protein in the diet and both these can
be found in vegetables and root crops that
can be grown in homestead food gardens.
In Chapter 3, we will look in more depth at
how homestead food gardening can help
people to live and eat healthily – whether
they have money or not.
We have buried the hunger!
-Emily Masha, Sekhukhune,
Limpopo, 2006
Agricultural Water Use for Homestead Gardening Systems – Resource Material
1-10
Copy and handouts 1:
Is homestead food production worthwhile?
People often stopgardening as soon as they get formal employment, and this makes
good sense if they can earn a good income. However, once people have been
successful at intensive homestead food production, they always have the
confidence that they can return to it should circumstances change for them. Some
people manage to continue growing some food at home, even while working
fulltime. In Countries like Kenya, this is an established culture.
For poor people with limited resources cannot afford to take risks. Homestead food
gardening often provides a manageable starting point from where they can grow.
Case study 1:
The power of starting small
Eva Masha was the first person in her area to build a large underground rainwater
tank for homestead food production. This was part of the Water for Food Movement
(Ainslie,2006) for food insecure households. When Eva became known for her
success, she was offered a plot on the irrigation scheme in her village. She declined,
saying: "I have not yet finished implementing my five-year plan for my own yard, and
anyway I don't have time to sit in meetings" – which as a person who lived her
lifetime in a village on an irrigation scheme, was her perception of participation in
formal irrigation.
The sequel to her story is that she has since completed her work in her own yard and
has now joined together with 7 or 8 other women in their own joint irrigation project
of some 8 hectares.
Eva’s humble beginnings in her own yard gave her the know-how and confidence to
embark on larger initiatives – on her own terms.
I used to think I am poor,
now I know I have my ten
fingers.
-Eva Masha, Strydkraal,
Limpopo, 2003.
Chapter 1: Rural Realities and Homestead Food Gardening Options
1-11
200 m2:
Is equal to an area 20
meters long and 10
meters wide.
Case study 2:
The freedom to work from home
Ntombulundi Zitha and others in Eastern Cape have expanded quickly from a
humble start in their backyards, and are still growing.
Ntombulundi had her bags packed, waiting at the door, putting off the inevitable:
that she had to leave Ngqumeya and go to East London (some 2 hours’ drive away)
to look for a job. She would have to leave behind four children and an ailing mother,
not at all certain that she would find a job.
At that time the Border Rural Committee (BRC) and Umhlaba introduced the ‘Water
for Food’ project. This included demonstration of homestead food gardening using
the method of deep trenching with run-on. It was followed by the demonstration of
underground rainwater tanks (30 kl) for 3 households in March 2006. Ntombulundi
was one of these 3 people who were assisted to build her own tank.
Two years later, Ntombulundi has expanded her garden to probably 200 m2. BRC has
helped her and other households to start selling their produce in Keiskammahoek
and even East London. The group now also has a small shadecloth nursery to grow
their own seedlings, which is on Ntombulundi’s yard.
When people ask: “What do you do for a
living?” I no longer say: “I’m unemployed.”
Now I always say: “I work at home.”’
-Ntombulundi Zitha, Eastern Cape
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1-12
Impact of homestead food production on livelihoods
A survey was conducted in Potshini (Mudhara et al., 2008) to look at the impact of
homestead food gardening. They noticed a number of interesting points:
1.The actual income generated from a garden averaged R50-R100/month. While
this sounds like a very small amount to a salaried person, it becomes more and
more significant the lower the income bracket the household finds it in. For
instance, an additional R100/m would constitute a 50% increase for households
who survive on R200/m.
2.Other livelihood advantages found in Potshini, included savings of around R100-
R300/month. These savings (money now not spent on food) increased the
household's ability to buy other things. It solved many problems related to hunger
and access to food.
Below is a summary of people’s comments about the contribution of garden
produce to their livelihoods in Potshini, Bergville, KZN in 2007 (Sturdy, JD, Jewitt, GPW,
Lorent, SA. 2009).
Households’ comments on the impact of gardening on their lives
1.We don’t go hungry anymore and sell to the community.
2.We did not spend a lot of money on vegetables this year and had surplus to give
to neighbours.
3.I saved money as there is spinach in my garden and I do not need to buy
vegetables.
4.I got a lot of spinach and tomatoes. My family does not like the other vegetables.
5.I have food for my kids now.
6.Spinach and greens are always available.
7.We stopped buying vegetables for a while as we had our own.
8.I saved money that I used to buy vegetables with and sold the surplus. I have
been able to buy a TV for my kids.
9.I got a lot of food for my family.
10.I do not need to go to the shop.
11.I had a lot of green peppers, but as people here do not know them, I could not
sell them.
12.I learnt how to grow and store tomatoes.
I have made a good income
from selling vegetables. Now I
can feed my own children as
well as help out with other
children who need food. I
now feel secure living here
and do not have one foot in
the taxi all the time.
-Sizakele Mduba, Potshini, KZN
Chapter 1: Rural Realities and Homestead Food Gardening Options
1-13
Since they started their
intensive gardens, 63% of
the learning group members
Have said that they have
More money for things and
can now save some money.
Garden Learning Group
members, Potshini, KZN.
Photos: E. Kruger, 2008
I make an income of
between R100-R300 from
my garden in a season.
I have also worked out that
I can save up to R1 000 in a
season from using my own
vegetables instead of
going to town to buy food.
We sell mainly
cabbage, spinach
and tomatoes.
People in our village
will also sometimes
buy beetroot, green
peppers and carrots.
Members of our
learning group have
grown enough
vegetables to sell.
We have expanded
our gardens,
intensified our
production and tried
new kinds of
vegetables.
People who were not
involved in the
learning group have
not done this and
have not grown a lot
of food.
We sell mainly to
them.
Agricultural Water Use for Homestead Gardening Systems – Resource Material
1-14
Augmenting:
Become greater,
increase.
Case study 3:
Augmenting household food and income
Mr Palaza from Ngcobo, Eastern Cape has kept an accurate record of sales of
vegetables from his home food garden, in a small notebook, which he – very
significantly – calls ‘my book of water’ and ‘my book of life’.
According to his records from 14 November 2005 up to 28 April 2006, he has earned
R660.50 from vegetable sales. This is an average of R120 per month. In 2006, this
would have been equivalent to a 15% increase in total cash income for a household
depending on an old-age pension of R800 per month.
Although this was only his first season of production, he was already growing a good
variety of vegetable crops, which meant that his household enjoyed much greater
diversity in their diet. His crops included deep coloured vegetables like tomato,
green pepper, spinach and beetroot, as well as squash and cabbage.
He also kept a daily record of rainfall, and measured a total of 498 mm over a seven-
month period from 4 October 2005 up to 21 April 2006.
Looking at the rainfall records, we see that there were two dry spells during this rainy
season – one in January and one in February – and both lasted for about three
weeks. The water stored in the rainwater-harvesting tank would have prevented
damage to the crops during these dry periods.
The stored water would also enable him to keep on growing vegetables during the
dry winter season.
It is particularly heartening to see such accurate and useful records being kept by a
rural household. To measure is to know!
Chapter 1: Rural Realities and Homestead Food Gardening Options
1-15
1.2 The natural environment in rural
villages
Degradation everywhere
When we go to communal areas
where smallholders live, we are
generally confronted with a picture
similar to the one below. Many of us
may have got used to this picture,as it
has been happening over a long
period of time.
Potshini, Bergville, KZN. Photo: E Kruger 2006
There is a lot of erosion in the grazing areas,
especially if these are on hillsides. Very few
indigenous trees survive (if any)
There is erosion or
degradation around the
homestead and fields.
Homesteads have very little
fencing, very little natural
vegetation and a few fruit
trees
Roads are dirt tracks that get
washed away often and cause
damage to the fields and
homesteads
There is sparse grass cover, eaten
short by livestock such as cattle,
goats and sheep. The soil is hard
and visible.
Agricultural Water Use for Homestead Gardening Systems – Resource Material
1-16
Biodiversity:
Diversity of plant
and animal life.
The trend has been one of too many people having to rely too heavily on available
natural resources such as land, water, grazing, firewood and medicinal and other
plants. This has led to the degradation of the natural environment from over-use; a
systematic decline. This degradation could have its roots in the poverty of the rural
inhabitants, whose immediate needs outweigh the needs of their environment.
Erosion on a slope
due to degraded
environment
probably due to
overgrazing
In the commercial farming areas of South Africa, environmental degradation is also
visible and often relates to pollution through the overuse of chemical fertilisers and
pesticides, degradation and/or loss of topsoil due to overgrazing and bad farming
practice. There is loss of biodiversity. This is probably due to the demand for
immediate financial returns and due to the battle for survival common to all farmers.
In the long-term the combined effects of increased production costs and decreased
product prices has made farming less and less profitable. The
immediate needs of the farmers outweigh the need s of the
environment.
When fertilizers wash
into open watercourses,
algae may grow on the
water surface due to
the oversupply of
nutrients in the water.
This reduces the
oxygen levels in the
water and can lead to
death of fish and other
life and thus loss of
biodiversity.
Chapter 1: Rural Realities and Homestead Food Gardening Options
1-17
Processes to rebuild our environment
Our environment cannot support us if we do not support our environment. We
cannot continue to take without giving back. We need to start working within
processes of systematic rebuilding of our environment.
This means different things to differentpeople. Let's look at what Mr Maphumulo
thinks. He is a farmer in a communal area known as Umbumbulu in southern
KwaZulu-Natal.
I need to work with people around me, so
that we can all understand each other and
give the right kind of support
Nature works in cycles. I need to
understand and respect those cycles
in my farming
By copying some natural processes
I can build the fertility of my soil.
Working with organic matter,
increases the quality of my land
and my produce
Growing many different types of
plants together works well. They
support each other and I can
gather food for my family and
my livestock
By looking after the wetlands,
streams and springs, I ensure that
there is water throughout the year.
Making money is not the only reason
for farming. It is a way of life.
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Copy and handouts 2:
Processes for systematic rebuilding of our
environment.
Some of the ‘rebuilding processes’ that supports our environment which in turn
support us in our homestead food gardening are:
1.Finding a balance between our needs and the needs of the natural environment;
2.Working co-operatively with other people, so that we can find these balances
together;
3.Building our soil using organic methods;
4.Increasing the water holding capacity of our environment by slowing down,
catching and letting water sink into the soil, controlling erosion and protecting
springs;
5.Diversifying our production to better suit our needs and those of our livestock;
6.Increasing the biological diversity in our environment so that natural balances
can be restored; and
7.On a small scale in our gardens, mimicking natural processes that affect our
larger environment.
Activity 4:
Processes for systematic rebuilding of our
environment
Aim
Is to deepen our understanding of the main elements of supporting natural
processes, and to rebuild a healthy environment.
Instructions
Look at the numbered points in the paragraph above this activity. For each point, try
and think of some examples that you may have seen or think would work for the
‘rebuilding process’ mentioned.
For example:
1: Manage the cutting of firewood to allow re-generation of trees – do not kill them.
1: Keep cattle numbers down to ensure there is always grass cover in the veldt.
1: Balance the number of cows you own with other small livestock such as goats,
sheep and poultry.
1 and 5: Grow fodder for livestock to eat in winter, so that they do not have to
denude their environment.
3: Add organic matter to your soil to build you soil fertility.
Chapter 1: Rural Realities and Homestead Food Gardening Options
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5, 6 and 7: Grow many different kinds of fruit trees, for your family needs and to
increase the natural diversity. You will find many birds and insects coming to your
garden that you have not seen there before.
Add more of your own
...................................................................................................................................................
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1.3 The water situation
Our world in context
If the population of the Earth was reduced to that of a small town with 100 people,
there would be:
61 Asians
13 Europeans
14 Americans (northern and southern)
12 Africans
52 women
48 men
6 people would own 59% of the whole world wealth, and all of them will be
from the United States of America
80 would have bad living conditions
70 would be uneducated
0 underfed
1 would die
2 would be born
1 would have a computer
1 (only one) will have higher education
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Also think about the following:
This morning if you woke up healthy, you are
happier that the 1 million people that will not survive
this week due to illness;
If you never suffered a war, the loneliness of a jail
cell, the agony of torture or hunger, you are happier
than 500 million people in this world;
If you can enter into a church (or mosque) without
fear of jail or death, you are happier than 3 million
people in the world;
If you have food, shoes and clothes, abed and a roof
over your head, you are richer than 75% of the
people of the world.
Water
Maybe it is the single
resource that defines the
limits of sustainable
development.
Water use in the world
Water is the source of life and human civilization.
Now, the Earth, with its diverse and abundant life
forms, including over six billion humans, is facing a
serious water crisis (Population Action International,
2002).
Water covers about 70% of the earth. Only 2% of this
is fresh water. Although the amount of freshwater remains about the same from year
to year, it is continually renewed through the water cycle, which is powered by sun’s
energy and the earth’s gravity. No new water enters the cycle and no water ever
leaves the cycle.
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Figure1: The Water Cycle
Worldwide, 54 % of the annual available freshwater is being used. If consumption per
person remains steady, by 2025 we could be using 70% of the total because of the
projected population growth alone (UNFPA, 2001).
Table 1: World Population by Region (in millions)
Year Africa Asia
Latin
America &
Caribbean
Oceania Europe North
America Global
1990 615 3 180 441 26 722 282 5 266
2000 784 3 683 519 30 729 310 6 055
Increase
(%)27.5 15.8 17.7 15.4 1 9.9 15
(Source: WHO/UNICEF, 2000)
From the table above, we can see that in the year 2000, Africa had the second-
largest population of all the world regions (only Asia had more people). More
importantly, Africa’s population was growing much faster than in any other region –
by 27.5% in the ten years from 1990 to 2000. Such rapid growth makes it very difficult
to provide for the additional demands on resources and infrastructure in the region –
including water.
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Dry land cropping:
Crop farming which is
dependent on rainfall, i.e.
lands that are not irrigated.
Also called rain fed cropping.
Inhibited:
Slowed down or
stopped.
The availability of water varies considerably between countries and within countries.
Water availability is also affected by droughts as well as inappropriate water
management programmes (Ambala, 2002). Veld management has a significant
effect on available soil water. If overgrazing is allowed and
areas become stripped of vegetation, less rainwater is
absorbed into the soil, flash floods with erosion occur and
vegetation regrowth is inhibited. On a large scale, this will
impact on weather patterns (Winpenny, 1999). Less soil
moisture means that less water is available for the local water
cycle.
The water available for human use is also becoming less because of pollution from
agriculture and industry. Due to pollution, water in many rivers, dams, lakes and
groundwater sources (underground water)can no longer be used for human
consumption (Livernash and Rodenburg, 1998:34).In developing countries, 90-95% of
sewage and 70% of industrial wastes are dumped into surface water where they
pollute the water supply.
The water situation in South Africa
South Africa is a hot and dry country. The average annual rainfall is less than 500
millimetres per year, compared to the world average of 860 millimetres. South
Africa’s rainfall is insufficient:
Firstly, because it is hot and dry, more water evaporates into the air than falls as
rain; and
Secondly, the rainfall is erratic and unreliable. Prolonged drought at critical
stages of crop production occurs
frequently. Dry land cropping is therefore
quite risky.
Agriculture and forestry use 74% of South
Africa's potentially available rainwater. By far
the largest volume of this, 60%, is used to
maintain the growth of forests and the natural vegetation that is utilised as grazing
for livestock and game, while 12% is used for rain fed cropping. Only 2% of the
country's potentially available rainwater is used for irrigation (National State of the
Environment Report – South Africa, 2002).The average runoff (rainwater that runs off
the surface into our rivers, rather than sinking straight into the ground) for the country
is around 8.5%. Irrigation is the largest single user of runoff water in the country.
According to the National Population Unit in South Africa, all major rivers have been
dammed or modified to meet the demand for water, reducing water flow, causing
many rivers to become seasonal (e.g. the Limpopo, Luvhuvhu and Letaba rivers) and
reducing the productive capacity of flood plains such as in the Pongola area
(National Population Unit, 2001:33). Manyof the issues around access to water also
have to do with how water is managed.
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Water availability (%)
forests & natural vegetation
rainfed or dryland cropping
irrigation
Activity 5:
Water use exercise
Aim
To understand the proportions of rain water available for different uses.
Instructions
Make a note of the percentages (%) of water that you think are available in your
area for:
- Forests and natural vegetation
- rain fed or dry land cropping
- irrigation
Now make a pie chart to represent these percentages.
How to make a pie chart (example):
Now use your percentages and fill
them into the pie chart given below:
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Policies related to water
International policies
Of all the major target-setting events of
recent years, the United Nations (UN)
Summit of 2000, which set the Millennium
Development Goals (MDGs) for 2015,
remains the most influential. Among the
goals set forth, the following are the most
relevant to water:
Millennium Development Goals related to water
To halve the proportion of people suffering from hunger;
To halve the proportion of people living on less than 1 dollar per day;
To halve the proportion of people without access to safe drinking water;
To ensure that all children, boys and girls equally, can complete a course of
primary education;
To reduce maternal mortality by 75 percent and under-five mortality by two
thirds;
To halt and reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS, malaria and the other major
diseases; and
To provide special assistance to children orphaned by HIV/AIDS.
All this needs to be achieved while protecting the environment from further
degradation. The UN recognized that these aims, focusing on poverty, education
and health,cannot be achieved without adequate and equitable access to
resources. The most fundamental resources are water and energy.
The Hague Ministerial Declaration of March 2000 adopted seven challenges as the
basis for future action. These provide broad actions for reaching the MDGs:
The Hague Ministerial Declaration
Meeting basic needs – for safe and sufficient
water and sanitation.
Securing the food supply – especially for the
poor and vulnerable through the more
effective use of water.
Protecting ecosystems – ensuring their integrity via sustainable water resource
management.
Sharing water resources – promoting peaceful cooperation between different
uses of water and between concerned states, through approaches such as
sustainable river basin management.
Managing risks – to provide security from a range of water related hazards.
Valuing water – to manage water in the light of its different values (economic,
social, environmental, cultural) and to move towards pricing water to recover
the costs of service provision, taking account of equity and the needs of the
poor and vulnerable.
Ecosystem: A biological
community and the physical
environment associated with
it.
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Water is a scarce resource:
There is no doubt that water is a scarce resource
and that demand will increase in the future. What
will society do about this?
A key solution is to change to better
management of water resources. There needs to
be a new attitude to water management, based
on scientific knowledge, but also including
cultural and ethical values.
Governing water wisely – involving the public and the interests of all
stakeholders.
Activity 6:
Defining the role of water
Aim
To build understanding of some of the issues involved in the management of water
as a scarce resource.
Instructions
Read through the paragraphs in the note below.
- Describe in your own words what these paragraphs mean to you.
- Try and think of examples of better water management in a rural context in South
Africa.
- Also give a few examples of what a new attitude towards water management
would be.
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Water policies in South Africa
South African water policy is viewed as some of the most progressive in the world.
Water law was comprehensively reviewed after the regime change in 1994. The
current water policy is based on the constitutional principles of efficiency,
sustainability and equity. It is also based on scientific principles and cultural, ethical
values.
At the 2008 international water exhibition in Zaragoza, Spain, South Africa was still
one of only a handful of countries which recognises water as a basic human right,
and gives effect to this right through its policies and implementation programmes.
Some of these policies will be dealt with in more detail in Chapter 5: “Home garden
layout and household water management”.
Table 2: Water policies most directly relevant for homestead food gardening:
POLICY RELEVANCE
Schedule 1 of the National Water Act
(Act 36 of 1998):
Allows freely, without the need for
licensing, the use of water from streams
and other sources people have legal
access to, as well as rainfall run-off, for
home food production.
The ‘Water Reserve’: The only ‘right’ entrenched in the
National Water Act is water for the
environment, and water for basic human
needs.
Current policy allows for an amount of 25
litres per person per day for basic human
needs. There is strong advocacy to
increase this amount, especially to
enable economic activity of poor
households. (See Case study: 4 below.)
Free Basic Water: Municipalities are required by law to
provide 6 000 litres per household per
month free of charge as a ‘lifeline’
amount.
Subsidy to support homestead rainwater
harvesting through the ‘policy on support
for Resource Poor Farmers’:
Through this policy, a subsidy is provided
for household training in intensive home
food production and rainwater
harvesting, as well as water storage
infrastructure in the homestead yard.
Water can be stored in underground
tanks, roof water tanks and in the soil
profile.
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Water demand and supply in South Africa
The total ‘non-urban’ population for South Africa was around 12.7 million in 1997. The
total population was 41 million people. Therefore the non-urban population
comprised 31% of the total population (Rural Survey, 1997). Since then, the total
population of South Africa has increased to about 48 million people.
Table 3: Non-urban population by category, province and sex (000s)*
Prov TotalRural former homelands Semi-rural settlement
TotalFem Male TotalFem Male TotalFem Male
EC 3 677 2 013 1 664 3 3681 8431 525305 169 136
FS 299 163 137 28115312819 109
KZN 1 778 980 797 1 69593975583 41 42
Mpum 1 078 578 500 976521455 102 57 45
NW 1 813 939 874 1 625847778188 92 96
Limp 4 084 2 252 1 832 3 5621 9521 610515 297 218
Total 12 729 6 925 5 804 11 5076 2555 2521 211 665 546
Most of South Africa’s non-urban population live in the deep rural areas of the
communal land tenure areas (11.5 million people). In the Eastern Cape (303 000)
and in Limpopo (515 000), a significant number of people live in semi-rural
settlements.
Service provision of to such remote areas is very difficult, and is now the responsibility
of wall-to-wall municipalities with responsibility for rural and urban sectors. These
municipalities were created in 1994. They have multiple functions and responsibilities
but often lack resources to fulfil their mandates.
Females are in the majority in the rural areas of all provinces. We know that in most
rural households, the ‘household caregiver’, namely the person responsible for
planning and preparing meals, is the mother or grandmother. However, some
households are ‘child-headed’, meaning that there are no adults in the household
who can fulfil this role.
*Note:
(000s) mean that you have to multiply the figures in the table by 1000 to get the
correct figure. For instance, total rural population (total of first column) is
12 729 000 people.
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The availability of water for all purposes
Table 4: Distance from homestead to water: Number of households (000s)
Distance
TotalE Cape F State KZN Mpum N West Limp
N % N % N % N % N % N % N %
Inside dwelling 514 21.8 61 8.6 18 26.4 22 8.7 100 50.0 81 22.9 232 30.2
Less than 100 m 420 17.8 119 16.7 32 46.6 17 6.7 38 18.8 83 23.5 131 17.0
100 m-> 200 m 419 17.8 131 18.4 14 20.3 53 20.9 31 15.4 89 25.1 101 13.2
200 m-> 500 m 396 16.8 131 18.3 4 6.1 84 33.2 21 10.5 58 16.4 98 12.7
500 m-> 1 km 310 13.2 143 20.1 0.5 58 22.9 6 3.2 30 8.3 73 9.5
1 km or more298 12.6 127 17.9 0.1 19 7.6 4 2.1 13 3.6 134 17.4
Total 2,356 100 712 100 68 100 253 100 199 100 354 100 769 100
The table above reflects the position in 1997. No less than 42.6% of the 2.4 million
rural households had to fetch water from further than the prescribed two hundred
metres.
Although the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry and Municipalities continue
with the campaign to provide potable tap water to all rural dwellers many still
struggle daily with water for drinking, water for cooking and water for growing things.
Availability of water is a problem that many homestead food gardeners are faced
with.
Agriculture and income
An interesting question formed part of the 1997 rural survey questionnaire, namely:
‘Did this household spend at least 1 hour per week on ‘agriculture’?’
One hour per week hardly qualifies a person as a food gardener, let alone a farmer!
This is a clear indication that “agriculture” is not one of the prime concerns in the
rural villages and that there are relatively few “farmers” amongst the village
residents. This was confirmed by the finding that only 2,7% of households identified
farming activities as their most important source of income. These are villagers (rural
residents) and very few of them are farmers!
Nationally, in the month prior to the survey, 750 000 rural households had a household
income of less than R400, and 1.5 million (65%) had less than R800. At the other end
of the scale, 230 000 (10%) had incomes of over R1 500/m.
A perturbing statistic is the 280 000 (12%) households that were estimated to have an
income of less than R200 per month. The impact of homestead food gardening
discussed in section 1.2 above, would be of greatest value to households in these
lowest income categories, and would generally be of less direct interest to
households in higher income categories.
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Table 5: Household income after tax in month prior to survey by province
Net income TotalECape FState KZN Mpum NW Limp
N % N % N % N % N % N % N %
None 53 2.3 12 1.6 0.5 7 2.6 0.1 11 3.2 23 3.0
R1-200 226 9.6 70 9.8 10 14.8 16 6.4 15 7.4 47 13.2 68 8.8
R201-400 468 19.9 109 15.2 16 24.0 40 15.7 30 15.1 86 24.3 187 24.4
R401-800 789 33.5 227 31.9 24 35.5 110 43.5 73 36.4 100 28.2 255 33.1
R801-1 500588 24.9 217 30.5 13 19.0 61 24.1 61 30.5 78 22.0 158 20.6
R1 501-3 000182 7.7 61 8.6 4 5.7 13 5.0 17 8.4 28 7.8 59 7.7
R3 001-6 00044 1.9 16 2.2 0.3 6 2.3 3 1.7 4 1.0 15 2.0
R6 001-12 000 5
344
0.2 1 0.1 0.1 1 0.3 1 0.3 0.1 3 0.4
R12 001+ 243 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0
Unspecified 769 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1 0.1
Total 2,35
6
100 712 100 68 100 253 100 199 100 354 100 769 100
It is important to note that in the 1997 Rural Survey, no account was taken of the
value of food gardening or other produce to livelihoods. Therefore,we still have an
incomplete understanding of the actual and potential contribution of homestead
farming to households in South Africa.
Further, the unprecedented rise in food and fuel prices in 2008 has motivated many
more households to ‘return to the land’ and grow more of their own food. This crisis
convinced many people at all levels in society of the importance of home food
production for poverty alleviation.
Chapter 1: Rural Realities and Homestead Food Gardening Options
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Activity 7:
Analysing different rural contexts
Aim
To use the information provided in the tables and the section ‘Impact of homestead
food production on livelihoods’ (see p12 above) to analyse the situation in a specific
province.
Instructions
A. Summarise the information for you area about the size of the population,
availability of water and income from the three tables in this section, in a way that
makes sense to you.
Make at least 5 statements about this information.
For example: Limpopo has the largest rural population at 3,56 million people and also
the largest percentage of that population who live off an income of R201-
R400/month, namely 24.4%.
1…....................................................................................................................................
2…......................................................................................................................................
3….......................................................................................................................................
4…........................................................................................................................................
5…..........................................................................................................................................
B. Now use the information on p12 on ‘Impact of homestead food production on
livelihoods’. Make a small table that shows how homestead food gardening can
affect the income situation for your province, for all the income categories.
[NOTE: You will need to make a table here and work out the percentage increase in
income that a homestead garden can provide for each income category.
Income
category What is the effect of gardening for each income category
None
R1-200 Example: It means that this person now has 3 times more income.
R201-400
R401-800
R801-1 500
R1 501-3 000
R3 001-6 000
R6 001-12 000
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The potential role of water in poverty alleviation
Being poor is an unfortunate reality for millions of people worldwide. There are many
factors that contribute to people becoming poor and then remaining poor. Poverty
is affected by how countries and governments manage themselves, and how other
countries and governments affect them. The causes are therefore what we may
term structural and global. Below is an exercise that can give you some clarity
around your own beliefs about poverty and how it is caused.
Activity 8:
Causes of Poverty
Aim
To build understanding of the causes of poverty and the values and beliefs related to
poverty.
Instructions
Go through the worksheet provided below on causes of poverty (Timmel and Hope,
1984). Do this as individuals first,and then in groups. In the group you will need to
negotiate which causes you think are more important,according to what you said
as individuals.
Write one page on your understanding of the causes of poverty in the area that you
live in or come from.
Make some suggestions, at least 2, of what you think needs to be done and what
people in your area can do, or are already doing, to alleviate poverty.
No. Individual
ranking Cause of Poverty Group
Ranking
A Unemployment
B Unfair distribution/shortage of land
C Drought/lack of rain
D Lack of sustainable education and training
E No decision-making power for the poor
F Women and children deserted by fathers
G No trade unions, or ineffective unions, so low wages
H National debt and economic structural adjustment
I War and unrest
J Over-population
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No. Individual
ranking Cause of Poverty Group
Ranking
K Lack of personal initiative
L
Wealth and power concentrated in the hands of a
few
M Low prices for exports, expensive imports
N Corruption
O Banks and multi-national companies which export
P Capitalist development
Q Production of cash crops for export, not local use
R Destruction of environment (trees, soil, water)
S Lack of technology
T Other name
The importance of water for household productivity
In a groundbreaking study in Bushbuckridge, the Association for Water, Agriculture
and Rural Development (AWARD) found that villages with more than RDP levels of
water supply, had double the level of local economic activity compared to villages
where only 25 litres per person per day was available to households.
This finding shows the importance of water as an enabler, if not catalyst, for
development at these poorest levels of society.
This finding byAWARDhas helped to change our thinking in South Africa about the
importance of ‘water for productive uses for the poor’, and helped to change some
of the policies of the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry to be more ‘pro-poor’.
AWARD’s finding, was also one of the cornerstones that lead to a new worldwide
concept called Multiple Use Systems (MUS) for water supply planning.
The experiences of Eva Masha (see Case study 1 of this chapter) and that of
Ntombulundi Zitha (see Case Study 2) show that a critical resource for both these
women to start and expend their homestead food gardening into little businesses
was the water tanks that were built. The water enabled them to grow their own food
and to produce extra to sell.
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1.4 Choosing a suitable farming system for
rural homesteads
Elements of sustainability
In this section we will introduce concepts that will help you to compare different
farming systems, and to think about their implications. ‘Farming systems’ are the
different ways in which farming is undertaken. There may be different reasons,
different practices and different outcomes for each farming system.
Here, as with everything else, there are human values and principles that underlie
each different farming system. We need an understanding of these values to
understand the system.
The main element that we would like to use here to analyse farming systems, is
sustainability. This is a measure or indication of whether a system can maintain itself
now and in the future, in a way that is not damaging, firstly to itself, and secondly to
its broader surroundings. Below is a game we can play to explore the concepts in
sustainability.
Below, the five elements that need to be considered when analysing a system for its
sustainability, are explained:
Economically viable:
Farmers produce at an adequate and stable level and at a risk level, which is
acceptable to them.
Ecologically sound:
The quality of the environment is maintained or enhanced, and natural resources
are conserved. Ecologically sound agricultural systems are healthy and highly
resistant to stresses and shocks.
Socially just:
The agricultural system ensures equitable access to land, capital, information and
markets for all people involved, whatever their socio-economic position, sex,
religion or ethnic group.
Humane:
All forms of life (plant, animal, human) are respected and treated with dignity.
Adaptable:
Sustainable rural communities are able to adjust to constantly changing
conditions,such as population growth, new policies and market demand.
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Facilitator's Note:
Important items for discussion in Facilitation Tool 1 above
are co-operation, self-restraint and trust, the regenerative
capacity of natural resources, depletion, total harvest, and
equity in division of harvest.
In this game, the bowl symbolizes the resource pool, the
nuts the resources themselves, and the replenishment cycle
represents the natural rates of resource regeneration.
From: Developing technology with farmers. Van Veldhuizen et al.
Facilitation Tool 1:
The Nuts Game (Van Veldhuizen et al.,1998)
Aim
To build an understanding of the elements of sustainability
Instructions
A small group (4-5 people) of players gather to sit around a bowl containing 25 nuts.
The rest of the group gathers around to watch them. The spectators may not
interfere in the game or make comments.
GOAL: Each player’s goal is to get as many nuts as possible during the game.
RULES: Upon the organiser’s signal, the players take out nuts from the bowl – all at the
same time, but using only one hand. This makes one “round”. Players should remain
quiet throughout the game. The organiser doubles the number of nuts left in the
bowl, after each round, up to the maximum of 25 nuts. The game is over when the
bowl is empty, or after 10 rounds. During the game, the harvest (number of nuts
gained by each player in each round) is recorded. At the end of the game, the total
harvest per person and the group total are recorded.
After the game the following questions are discussed in plenary:
How did you feel about the game?
What happened in the game?
What do you think does the game represent?
What did you learn during the game?
Make a list of the elements of sustainability that came out of your discussion.
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Facilitation Tool 2:
Elements of sustainability
Aim
To build understanding of the elements of sustainability
Instructions
In groups of three, brainstorm your understanding of the elements of sustainability.
Then report to plenary (the big group).
Present your finding as a mind map or a flow diagram, after looking at the examples
provided below.
MIND MAPPING
Purpose: To cluster or put together similar ideas, to see the links between them and
pick out the most important issues when discussing or brainstorming. This is a good
way of making sure all aspects of a situation have been considered.
Description: On newsprint or a whiteboard, start with the central issue or question
and then build a dendogram (like a tree) of ideas from the central questions. You
can put down the most important things first and then build on these.
Figure 1: An example of a mind map of a dairy farm (Wilson, 1995).
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FLOW DIAGRAMS (Van Veldhuizen et al., 1998).
Purpose: To illustrate and analyse the consequences (positive or negative) of
particular issues or actions, using diagrams.
Description: Take the action to be considered and map out the steps that need to
be taken and the factors that need to be taken into account.
Figure 2: An example of resource flow in a homestead farming system
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Figure 3: An example of nutrient flows in a homestead farming system
Farming systems: Three approaches to farming
Three approaches to farming and their major characteristics are discussed below:
Traditional Agriculture
This is based on indigenous knowledge and practices that have evolved over many
generations. It is generally orientated towards subsistence, uses locally available
resources and makes little use of external inputs. Traditional agriculture is highly
varied, as it depends on site-specific ecological and cultural factors.
Confronted with rapid changes such as increasing population pressure and greater
needs for cash, farmers practising traditional agriculture cannot always increase
productivity sufficiently. They may therefore expand farming into marginal areas,
which increases the risks of over-exploitation, erosion and other forms of
environmental degradation.
Chapter 1: Rural Realities and Homestead Food Gardening Options
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Biocides: A combined
definition for herbicides
and pesticides, which
are chemicals that kill
w
eeds
a
n
d
in
sec
t
s.
Permaculture: This
word is short for
permanent
agriculture, which is
a design system for
natural farming and
living.
High-External-Input Agriculture (HEIA)
This is the conventional; “modern” approach to agricultural
development. It puts great emphasis on the use of external
inputs such as hybrid seed, fertilizer, biocides,
mechanization and credit, to enhance productivity. HEIA is characterized as follows:
It uses high levels of external inputs;
It involves strong links between farmers and commercial and government
services;
It is market oriented;
It is specialised in only a few crops grown in pure stands (mono-cropping) or
single-purpose livestock kept in large numbers; and
The biomass in the landscape is greatly reduced.
HEIA has certain advantages such as short-term increase in production and cash
income, uniform production processes and lower labour costs. However, it also has
many disadvantages:
It has limited applicability to dry and risk prone farming areas;
It has negative impacts on water, air and human health;
It tends to erode soils, genetic resources and local knowledge;
It cannot be applied by many poor farmers in poor areas;
It under-utilizes available local resources and over-utilizes non-renewable
resources such as fossil energy and phosphorus; and
It increases the dependency of farmers.
These and other disadvantages have stimulated interest in
developing sustainable farming practices. New approaches
have emerged such as organic farming, Permaculture and
Ecological farming. We use the term LEISA.
Low-External-Input and Sustainable Agriculture
(LEISA)
LEISA depends primarily on resources from the farm, village and region and is
characterized as follows:
It aims to integrate soil fertility management, arable farming and animal
husbandry;
It makes efficient use of nutrients, water and energy, and recycles them as much
as possible, thus preventing depletion and pollution;
It uses external inputs only to compensate for local deficiencies;
It involves site-specific farming practices; and
It aims at stable and long-lasting production levels.
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1-40
Activity 9:
Analysing a known farming system
Aim
Analysis of known farming systems in terms of the three approaches to farming.
Instructions
Divide into groups of 4.
Read through the descriptions in your text on traditional agriculture, HEIA and LEISA.
Then, as a group, complete the worksheet below. Write down your thoughts on how
each of the variables applies to each of the farming systems.
Table 6: Worksheet on farming approaches
Variables Traditional HEIA LEISA
Use of locally available inputs
Variety/specialisation
Use of external inputs
Use of local knowledge
Use of extension services
Main production objectives
Cash income
Labour requirements
Level of production
Degree of recycling
Level of water use
Sources of water and rainwater harvesting
Degree of sustainability
Chapter 1: Rural Realities and Homestead Food Gardening Options
1-41
The homestead as a farming system
We will first look at the principles of low-external-input farming that can be applied to
homestead food production, and then look at the homestead farming system within
this context. We are now assuming that a low-external-input approach is indeed the
best option at a homestead level.
LEISA Principles
Mimicking nature:
All natural ecosystems without human disturbance manage to accumulate nutrients.
This happens in a number of ways:
Living plants form a continuous soil cover;
A layer of decomposing plant material and leaves covers the soil;
Roots of different plants are distributed throughout the soil at different depths;
and
Most nutrients are retained in living plants or animals.
Seeking diversity:
Natural ecosystems consist of manydifferent plant and animal species interacting
with one another. These develop over a long period. In the LEISAfarming system, the
farmers try to develop similar processes, by diversifying the species of animals and
plants that grow and interact with one another. This gives strength to the system,
enabling it to resist disturbances such as erratic rainfall and attacks of pests and
diseases.
Living soil:
One of the most important components of soil is soil life, including bacteria, fungi,
protozoa, nematodes, beetles, centipedes and earthworms. This plays a major role in
nutrient availability and recycling, and thus in agricultural productivity. Farmers have
to create favourable conditions for soil life. Organic matter must be provided.
Cyclic flow patterns:
In a natural ecosystem hardly anything is lost. In LEISA, losses are minimized through
cover crops, deep rooting species that recycle nutrients, erosion control, and
improved collection, storage and application of wastes from crops (residues),
livestock (manure and urine), and the kitchen (water and food wastes). Similarly,
water flows are managed so that optimum use is made of available water.
Systems thinking
Everything works as a system because of general interdependency and widespread
effects of activities. A homestead is probably the most important system for humans.
This is the place where we grow up, get educated and nourished. If the homestead
is strong, nourishing and enabling, its people will also be so. If the homesteads are
weak, impoverished and disempowering, it people will also be so.
Agricultural Water Use for Homestead Gardening Systems – Resource Material
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Animal production sub-system
Decomposing sub-
system
Management
sub-system
Innovate
Allocate
O
p
erate
Plant production sub-system
Inputs
Outputs
There are many facets or aspects to a household such as spiritual, social, cultural and
financial aspects. In this training the emphasis will be placed on the household as a
farming system, supplying balanced, nutritious and safe food to all family members.
Production within the “four corners” of the residential plot could play a significant
part in this objective.
Generally a system has a boundary:
This you define yourself; it could be the four corners of your yard, or an area that
includes your homestead and field, or a number of homesteads relying on one water
source, or a whole village, etc. It depends on what you want to investigate.
A system also has inputs:
These are items or processes that feed into your system that may or may not come
from outside the system. In the case of a homestead, inputs could be manure
(potentially inside the homestead), seeds (often from outside the home, e.g. from
town), etc.
A system also has outputs:
This is what your system generates; in our case produce (food), but also fodder,
money, etc.
Within your system there are processes that turn your inputs into outputs.
Below is a small diagram to represent the sub-systems. Using arrows shows the
relationships. Note the different directions of the arrows.
(Meat and vegetables for the -
Family and for sale)
Labour, ideas
Manure Meat
Manure
FeedFeed
(Homestead
Vegetable and
Meat production)
Compost
Vegetables
ResiduefromLabour,ideas
garden
e.g.vegetableproduction
(For vegetable production, e.g. as seeds, labour, water, tools
For pigs, e.g. feed, labour. Medication)
Figure 4: Example of a systems diagram
Chapter 1: Rural Realities and Homestead Food Gardening Options
1-43
Swot stands for:
STRENGTHS: Make a list of the internal strengths in the situation
– what is working well.
WEAKNESSES: Make a list of the internal weaknesses, problems,
and difficulties – what is not working well.
OPPORTUNITIES: Make a list of the external possibilities,
suggestions for action and change, new ideas that can be brought
in – what could work well in the future.
THREATS: Make a list of the foreseeable external dangers and
problems related to the opportunities – what could jeopardise
the situation in the future.
Activity 10:
The Homestead as a Farming System
Aim
Individual analysis of a known homestead as a system.
Instructions
Taking your own homestead or one that you know well, construct a flow diagram of
the farming system. Make sure you clearly indicate the boundaries of your system,
inputs, outputs and relationships:
Make a comment about the present situation.
Then make a comment about future possibilities for this system, taking into account
the LEISA principles mentioned above. Indicate these processes clearly on your
systems diagram.
SWOT analysis
A SWOT analysis is a way of analysing a situation that can help decision-making and
planning, by highlighting the important issues in a concise form.
Usually, we present these lists in the form of a table. This becomes the basis of a
discussion for the best possible interventions or actions for change in a particular
situation.
Agricultural Water Use for Homestead Gardening Systems – Resource Material
1-44
This then gives a clue where to
start with an intervention for
change:
i.e. Training and learning processes
that also bring in some resources
to implement new ideas.
Below is a quick example, using food security as a topic:
Table 7: SWOT analysis on Food Security for a Rural Household
STRENGTHS
Access to land for farming and
gardening.
Natural resources for basic needs;
water, fuel, grass, wild foods.
Family can be involved in a range of
livelihood activities.
Safe, healthy environment for
children.
WEAKNESSES
Little money to pay towards farming.
Many people using limited resources.
Lack of labour.
Lack of sanitation and diverse foods
lead to diseases that are life
threatening for small children.
OPPORTUNITIES
Low external input farming is possible.
Use resources that the household has
control over; e.g. rain water falling
within the boundaries of the
homestead.
Cultivating your own resources; e.g.
firewood, medicinal species,
traditional crops.
Labour saving technologies and
processes; such as planning a garden
that can self-maintain, growing fruit
and nut trees that need little attention
but can still provide food. Using
appropriate tools.
Growing a diverse range of food
crops that can supplement the diet of
small children. Giving attention to
sanitation.
THREATS
Limited knowledge of how to
implement low external input farming
systems.
Limited space, time and resources to
initiate low external input farming
activities. Immediate need may
overshadow longer-term production.
Access to information and
technologies.
Motivation for change may be a
limiting factor for poor people that
are struggling to survive.
Looking at this table, one can see that there are many opportunities for increasing
food security at a homestead level. Most of the threats to
implementing these ideas relate to lack of
access to information and resources to
implement these ideas.
Chapter 1: Rural Realities and Homestead Food Gardening Options
1-45
Facilitator’s Note:
This can be used with the
‘Garden Learning Groups
Tool” in Chapter 2.
Facilitation tool 3:
SWOT analysis for a homestead farming system
Aim
Group swot analysis of a homestead farming system
Instructions
Do a SWOT analysis in groups of 4 of the systems you have described in ‘Activity 10’
above.
-Produce a table of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats that you have
discussed for your four systems.
-Make a comment about the present situation: summarise what is coming out of the
table.
-Then make a comment about future opportunities, taking into account the possible
threats.
-Finally, come up with a potential intervention (project) that could change the
situation for the better (based on your table).
Agricultural Water Use for Homestead Gardening Systems – Resource Material
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The Main feature
Of Mr Matlere’s design, is to make furrows
on the contours in the fields, with a mound
all along the down slope side of each
furrow,
Case study 4:
Homestead Farming System example
Below is an example of a homestead farming system as practised by Mr Matlere in
Lesotho. You will need to read through this case study carefully before you can do
the activities at the end of this section.
A beautiful example of intensive food production and
rainwater harvesting
Mr S S Matlere has been working with conservation agriculture for many years. He
noticed a number of problems in the cropping fields in his work as an agricultural
extension officer. These included soil erosion through uncontrolled run-off, declining
soil fertility, a lack of water, and low production. Through long and thoughtful
observation, he has now designed and implemented his own system of farming that
solves these problems and also has many other benefits.
Mr Matlere remains an extensionist at heart.
‘Ask me about furrows,’ says the writing on his back.
Chapter 1: Rural Realities and Homestead Food Gardening Options
1-47
Figure 5: Method for Marking Contours in a Field
Organic matter is continually incorporated into the mounds. A range of crops are
grown, including maize, wheat and vegetables such as beans, tomatoes, cabbages,
potatoes, rape, mustard spinach and onions.
Mr Matlere is standing in one of his
furrows. On the mound is a crop of
maize, already harvested, with runner
beans climbing up the stalks.
Marking contours
in your field using
a line level
Agricultural Water Use for Homestead Gardening Systems – Resource Material
1-48
In another row of the field, cabbages were
planted on the mound next to the maize.
These cabbages are now being left to produce
seed for the next season.
Note the organic matter that is weeded out
and placed as mulch in the furrow and on the
mounds.
Why furrows and
mounds?
The furrows and mounds help to
regulate runoff water, which would
erode fertile topsoil away.
The furrows ensure that all the rain
that falls on the field, remains there. The rain is caught in the furrows and sinks into
the soil.
The furrows help to distribute rainwater evenly throughout the entire field.
The mounds help increase the depth of soil, which in turn helps the roots of the
plants to go deeper in search of plant food and moisture. With strong, deep roots,
the crops yield better.
The furrows and mounds also increase
the fertility of the soil through the
organic matter that is incorporated
into the soil. The moisture in the soil
and the heat of the sun striking the
sides of the mounds, help to speed up
the breakdown of the organic matter.
Maize was planted and then intercropped with
beans and tomatoes. The mound was formed
during the summer season by heaping the soil
and weeds together up around the row of maize
planted. Thereafter, beans and tomatoes were
planted on the mound with the maize.
In autumn, after the maize was harvested,
wheat was planted at the bottom of the mounds
and kale was planted
on top of the mound.
Chapter 1: Rural Realities and Homestead Food Gardening Options
1-49
The maize residues have been worked into the mounds
once the crop was harvested.
These mounds will be ready for planting again in spring.
In this way, the typical backbreaking land
preparation in hard,dry soil is avoided.
Crops can now be planted earlier – as
soon as the first rains have come. In many
areas, this means that the crop can
mature during the peak rainy season,
avoiding the major risk of crop failure
through late season dry spells.
Cropping in furrows and mounds
In this system of furrow cropping, crops are grown over a longer period of time, so
that more than one crop can be harvested in a season. Cattle are not allowed to
enter into the field at any time, as they will trample the furrows and mounds, and will
eat the residues that need to be incorporated into the soil.
Different crops can be grown in the same field in a relay fashion. As some crops are
maturing, other crops are planted. The maize plants for example, become a support
for the tomatoes and beans that are planted later.
Mr Matlere (left) and Mr Thulo (right) (CARE-
Lesotho) inspecting Mustard Spinach seedlings
planted in seedling trays. These seedlings are
produced in the greenhouse towards the end of
the hot period of summer, so that they can be
planted in the field as soon as autumn comes. In
this way, a good crop can be realized before
the severe winter cold sets in.
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1-50
If a farmer wants to produce an early crop, seedlings can be raised in green houses,
either in seedling trays, or in the case of larger seedlings, like pumpkins and squashes,
in old tins. The containers are filled with well-rotted manure or compost. The seedlings
are transplanted onto the mounds and furrows as soon as the last threat of frost is
over.
Materials for producing seedlings have been
collected: A large pile of well rotted compost
and a pile of tins for planting.
Some interesting outcomes
The continued absorption of rainwater into the furrows and mounds tends to
influence the moisture in the area over time. Mr Matlere has experienced that
two days after some days of soaking rain; the sun that strikes the sides of the
mounds creates a mist that rises up from the beds. This happens due to the
warmth generated in the mounds from the decomposing grasses, weeds and
maize stalks. It provides a warm, moist microclimate in an area that would
otherwise be quite dry. This provides very favourable conditions for the growth of
vegetables and pumpkins.
The silt that collects in the furrows during heavy rains provides some more fertility,
moisture and a better foothold to the crops planted there. Mr Matlere has
noticed that the stand of maize is much better with this system. The maize does
not fall over in heavy rains and winds, as they do under normal conditions.
With the mounds, the organic matter that has been incorporated decomposes
faster than it would without the mounds. The climate in Lesotho is mild and many
months are quite cold and dry. The mounds provide a surface that is heated by
the sun and the organic matter holds more moisture. Thus decomposition
happens faster.
Because there is more organic matter in the soil, it becomes fertile without the
need even to add manure, when that is in short supply.
Mr Matlere has noticed that with the increase in fertility and organic matter
(humus) in the soil, there are fewer problems with pests and diseases.
Because the spacing of the crops is quite wide with this system, the maize
matures faster, there are more cobs per plant (4-5) and cobs are bigger. So, even
though fewer plants are in the ground, a better harvest is achieved. This applies
also to other crops like cabbage and wheat.
The wide spacing of the rows facilitates early weeding which is important.
Spacing is generally up to 2 m between the rows (on the mounds) and up
to 60 cm between plants in the row (on the mounds).
Chapter 1: Rural Realities and Homestead Food Gardening Options
1-51
This wide spacing can also facilitate the use of animal drawn implements
(oxen or horses) for weeding.
For smaller crops like kale and tomatoes, the spacing between the plants
in the row is 30 cm.
For row crops like wheat and onions, 2-3 rows are planted, with a spacing
of 40-50 cm between rows and 30 cm between plants in the rows.
In this system, seeds are planted by hand, rather than by animal drawn planters.
Mr Matlere also only plants crops from which he can keep his own seed.
Activity 11:
Analysis of the case study of
a Homestead Farming System
Aim
Analyse the case study given in terms of the three farming system used (Traditional
Agriculture, High-external-input Agriculture, Low-external-input and Sustainable
Agriculture). Also analyse the case study in terms of the elements of sustainability.
Instructions
Discuss and summarise the case study of a homestead food gardening system that
you have been given; using some of the processes and concepts discussed in this
section (sustainability, 3 farming approaches, SWOT, flow diagram and mind map).
Agricultural Water Use for Homestead Gardening Systems – Resource Material
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1.5 References and further reading
Ainslie, A. 2006. Provincial Growth and Development Plan – Eastern Cape. Case Study Report
No4. Ngqushwa Municipality, Peddie, Eastern Cape.
Ambala,C. 2002. Water Resources. Africa.unep.net/freshwater.content1.asp.
Department of Social Development. 2006, November. Linking Social Grant Beneficiaries to
poverty Alleviation and Economic Activity. Discussion Document.
Kruger, E. 2009. Baseline Study for the Formulation of a Programme for Empowerment for
Food Security in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. KZN Department of Agriculture and
Environmental Affairs. FICA press (Flander International Cooperation Agency).
Livernash, R and Rodenburg, E. 1998. Population Change, Resources and the environment.
Population Bulletin 53 (1):34
Douthwaite R. 1999 The Growth Illusion.
Minkley, G. 2003. Framing Agrarian Transformations and Food Security. Synthesis Report,
Institute for Social and Economic Research, University of Fort Hare, East London
Mudhara, M.; Malinga, M.; and Salomon, M. 2008. Enhancing Farmer’s Innovative Capacity in
Soil and Water Management through Participatory Action Research in Potshini, South
Africa.In Physics and Chemistry of the Earth 33 (2008) available online at
www.sciencedirect.com or Mudhara@ukzn.ac.za
National Income and Expenditure Survey. 2007. www.statssa.gov.za Community Survey.
National State of the Environment Report – South Africa. 2002. Freshwater Systems and
Resources. Pressures Affecting Freshwater Systems and Resources in South Africa.
www.ngo.grida.no/soesa/nsoer/issues/water/pressure.htm
Population Action International. 2002. Sustainable Water. Population and the Future of
Renewable Water Supplies. www.cnie.org/pop/pai/water-14.html
Rural Survey.1997. Stats SA Rural Survey.
Sturdy, JD, Jewitt, GPW, Lorent,SA. 2009. (in preparation) Participatory Valuation of Garden-
scale Water Use Innovations in Rural South Africa. School of Bio-resources Engineering&
Environmental Hydrology, University of KwZulu Natal, Scottsville, South Africa.
Timmel, S. and Hope, A.1980. Community Workers Handbook. Book3, Chapter 9. Practical
Action.
UNFPA.2001. The State of the World population 2001.
http://www.unfpa.org/swp/2001/english/cho4.html
Van Veldhuizen, L.; Waters-Bayer, A.; and Zeeuw, H.D.1998.Developing Technology with
Farmers: A Trainer’s Guide for Participatory Learning.
WHO. 2002. An Anthology on Women, Health and Environment: Water. World Health
Organisation (WHO) / UNICEF.
www.who.int/environment_information/Women/Womwater.htm
Wilson, J.
Wilson, J. 1995. An Introduction to Systems Thinking. Changing Agriculture. Kangaroo Press.
Australia.
Winpenny, JT. 1999. Managing Water Scarcity for Water Security.
www.fao.org/ag/aglw/webpub/scarcity,htm
2001. National population Unit: 33.
Chapter 1: Rural Realities and Homestead Food Gardening Options
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Index (Chapter 1)
B
Biodiversity 1-16
C
Contours 1-47
D
Dietary diversity 1-5
Diversification 1-3
E
Ecosystem 1-25
F
Facilitation Tools 1-35
Farming systems 1-38
Flow diagrams 1-37
Furrows 1-48
G
Groundwater 1-23
H
High external input agriculture 1-39
HIV/AIDS 1-25
I
Income 1-29
Intensified production 1-7
Irrigation 1-23
L
LEISA (Low external input sustainable
agriculture 1-39, 1-41
Livelihoods 1-12
M
Malnutrition 1-5, 1-9
Millennium development goals 1-25
Mind mapping 1-36
Multiple use systems (MUS) 1-33
O
Organic food production 1-4
Organic matter 1-47
P
Permaculture 1-39
Poverty 1-32
R
Rainwater harvesting 1-46
S
Sustainability 1-34
SWOT analysis 1-43
Systems thinking 1-41
W
Water 1-21
-cycle 1-22
-policies 1-27
- use 1-24
Agricultural Water Use for Homestead Gardening Systems
Resource Material
for
Facilitators and Food Gardeners
Chapter 2
Facilitation of
Homestead Food Gardening
Agricultural Water Use for Homestead Gardening Systems – Resource Material
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iii
Chapters: Resource Material
Introduction to the Learning Material (TT 431/1/09)
Chapter 1 Rural realities and homestead food gardening options (TT 431/1/09)
Chapter 2 - Facilitation of homestead food gardening (TT 431/1/09)
- Handouts: Chapter 2 – Homestead Food Gardener’s Resource Packs
Chapter 3 - Living and eating well (TT 431/1/09)
- Handouts: Chapter 3 – Homestead Food Gardener’s Resource Packs
Chapter 4 - Diversifying production in homestead food gardening (TT 431/2/09)
- Handouts: Chapter 4 – Homestead Food Gardener’s Resource Packs
Chapter 5 - Garden and homestead water management for food gardening
(TT 431/2/09
- Handouts: Chapter 5 – Homestead Food Gardener’s Resource Packs
Chapter 6 - Soil fertility management: Optimising the productivity of soil and water
(TT 431/3/09)
- Handouts: Chapter 6 – Homestead Food Gardener’s Resource Packs
Chapter 7 Income opportunities from homestead food gardening (TT 431/3/09)
Agricultural Water Use for Homestead Gardening Systems – Resource Material
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Chapter 2: Facilitation of homestead food gardening
v
Chapter 2 Table of Contents:
Facilitation of home food gardening
Table of Contents: Facilitation of home food gardening ................................... i
List of Figures .......................................................................................................... vii
List of Tables ........................................................................................................... vii
List of Activities ...................................................................................................... viii
List of Facilitation Tools ......................................................................................... viii
List of Case Studies & Research .......................................................................... viii
Aims .......................................................................................................................... ix
What am I going to learn? .................................................................................... ix
Icons ......................................................................................................................... xi
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The need to understand and act ......................................................................... 2
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Key Concept 1: Understand, and then act. ....................................................... 4
Information tasks of the HFS facilitator ................................................................. 6
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Preparation for scoping: Facilitator’s homework............................................... 8
Background information: Consult useful external sources (Your homework) . 9
Create a Scoping Report framework ................................................................ 10
Open the door: Get local support for a scoping exercise .............................. 11
Participatory assessment of local food security ............................................... 13
Participatory methods ......................................................................................... 13
Semi-Structured Interviewing .............................................................................. 13
Key components of Semi-Structured Interviews: .............................................. 14
Sensitive questioning or interviewing ................................................................. 15
Methods for assessing local resources ............................................................... 17
Finding out about natural resources .................................................................. 19
Methods for assessing stakeholder involvement .............................................. 40
Community action plan ...................................................................................... 46
Adding local information into the Scoping Report .......................................... 50
Participatory reporting: using the Sustainable Livelihoods Framework ........ 51
Where to report findings? .................................................................................... 51
Who is reporting? Those ready to say: ‘I am/we are going to…’ .................. 51
What to report: The building blocks for sustainable livelihoods – assets ........ 52
Finalising the Scoping Report .............................................................................. 55
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Cultivating local awareness and support for household self-help efforts ... 56
Agricultural Water Use for Homestead Gardening Systems – Resource Material
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Support groups like Garden Learning Groups.................................................. 57
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Establishing Garden Learning Groups............................................................... 59
Joint planning with a Garden Learning Group ................................................ 60
The Learning group approach, workshop content and schedule ................ 60
Determining the training/learning needs of the group ................................... 62
Garden Learning Group Processes.................................................................... 62
Mind mobilisation and helicopter planning ...................................................... 65
Household Experimentation ................................................................................ 74
The Garden Learning Group’s outreach activities .......................................... 77
Monitoring and evaluation tools ........................................................................ 77
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Chapter 2: Facilitation of homestead food gardening
vii
List of Figures
Figure 1: Overview of the tasks of a household food security facilitator ....... 4
Figure 2: Overview of facilitation processes for the information tasks ........... 7
Figure 3: Resource map drawn in Nthunzi, Bulwer, 1993. (Eds Cousins, T.;
Kruger, 1993) ................................................................................................. 20
Figure 4: Transect walk diagram, Tsupaneng, KwaZulu-Natal 1993. (Eds
Cousins & Kruger, 1993).............................................................................. 25
Figure 5: An example of scoring food sources using proportional piling ..... 34
Figure 6: An example of a group busy with a matrix ranking exercise ........ 39
Figure 7: Venn diagram of institutions in a Santiago Island village. .............. 42
Figure 8: Establishment and tasks of a Garden Learning Group .................. 58
Figure 9: Action learning cycle for farmer groups........................................... 60
Figure 10: Cyclic process for learning in Garden Learning Groups.............. 61
Figure 11: Present situation analysis – an example .......................................... 71
Figure 12: A diagram of Mrs Khumbane’s homestead yard after five years
–(diagram developed and supplied by “The Star” Newspaper)........ 72
Figure 13: Ma Tshepo distributing seedlings during a mind mobilization
workshop in Limpopo .................................................................................. 73
Figure 14: A diagram of a household experiment in a garden ..................... 75
List of Tables
Table 1: Overview of facilitation processes for the information tasks ........... 6
Table 2: Scoping Report framework and methods........................................ 10
Table 3: Discussion pieces to get local support for a scoping exercise ..... 12
Table 4: Livelihoods assets of an example household (Mrs Mdletshe,
Hlabisa, KZN) ................................................................................................. 18
Table 5: Preference ranking example .............................................................. 30
Table 6: Pair wise ranking matrix........................................................................ 32
Table 7: Pair-wise ranking showing food source preferences in Niger ........ 33
Table 8: Preference score, based on pair wise ranking ................................ 33
Table 9: Table of individual participant scoring of agricultural constraints 36
Table 10: Matrix scoring of different food sources against indicators of
preference. ................................................................................................... 37
Table 11: Institutional Profiles of Jeded Village, Somalia: Women's
Organization ................................................................................................. 44
Table 12: Institutional profile ............................................................................... 45
Table 13: Community action plan – example format.................................... 48
Table 14: Using the Scoping Report framework .............................................. 52
Table 15: Analysis for the Asset Pentagon on the Sustainable Livelihoods
Framework .................................................................................................... 53
Agricultural Water Use for Homestead Gardening Systems – Resource Material
viii
Table 16: Training process for intensive food production: An example ...... 63
Table 17: ‘Mind mobilisation’ and substance abuse counselling processes
........................................................................................................................ 66
Table 18: The ‘Mind mobilisation’ workshop .................................................... 68
Table 19: Example of possible results obtained from a household
experiment .................................................................................................... 76
Table 20: Final outcomes and conclusions of a household experiment .... 76
Table 21: Self-Evaluation Tool for Household Food Security .......................... 77
Table 22: Potshini learning workshops............................................................... 81
List of Activities
Activity 1: What is wrong with the question?................................................... 16
Activity 2: Read a resource map....................................................................... 21
Activity 3: Draw a resource map of an area................................................... 22
Activity 4: Read a transect diagram................................................................. 26
Activity 5: Draw a transect walk diagram ........................................................ 27
Activity 6: Do a pair wise ranking exercise....................................................... 31
Activity 7: Draw a matrix ranking diagram...................................................... 38
Activity 8: Create an institutional profile .......................................................... 45
Activity 9: Doing a Sustainable Livelihoods assets analysis ........................... 54
List of Facilitation Tools
Facilitation Tool 1: Facilitation of a Venn diagram exercise ......................... 41
Facilitation Tool 2: Community action plan – Ideas for running a planning
workshop ....................................................................................................... 46
Facilitation Tool 3: Local involvement in development – Crossing the River
Role-Play ........................................................................................................ 48
Facilitation Tool 4: Facilitation of a Mind Mobilisation Workshop ................. 68
List of Case Studies & Research
Case Study 1:Learning content and process for workshops conducted in
Potshini ........................................................................................................... 80
Chapter 2: Facilitation of homestead food gardening
ix
Aims
This chapter aims to introduce facilitation strategies for food security. An overview of
facilitation processes and resources needed is given. The aim is to ensure that
facilitators understand the cyclical nature of facilitation processes to include a
detailed understanding of the indigenous situation that leads to action. This is
followed by review and further action. A detailed participatory scoping exercise and
assessment is required.
The aim of this Chapter is to introduce facilitators to a number of participatory
methodologies that can be used for this. Examples are semi structured interviewing,
participatory analysis of assets according to the assets pentagon, resource mapping,
transect diagrams, various methods of participatory ranking, Venn diagrams and
institutional profile development.
A further aim is that facilitators can develop a facilitation plan and community
action plan in ways that include the community to the extent that local involvement
is inevitable. This is followed by participatory reporting, cultivating local awareness
and support for household self-help efforts and setting up Garden Learning Groups
(Support Groups).
Much of the Chapter aims to give facilitation tools for facilitators to set up and work
with Garden Learning Groups to empower insecure households to develop skills and
to act in ways that would enhance their food security. Processes of mind
mobilisation, visioning and household experimentation are paramount in this.
Facilitators are encouraged to ensure that Garden Learning Groups also undertake
outreach activities.
What am I going to learn?
Following overleaf is a list of the things you should be able to do when you have
successfully completed the chapter. This list gives you some idea of what to expect
when you start working on the chapter, but, more importantly, you should come
back to the list when you have completed the chapter to check if you have
achieved all the objectives set out for the chapter. This means that you can monitor
your own progress quite accurately. On the following page is the list of these
outcomes for this chapter:
Agricultural Water Use for Homestead Gardening Systems – Resource Material
x
What am I going to learn? What should I be able to
do
after
completing this unit?
Done
Can’t do
1
Appropriate
facilitation
strategies for food
insecure households
Assist food insecure people with practical,
achievable self-help actions.
Interact with role players to create an
‘enabling environment.
Improve the ability of the household to
achieve self reliance
2
The cyclic process
of observation and
action and creating
a scoping report
framework
Gather and interpret data from secondary
sources
Design a scoping or situation analysis
process
Meet with local leadership and organizations
to gain support
3
Participatory information gathering and
analysis in the village using methods such as
Participatory Rural Appraisal
Ensuring local involvement in developing
communit
y
action
p
lans
Facilitation of a
scoping or situation
analysis exercise
Using participatory processes to establish
learning content based on resources in this
manual.
Adapt learning content as the situation
demands
7
Household learning
content established
5
Facilitate agreement of the local leadership
for facilitation processes.
Establish and support functioning of garden
Learning Groups
Facilitate a mind mobilisation workshop
Facilitate household experimentation
p
rocesses.
Creating and
enabling
environment in the
village
Facilitate a mind mobilization workshop.
Ensure individual counseling where
appropriate
Undertake a helicopter planning process
with participants.
Facilitate household experimentation and
ongoing self evaluation processes
6
Mind mobilisation,
visioning and
ongoing self-
evaluation
Undertake participatory reporting using the
sustainable livelihoods framework.
4 Reporting
Chapter 2: Facilitation of homestead food gardening
xi
Icons
You will find that several different icons are used throughout the Chapter.These icons
should assist you with navigation through the Chapter and orientation within the
material. This is what these icons mean:
Facilitation tools
Processes that you can use in workshop situations,
to support your work in the field.
Research /Case study
The results of research or case studies that
illustrate the ideas presented.
Looking at research, facts and figures
to help contextualise things.
Activity
This indicates an exercise that you should do
– either on your own (individual) or in a group.
Copy and handouts
These sections can be copied and used
as handouts to learners / participants.
Agricultural Water Use for Homestead Gardening Systems – Resource Material
xii
Chapter 2: Facilitation of homestead food gardening
2-1
2.1 Facilitation strategies for
household food security
In the introduction section to these resource materials we considered incentives and
disincentives for homestead food production. We also looked at the importance of
recognising the psychological effects of chronic hunger and we suggested types of
facilitation strategies that could empower homestead food gardeners.
In Chapter 1 we considered rural realities, the role of water and looked at different
farming systems that are appropriate to homestead food gardening.
We will now continue by looking at facilitation methodologies and processes that
can be used both at community and individual level to foster action, independence
and social well being in a homestead food gardening context.
Appropriate strategies for chronic hunger vs.
famine
The strategies to combat chronic, ongoing hunger are different to emergency
strategies like food aid, which is used to combat famine or starvation due to some
short-term calamity like war or floods.
Strategies for chronic, long-term hunger are aimed at reducing people’s
powerlessness, by enabling them to engage in activities that can permanently
improve or solve their ongoing food insecurity. Therefore, home food security
strategies aim to develop the household’s ability to take care of themselves, and
aims to systematically reduce the household’s dependency on outside help of all
kinds. This reduces their vulnerability, and helps them to avoid food crises and
malnutrition.
Note that the emphasis is on the abilityof the household, and on self-help strategies.
FACILITATOR’S NOTE
The fundamental role of the household food security facilitator is to
help food insecure men and women to regain hope and self-respect,
so that they can gain control over their lives through practical,
achievable self-help action.
To achieve this, the facilitator also needs to interact with other role
players, with the specific purpose to create an enabling environment
within which these food insecure households can make progress.
IN food security facilitation all information and activities are
ultimately aimed at improving the ability of the household to achieve
and maintain food securit
y
.
Agricultural Water Use for Homestead Gardening Systems – Resource Material
2-2
The facilitator is helping the household to address the second type of hunger that De
Castro (De Castro, undated) talks about – partial or chronic hunger where people
eat inadequately year in and year out, and which ‘silently destroys and undermines
countless populations’. (See “Introduction to Resource Materials for Facilitators –
Section 5 – Points of Departure” for more on the subject).
The need to understand and act
Like Lappe et al. (Lappe et al., 1998), De Castro stresses the need for us to
understand hunger before we can hope to have an impact on it:
In order to adequately plan solutions to feeding people around the world, it is
necessary to overcome one of the main obstacles in the fight against hunger:
the lack of a deeper knowledge about it – understanding the notion that
hunger is a complex set of manifestations that can simultaneously be
biological, economical and social.
Every household is unique, and therefore needs their own strategy to solve their
problems. For instance, a deeply traumatised and fractured household would need
a different approach to one where family relationships are healthy; a household with
a natural spring would have other opportunities than those without easy access to
water; a household consisting entirely of school going children could not use the
same solution as one consisting of a pensioner with working age sons and daughters.
Equally, every village is unique in terms of its natural resources, its leadership
approach, history and politics, and relationships among community members.
The better you understand the causes and effects of hunger, the resources and
constraints affecting a particular household, and factors beyond the control of the
household, the better you will be able to understand what could and couldn’t be
done to improve the situation.
How would a facilitator apply this practically in his/her work?
In section 2.3 “Scoping and situation analysis” we will look at the necessary
information gathering and analysis to improve facilitators’ understanding of the
local food security situation and factors in a community or area we plan to
work in.
The scoping and information
exchange process is already
the first stage of mobilising
people into action, and is most
useful when it is done in a
participatory way.
When it comes to individual
households, no one knows their
family’s situation better than
themselves. Remembering that
our objective is to help them
overcome powerlessness, the facilitator’s role is to provide the household with a
method to develop their own action plans, and NOT to develop their plans for
them.
FACILITATOR”S NOTE
You need to create your scoping
report framework right at the
beginning as this defines in many
ways how you will gather
information and which information
y
ou will work with.
Chapter 2: Facilitation of homestead food gardening
2-3
Section 2.4 looks at “Creating an enabling environment in the village”. Issues of
cultivating awareness and the establishment of support groups such as Garden
Learning Groups are raised.
In section 2.5 “Household mobilisation and support”, you will find the Helicopter
Planning exercise, which was developed by Ma Tshepo Khumbane over many
years as a visual, practical visioning and planning tool that households can use
(literacy not required).
Two effective methods for Mind Mobilisation are described, namely the
Nutrition Workshop and the Present Situation Analysis & Counselling process.
A powerful method for ongoing learning around household food gardening
techniques, called Household Experimentation is also described.
2.2 Planning for facilitation and
household support
Key questions are:
1.Is it ethical to engage people in an analysis of their situation and help them to
plan for action, unless the resources are already available to address their
needs?
2.Would it not be unacceptable to raise expectations that cannot be met, and
thereby set people up for disappointment?
3.On the other hand, is it ethical to withhold knowledge and planning skills from
people, just because the resources for implementation may not be
immediately available?
4.And, aren’t there many things people can achieve, just with the resources
they already have?
FACILITATOR’S NOTE
Principle: No promises. EVER.
Principle: Always help people to plan firstly
what they can do with what they have, and
secondly to highlight what outside assistance
they would need to go further.
Agricultural Water Use for Homestead Gardening Systems – Resource Material
2-4
improved relationships: this provides the foundation for the individual to move forward with confidence
household
level .
village
level
municipal
level
provincial
national
international
levels
Household
/family
organisations involved in food security
leadership
Garden
learning
group(s)
HH food
provider
policies
5 assets;
HH control
programmes
5 assets;
community control
to build the self-
confidence & skills
of the HH food provider
to build strong mutual moral support among,
and outreach by, food insecure HHs
to build leadership support and
recognition for the efforts of food
insecure HHs
to helporganisations respond better & improve
services to food insecure HHs
U n d e r s t a n d
Facilitator gathers and interprets information on household food security aspects.
Use participatory methods where appropriate.
Participatory reporting: to and by participants.
A c t
Facilitator intervenes (facilitates) to help households improve their food security.
A range of participatory methods are used.
Overview of processes and resources needed
Key Concept 1: Understand, and then act.
The work of a household food security (HFS) facilitator involves cycles of information
gathering and action steps (See Figure 1).
The facilitator gathers and interprets new information all the time so that actions
taken can become more and more effective. In other words, HFS facilitation requires
a ‘lifelong learning approach’. This applies to every household or community
situation the facilitator works in, but also in the HFS facilitator’s personal
development.
Figure 1: Overview of the tasks of a household food security facilitator
“Figure 1: Overview of the tasks of an Household Food Security Facilitator” shows what types
of information a facilitator needs to gather, even at national level, to improve his/her
understanding of the context of the target households in a specific village. It also shows at
which levels s/he needs to ‘act’ or ‘facilitate’ to enable the target households to improve
their food security
NOTE 1: In the diagram above, these arrows show improved/healed relationships:
between the household caregiver and his/her family; between the garden learning group and the
leadership or other organizations that can recognize, encourage or assist food insecure
households’ own efforts towards food security; and so on. Improved relationships provide a very
important foundation for the household caregiver to move forward with confidence and for
social well being.
Chapter 2: Facilitation of homestead food gardening
2-5
NOTE 2: There are various levels at which the Household Food Security facilitator needs to
engage, described here as: Household level (all persons that make up a basic socio- cultural and
economic unit), village level (a community made up of households), municipal level (all villages/
communities falling within wards that make up a local municipal structure. A number of local
municipalities are combined to form a district municipality), and national and international levels
(politics, policies and strategies at country and global levels that affect people).
Understand:
The facilitator has to gather and interpret information to understand the food security
situation and factors affecting it. S/he thinks herself into the shoes of the household
caregiver, and interprets which factors at household, village through to national level
are affecting this person’s ability to feed her family. The facilitator then assesses
which factors s/he would be able to influence, and develops a facilitation plan
accordingly. (Note: you will learn more about developing a facilitation plan in the
next section, where Key Concept 2 is discussed).
Act:
Using the knowledge – and also the relationships! – which the facilitator has built up
during information gathering, s/he facilitates change by interacting with the
household caregiver, with local leadership, and with other organisations involved in
food security matters in the area. To reach more households simultaneously and to
build a permanent ‘support group’ among food insecure households in the
neighbourhood, s/he establishes a garden learning group and helps it to develop its
own vision, goals and action plans.
Let us summarise how this learning and action cycle works:
Like life itself, household food security facilitation is an ongoing cycle where we
understandactunderstand betterimprove our actionsand so forth. The initial
information gathered, enables the facilitator to plan and start a process in the
village. Then, as things develop, she learns more and more, and further builds
relationships with the various role players and households. This enables her to improve
the facilitation plan and actions – but always through participatory processes, so
that those who will implement them make the plans. Remember that in household
food security, our challenge is to facilitate in such a way that the household
caregiver always takes the role of main actor/decision-maker.
We will now have a closer look at the ‘information’ tasks (top part of Figure1) and the
‘action/facilitation’ tasks (bottom part of Figure 1). Then, in later sections of this
chapter, you will learn practical tools to perform these two types of tasks.
Agricultural Water Use for Homestead Gardening Systems – Resource Material
2-6
Information tasks of the HFS facilitator
From Figure 1 you will see that information gathering and analysis needs to be done
at the various levels we have discussed above, namely at household, village,
municipal and higher levels. In Table 1 and Figure 2 below, summaries are provided
for the basic processes and actions for these information tasks. This should provide
you with an overview of what needs to take place. In the following sections of this
chapter we will discuss each of the basic processes in more detail.
Table 1: Overview of facilitation processes for the information tasks
The basic
processes
Key questions Actions
Scoping or
situation
analysis
1. How does one know what information to
look for, and what to ignore?
2. What useful information can one get from
outside sources, like databases and computer
programmes, and on government policies and
programmes?
3. How does one structure this information in a
sensible way?
4. Which participatory facilitation techniques
can one use to get household caregivers
thinking and debating about relevant food
security information among themselves? And
leadership and other local role players?
Gather
background
information
Participatory
information
gathering and
analysis in the
village using
methods such as
Participatory Rural
Appraisal
Creating an
enabling
environment
(in the village,
local and
district
municipalities,
etc.)
1. How can one involve local leadership in a
way that they are supportive and active in the
food security processes of their community?
2. How can one set up report-back sessions to
ensure that local leadership are involved and
supportive and that households become
motivated to undertake their own food
security initiatives?
Open the door
Get leaders’
support
Get buy-in from
other organisation
involved in food
security in the
area
Reporting and
community
mobilisation
How can one give structure and order to the
information, so that it can be reported in a
meaningful way?
Report to
community
Household
mobilisation
and support
How does one ensure that the information
gathered, analysed and debated, leads all
the way through to a shared vision on food
security, and a practical food security action
plan with agreed roles and responsibilities,
timeframes and (self-) monitoring processes?
Set up Garden
Learning Groups
for learning and
actions
Garden Learn-
ing Groups
This is discussed in later sections of this chapter
Self monitoring
and renewal
How can one ensure that the food security
action plans are implemented and continued
over a period of time?
Evaluate and
refine learning
and action cycles
Chapter 2: Facilitation of homestead food gardening
2-7
Figure 2: Overview of facilitation processes for the information tasks
Agricultural Water Use for Homestead Gardening Systems – Resource Material
2-8
2.3 Scoping or situation analysis
Preparation for scoping: Facilitator’s homework
Purpose:
Gather and analyse essential background information from external sources to
understand what is possible.
Design a ‘Scoping Report framework’.
Get permission and leadership assistance to do scoping in the village. Use your
‘Scoping Report framework’ and proposed ‘Facilitation Plan’ to share information
about the background information you have collected from external sources, and
the process you plan to introduce in the village.
Undertake the participatory information gathering and analysis in the village using
a number of different methods
Before it is possible for people to intervene in a situation and work together around
changing or improving that situation, it is important first to understand the situation.
As a facilitator, there are a number of steps that you need to take to introduce a
process in a community or village. The first is to know something about the area, the
people living there, their traditions and practises, and the environmental or farming
conditions in the area. If you come from the area, this will be easy for you. If you do
not, you will have to do a bit of background reading; finding external sources of
information that can tell you more about
the area, its people and its resources.
Once you have done this, you need to get
local support for and understanding of the
process you plan to introduce there. You will
need to consult the local leadership
(including traditional and municipal
structures) and people in the community
(organised groups or individuals that are
involved in community development
activities).
Then, when you have a clearer
picture of who is living and working in
the area, you will be able to finalise
the design of your process for finding
and analysing local information, for
the initial mobilising of potential
participants in an intervention, and
for how to present the information
(create a scoping report framework).
FACILITATOR’S NOTE
Even if you come from an
area, you will almost
certainly discover things you
didn’t know about your
a
re
a
.
FACILITATOR”S NOTE
You need to create your scoping
report framework right at the
beginning as this defines in many
ways how you will gather
information and which information
y
ou will work with.
Chapter 2: Facilitation of homestead food gardening
2-9
Demographics:
Statistical data relating
to the population and
groups within it.
Background information: Consult useful external sources (Your
homework)
There are many potentially useful sources for basic information regarding the areas
that you will be working in; both published materials and information on the Internet.
Information can be found from a number of national and provincial sources that can
give indications of climate, natural resources, farming
practises, demographics, and socio economic
conditions. Municipalities generally also have their own
websites where their Integrated Development Plans
(IDPs) and other information for the area can be found.
Some useful Internet sources:
1.www.arc.agric.za and www.agis.agric.za: These sites host the Agricultural
Geographical Information System Atlas – useful for all kinds of data such as
rainfall, soils, temperature, land use, erosion, crop potential, and so on.
2.www.wrc.org.za: This site hosts many publications related to water and water
use in agriculture. You can also go to www.dwaf.gov.za for information on
water provision.
3.www.beeh.ukzn.ac.za This is the site for the Department of Bio Resource
Engineering and Environmental Hydrologyat the University of KwaZulu-Natal,
where you can find the following publication: Schulze, R.E. 1997. South African
Atlas of Agro hydrology and Climatology. WRC Report NO. TT82/96 or go to
www.agriculture.kzntl.gov.za/publications
4.www.sagis.org.za. South African Grain Information Services.This site provides
all kinds of production and economic data on grain production in SA.
5.www.statssa.gov.za This site provides statistics of all key population indicators
for South Africa. It has a lot of detail on many different things for your area,
such as size of population, incomes, expenditures, unemployment and so on.
6.www.idasa.org.za This site gives a lot of different information on Municipalities
and can help you find information specific to the district or local municipality
you are after.
7.www.treasury.gov.za This site provides information on budgets,expenditure
and plans for all the provinces and municipalities in SA. You can also go to the
provincial equivalents, e.g. www.limtreasury.gov.za for Limpopo, It is possible
also to just type in the name of the municipality when you are searching. You
are likely to find their IDPs there and other useful development information or
go to www.dlgta.gov.za
Internationally there is an incredible amount of information. You can start with the
following two very useful links:
1.www.fao.org: This is the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United
Nations which publishes a lot of information and statistics regarding agriculture
in many different countries. See also www.faostat.fao.org
2.www.ileia.org This is the site of the Centre for Information on Low External Input
and Sustainable Agriculture and has a wide range of agricultural information
for the 3rd world.
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Create a Scoping Report framework
Below is a suggestion for your reporting framework. Your main tool is Semi-Structured
Interviewing of individuals and focus groups, but in the last column of Table 2, some
further methods are listed that you can use to find and analyse the information you
are looking for.
In the sections that follow (but sometimes also in sections of different chapters in this
resource material), we will provide details of how you can implement each one of
the methods suggested here.
This table suggests that you place your information under three different headings
namely: development context, stakeholders and livelihoods analysis. You will thus
gather information that will fit under these headings. Methods that you can use to
gather this information are also given in the last column of the table (‘Methods used
for analysis and reporting’). You will need to choose a number of these methods and
implement them to get the required information. And you will need to implement at
least one method from each heading, but possibly more!!
You will need to make a decision before you start which methods you may want to
use and make up your own scoping report framework. This is also part of your
‘homework’ before you start your processes in a village. You will report to your local
leadership structures what your intended process is going to be for the scoping and
you can show them your scoping report framework.
Table 2: Scoping Report framework and methods
Issue Description Questions that are
being answered
Methods used for analysis and
reporting
Development context
To learn about the
economic,
environmental, social
and institutional patterns
that pose supports or
constraints for
development
What are the important
economic, institutional,
social and
environmental patterns
in the village or
community?
What is getting better?
What is getting worse?
What are the supports
and constraints for
development?
Natural resource assessments
(Chapter 5)
Resource mapping
(Chapter 2)
Transect Walks (Chapter 2)
Assets pentagon (Chapter 2)
Stakeholders
To learn about the
priorities of different
stakeholders and to plan
development activities
based on women and
men’s priorities.
What are the
development priorities
of different
stakeholders and how
do they intervene?
What are different
priorities for different
groupings in the
community?
Venn diagram and institutional
profiles (Chapter 2)
Preference ranking development
needs, priorities for action-related
matters, e.g. water (Chapter 2)
Flow diagrams: e.g. Activities of
different organisations and who
benefits in the community
(Chapter 1)
SWOT Analysis (Chapter 1)
Crossing the River (Chapter 2)
Best bet action plans (Chapter 2)
Chapter 2: Facilitation of homestead food gardening
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Issue Description Questions that are
being answered
Methods used for analysis and
reporting
Livelihoods analysis
Focuses on how
individuals and
households and groups
of households make their
living and their access to
resources to do so. It
reveals the activities
people undertake to
meet basic needs and
to generate income.
Gender and socio-
economic group
differences are shown
with respect to labour
and decision-making
patterns.
How do people make
their living? Are there
households unable to
meet their basic
needs?
What are the patterns
of use and control of
resources?
Farming systems diagram:
Present food gardening activities
with inputs and outputs
(Chapter 1)
Matrix diagrams: For food
sources, income and expenditure
(Chapter 2)
Source: (Wilde, 2001)
Open the door: Get local support for a scoping exercise
Once you have done your ‘homework’, you want to get permission and support to
do a local scoping exercise. Use the background information you have gathered
(with what you already know about the area) and your scoping report framework to
discuss your idea and plans for homestead food gardening with local role players –
especially leadership structures and other organisations involved in home food
security and/or homestead food gardening.
Discuss the following:
What the purpose of the scoping is, how it will be done, and what it will entail;
What support local leadership could provide to you in organising the scoping;
and
How the outcomes of the scoping exercise will be reported to the leadership and
the community; and what is likely to happen after the scoping (forming of
Garden Learning Groups and mobilisation, training and support of interested
households).
‘Discussion pieces’ can be useful in your discussions with leadership and other
organisations to get support for the scoping exercise in the village, for instance:
Agricultural Water Use for Homestead Gardening Systems – Resource Material
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Table 3: Discussion pieces to get local support for a scoping exercise
Discussion piece Purpose
Photos and case
study of a
successful home
food garden
To help people to visualise how homestead food gardening can
contribute to food security. Emphasise that these production
methods use low external inputs, meaning that it is achievable
even for the poorest households. (You will find these in this
Resource Material).
Example of a
workshop
schedule
To show the typical content of training sessions that has lead to
the results seen in the photos and case study.Emphasise that the
exact content will be decided together with the participating
households, to build on what they know already. (You will find this
in this Resource Material).
A simplified
version of the
Scoping Report
framework (See
Table 2).
This helps to show what will happen during the scoping and
participatory assessment, and what type of information would be
reported back to leadership and stakeholders. You want to set
their minds at ease that your intention is not to create trouble in
the village, or undermine leadership or current efforts. Emphasise
the importance of scoping (i) to analyse the local context so as
to tailor-make a facilitation process for this village, and (ii) to
kindle interest among households in the village.
A preliminary
(proposed)
Facilitation Plan
Show what the facilitator plans to do, how long the overall
programme will take (6 or 12 months, or longer?), and how and
when reporting will be done. Invite comments on the proposed
Facilitation Plan. Discuss how leadership and other stakeholders
could help?
FACILITATOR’S NOTE – Facilitation Plan
The Facilitation plan is a document that details the
methods that the facilitator chooses from the table
and the time frame in which they will do it. It could
take the shape of a table with the following headings:
Process/Method
Participants to invite
Date
Venue
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Participatory assessment of local food security
Purpose:
Gather and analyse essential local information to understand what is wanted and
doable, using participatory methods to involve the community in the scoping
exercise.
Organise the findings into your Scoping Report Framework.
In this phase, you will be going through the steps of looking at the development
context, the stakeholders and the livelihoods analysis set out in Table 2: “Scoping
Report Framework” above. You will be talking to and interviewing a number of
people either as individuals, in small groups or even in full community meetings. We
will focus here on participatory processes that can assist you in this task.
Participatory methods
Facilitators favour participatory methods, because this provides an effective way to
empower the people they are working with. In fact, this is the only known way to
enable people participating in a development programme to come up with their
own analysis of their situation, and to develop their own solutions. Through decades
of bad experiences, development facilitators now understand that it is unsustainable
to force external solutions onto people.
The first thing that you may need to think about is how you talk to people and listen
to them. The principles of semi-structured interviewing and sensitive listening run like a
golden thread through all the participatory methods, therefore we will first pay some
attention to this. Thereafter, several examples are shown of how some of these
participatory methods can be applied to collect and analyse the information needs
that were listed in the Scoping Report Framework, for a homestead food gardening
programme.
Semi-Structured Interviewing
This is a guided conversation in which only the topics are predetermined and new
questions and insights arise as a result of the discussion and visualized analyses. This
means that you as the facilitator know what information you want and need and
have a broad list of the themes (such as income, types of farming, etc.) that you
need to cover. Instead of having a questionnaire however, you have a
“conversation”. You make sure you give the person/s enough chance to talk freely
about the themes in a way that suits them.
This type of interviewing can be used for individual interviews, key informant
interviews and focus group discussions.
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Key components of Semi-Structured Interviews:
1. Team preparation:
The goals/ themes of the interviews need to be defined – What is important to
understand more about and how will we find this out? During the preparation:
Develop an interview guide or checklist;
Assign team roles and responsibilities; and
Ensure good group dynamics and behaviour in the interviewing team.
2. Interview context:
When doing the interview the facilitator needs to pay attention to the setting
(where?), timing (when?), body language, seating arrangements (how?) and biases
(why? and who?).
3. Sensitive interviewing:
Sensitive listening and questioning means to ask open-ended, non directive
questions and to probe answers. This is not easy to master,yet effective interviewing
will only occur if this happens. (More about these ideas below.)
4. Judging and cross-checking responses:
Information that is generated needs to be crosschecked, rather than accepting the
first answer one hears. This is part of probing.
5. Recording the interview:
It is vital to record the detail of interviews. Ask permission from the person being
interviewed to take notes or record the interview. Use a recorder if discussing and
writing at the same time is difficult for you. Record the detail of what is said and also
what is NOT said, and of what is observed. Make follow-up notes and record
personal impressions.
6. Self critical review:
After the interview it is important to assess critically which questions were effective
and which were not, how some questions could have been phrased differently and
how the context influenced the flow of information.
Chapter 2: Facilitation of homestead food gardening
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Sensitive questioning or interviewing
Use open-ended questions (non-directive) as opposed to leading questions. This is
a question, which does not require yes or no for an answer. It requires and
explanation or a description.
Ask clear, unambiguous questions.
Use simple questions. Make questions short and easy to understand, but aim at
consistently drawing out more details. Do not ask a sequence of two or more
questions together.
Lead from more general topics to more specific topics.
Do not make abrupt changes of topic.
Probe! Use the 6 helpers: What? When? Where/ how? Who? Why? But why? (Do
not overdo this – it can be a bit threatening.)
Avoid making conclusions for the interviewees or help them finish their sentences.
Avoid giving advice at this stage.
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Activity 1:
What is wrong with the question?
Aim
To illustrate the details of ambiguous (unclear) and leading questions.
Instructions
Look at the short list of questions below and identify what is wrong with each
question. Then re-phrase the question to be less ambiguous or more open-ended.
What is wrong with each question below? [Question 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8.]
Now rephrase each of the questions:
1.Is it true that it is difficult to get your cattle to the veterinary clinic?
2.How do you get your medicine?
3.Wouldn't you prefer to grow improved potato varieties?
4.What do you do as a farmer?
5.Isn't the new clinic wonderful?
6.Do you sow seeds in a straight row?
7.How do you find the school?
8.Shouldn't you cover your water storage container?
Source: (Pretty et al., 1995)
What is wrong with the question? Answers: 1=leading, 2=ambiguous, 3=leading, 4=ambiguous,
5=leading, 6=leading, 7=ambiguous, 8=leading.
Time: 1 hour
Chapter 2: Facilitation of homestead food gardening
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Sensitive interviewing takes a while to learn to do well (like driving a car). As a
facilitator you need always to be aware of what you are saying and how. You need
to observe how this affects the people you are talking to, and make constant
adjustments!! It is a continuous learning process.
Over the years, as you become more experienced, you will develop your own
favourite set of questions that work well for you. Below is an example:
When Ma Tshepo Khumbane interviews local organisations (community based
organisations, NGOs, etc.) during a scoping exercise, they always voice the
problems they are facing. Ma Tshepo makes a habit of asking, right at the end
of the interview: “How are you planning to deal with these issues you have
mentioned to me?” This induces forward thinking, and it is quite amazing how
the expression in people’s eyes change when they hear it like this. This
approach also helps emphasize that the facilitator has not come to the area
to solve people’s problems for them, but to help them think through how they
can solve their own problems.
Now, let us have a look at some participatory methods where you will be applying
your sensitive interviewing skills to come up with the information you need for your
Scoping Report.
Methods for assessing local resources
The Assets pentagon
Each local area has a number of different kinds of resources. People use these
resources to keep alive and to cope with changing seasons or weather patterns,
political change and cultural pressures. Helping people to understand and to value
the resources/assets they have, is very important.
There are 5 main KINDS OF RESOURCES/ASSETS
Natural assets: including land, plants, animals and water.
Human assets: including the skills, knowledge, understanding,
labour and good health of local people
Financial assets: including credit and loans, credit unions and
government support as well as regular inflows of money such
as remittances, pensions and other social grants
Social assets: including the culture, traditions, organizations,
friends and extended family.
Physical assets: including buildings, tools, roads, water pumps
and transport. It also includes access to information.
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Pentagon:
Five sided diagram.
Assets Pentagon
These resources can also be
called ‘assets’ or the ‘capital’
of an area. We can fill them in
and present them in an 'assets
pentagon'.
This kind of resource analysis is central to a process known as the Sustainable
Livelihoods Framework (IFAD, 2000) and provides us with a framework to analyse a
whole lot of complex information from a homestead, group or community.
For now let us look at the example of Mrs Mdletshe from Hlabisa, KZN). This
information could be filled into the assets Pentagon as a way of presenting the
information. The resource/assets information of the entire area could also be used
when the facilitator is preparing a scoping report. A big scale presentation drawing
of the assets pentagon is often a useful presentation tool at report back meetings
(see Activity 9).
Table 4: Livelihoods assets of an example household (Mrs Mdletshe, Hlabisa, KZN)
Human
assets
Natural
assets
Financial
assets
Physical
assets
Social
assets
She can do
physical work
(labour).
Little education.
She does not own
land.
She has some
access to
common property/
communal
resources.
She does not own
livestock.
She is
unemployed.
No access to
credit.
She rents out one
of her rooms.
She receives 2
child grants for
looking after
orphans.
Poor
housing.
Poor water
supply.
Poor
communic
ation
facilities.
Low social status.
Discrimination
against women.
Strong links with
family and friends.
Traditions and
reciprocal
exchanges.
Belongs to a
community garden
group.
(Photo: Erna Kruger, 2008.)
In the next sections we are going to consider a number of participatory processes
that will help us to analyse (as a group) what resources are available, how we are
using them, what the issues are and what potential solutions there could be to the
issues, or actions for positive change.
Most of these processes can be used at village, group or household level. You can
even use them as an individual to help you to better understand people's situations.
Chapter 2: Facilitation of homestead food gardening
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Finding out about natural resources
In a rural or farming environment, natural resources are a very important aspect of
peoples' lives. People depend on their environment to provide their basic needs of
shelter, water and food. They also use resources for productive activities.
An ongoing challenge for people in an area is to use the available resources in ways
that are sustainable. There are many examples in South Africa and elsewhere that
people in rural areas have developed good practices and are using their resources
responsibly. When you work with people in a community, try to find out as much as
you can about their traditional or indigenous practices. There are – of course – also
many examples of poor resource use actions, and these will also become evident
when you start to interact with people in an area.
Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) methods and techniques (Chambers, 1992) can
be used to assess the natural resources in an area. These are methods that have
been designed to work with groups of people to help them to analyse their situations
and to come up with potential actions for change and improvement. In this context,
we use the term “assess” to mean observing, describing and recording the present
local situation. You will use a variety of skills such as observing, listening, interviewing,
discussing and reflecting in order to get a clear picture of the current situation.
To assess or analyse the issues and relationships within resource use (e.g. access and
availability), we will look at three PRA methods that you could use with your
households, namely:
Resource Mapping;
Transect Walks; and
Ranking and scoring.
Resource Mapping
We can start with drawing a resource map. Resources might be available, but
certain aspects such as cultural taboos or ownership could result in them not being
accessible to people who need them.
A resource map is simply a drawing of the area, which can be used for different
purposes. Resources maps can be used to:
Get a clear picture of the physical features of the area (e.g. hills, rivers, wetlands,
roads, erosion, etc.);
Indicate the natural resources that are present (e.g. forests, grasslands, grazing
areas, fields, land-use, types of crops planted, areas under cultivation, irrigation,
etc.);
Indicate problems in land-use and resource availability, or access of different
groups to different resources;
Compare the same area at different times. This is called a historical resource
map; and
Show where actions can be taken to improve the situation. In this case the
resource map can be used as a planning tool.
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The following example shows a resource map of Nthunzi in KwaZulu-Natal.
Figure 3: Resource map drawn in Nthunzi, Bulwer, 1993. (Eds Cousins, T. & Kruger, E. 1993)
Chapter 2: Facilitation of homestead food gardening
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Activity 2:
Read a resource map
Aim
Extract information from a resource map.
Instructions
Examine the map (see Figure 3) to find answers to the following questions:
From how many rivers can the community draw water?
Which natural resources are present in the community?
What physical features are shown?
What do you think the purpose was of drawing the resource map?
Time: 1 hour
Making a resource map can help people in an area to get a clear picture of the
physical features and resources that they consider important. Maps drawn by local
people can show their perspective and reveal much about their local knowledge of
resources, their use of the land, settlement patterns and who controls and makes
decisions about the use of resources. The primary concern is not to draw an
accurate map, but to get useful information about local perceptions of the natural
resources.
Drawing the map and the map itself is only the beginning of the process of finding
out about availability and present use of resources. The map is a tool that can be
used to stimulate discussion. It is when members of a household or community
discuss the issue that real learning takes place that can lead to improved use of
resources.
By doing the next activity, you can practise
doing a resource map of an area, which you
know well. This is a group activity.
It is when members of a
household or community
discuss the issue that real
learning takes place that
can lead to improved use
of resources.
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Activity 3:
Draw a resource map of an area
Aim
To practise making and using a resource map.
Instructions
Practise in a group of 3-5 people how to make a resource map that focuses on
specific features and issues in an area.
Here are suggestions to guide you through a process consisting of the following
steps:
Plan Do Reflect
Plan
1. Decide on a suitable place where you can do your resource map. It can be at
one of the group members’ home village, or an area all group members know.
2. Discuss in your group why you want to draw this map. What is its purpose? Choose
two or three features and issues that you will do on your resource map. If you try to
show too many features and issues, it will become confusing. Look at this list for ideas:
-Physical features: hills, valleys, large rocks, and erosion
-Types of natural vegetation such as a grassland, bushes, trees and wetlands
-Cultivate areas showing cropping and crop types
-Land-use such as gardens, fields, grazing areas, and forests
-Rivers and water points
-You can also include the village infrastructure such as the boundary, roads, houses,
schools, markets, clinics, churches and special places such as sacred sites.
3. Draw up a list of questions to which you want to find answers. Here is a list to give
you an idea:
-What resources are plentiful?
-What resources are scarce?
-Where do people go to collect water and who collects water?
-Where do people go to collect firewood and who collects firewood?
-Who looks after the gardens?
-Do people have livestock and who looks after them?
-What kinds of livestock are there?
-Where do the livestock go to graze?
-Which resource do people have the most problems with?
-What is the problem?
-Why is there a problem?
What is the community doing to solve the problem?
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Do
1. Take a walk through the area and make a note of the features and issues you
want to investigate.
2. As a group, you can make a drawing of the map on the ground first. Mapping on
the ground has a number of benefits:
-It is easily visible to the group
-It encourages a lot of discussion
-It allows for a lot of detail
-It can be changed or corrected easily
-You can add to it, as the space on the ground is not limited.
Of course the big disadvantage is that you cannot take it away. If you want to keep
a copy you have to write it onto paper.The diagram below shows a group creating
a resource map on the ground and it gives an idea of what it looks like on paper.
A picture of a group creating a resource map on the ground
3. Draw your map on paper. You can use colours to show different features.
4. The map is a tool, which should lead to a discussion about resources. When the
map is completed, discuss in your group what you have observed about the present
availability and use of resources in the area. Use the set of questions you formulated
to guide the discussion.
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Transect:
Is a straight line that
cuts across a piece of
land or terrain.
Reflect
Reflect on your resource mapping activity and write answers to the following
questions:
1.What worked well?
2.What did you find most difficult?
3.What changes would you make to a resource mapping activity in the future?
4.What have you learned from your experience?
(Editors: Kruger, E; Mearns, M; Randall, C., 2009)
Time: 5 hours
The Resource Map is a good tool with which to begin a process, because it is an
easy exercise that initiates dialogue among the community members and the
facilitation team members.
A large open space should be found and the ground cleared. It is easiest to start by
placing a rock or leaf to represent a central and important landmark. Participants
are then asked to draw other things on the map that is important in the village.
Participants should not be interrupted unless they stop drawing, in which case
questions can be asked such as whether there is anything else of importance that
should be added.
Finally, the facilitator maywant to ask participants to indicate some things they
would like to see in their village that are not currently on the map – in other words to
draw a picture of what they would like the future to look like. This allows for some
initial planning ideas and encourages people to begin contributing their thoughts at
an early stage in the participatory process. (Wilde, 2001).
Transect Walks
A very useful PRA method for collecting information about an area, is to take a
transect walk. It consists of walking through an area and paying attention to specific
environmental features, resources and human activities,
and issues such as water scarcity, soil erosion or any other
problem.
Transect walks are sometimes referred to as observational
walks, because they give the people who participate in it
an opportunity to observe, discuss and identify issues of
concern to the community.
Transect walks may be taken in a straight line using the compass points, e.g. North,
South, East or West, whichever is the most suitable; or walks can also meander and
follow a particular feature in the landscape such as dongas, trees, water points.
Here is an example drawing or diagram of a transect walk in an area called
Tsupaneng in KwaZulu-Natal.
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Figure 4: Transect walk diagram, Tsupaneng, KwaZulu-Natal 1993. (Eds Cousins, T.;
Kruger, E. 1993
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Activity 4:
Read a transect diagram
Aim
Extract information from a transect diagram.
Instructions
Examine the Tsupaneng transect diagram (See Figure 4) to find answers to the
following questions:
1.What kind of soil did the group find in the valley floor, the donga floor and the
homestead garden?
2.What kind of trees and plants can be found in the woodlot?
3.What crops are grown in the homestead garden?
4.What are the problems in the upper and lower slopes?
5.What suggestions did the group have for the valley floor that is now a donga?
6.What features and issues did the group focus on in their transect walk?
7.Did you have any problems answering the above questions? Explain.
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Purpose of transect walks
Before a transect walk is undertaken, you have to be clear about the information
you want to gather. The group in Tsupaneng, for example, decided to focus on
observing and recording soils and soil erosion, which was a big problem in their area.
They also recorded the natural vegetation and cultivated plants that are growing
there. In any transect walk, people discuss problems, opportunities and possible
solutions, and record these in their diagram.
Transect walks can be useful to:
Identify issues related to land such as land use, crops cultivated, local cultivation
patterns, local technology used for irrigation, water/plant/soil conservation,
erosion, soil types, local vegetation, use of wild plants, and resources in disrepair,
e.g. dip tanks, fences, etc.
Identify issues related to other resources/facilities such as state of roads, problems
and opportunities with water points, plotting water distribution systems, etc.
In a village or homestead area it is used to discuss drainage and sanitation, use of
back yard space, location of taps, household chores, state of living structures,
interactions between different groupings, etc.
You can use transect walks at any point during an intervention or project cycle:
Assessment to establish what the present situation is;
Planning to identify what needs to be done to improve things; and
Monitoring and evaluation of resource management and development, to
check how successful a project has been.
Activity 5:
Draw a transect walk diagram
Aim
To practise drawing and using a transect walk diagram.
Instructions
Practise in a group of 3-5 people how to do a transect walk, and finalise a transect
diagram that focuses on specific features and issues.
Here are suggestions to guide you through a process consisting of the following
steps:
Plan Do Reflect
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Plan
1. Decide on a suitable place where you can do your transect walk. It can be one of
the group members’ home villages or an area all group members know.
2. Discuss in your group what the purpose is of the transect walk and what
information you want to gather. Choose 2 or 3 features and issues that you want to
explore. Look at this list for ideas:
-Land use: Crops cultivated, local cultivation patterns, local technology used for
irrigation, water/plant/soil conservation, erosion,soil types, local vegetation, use of
wild plants, resources in disrepair, e.g. dip tanks
-Resources or facilities: State of roads, problems and opportunities with water points
and sources, plotting gravity fed water system, etc.
-Village or homestead areas: Drainage and sanitation, use of back yard space,
location of taps or water point, household chores. State of living structures,
interactions between different groupings.
3. Draw up a list of questions to which you want to find answers.
Do
1.Take a walk across the area in a straight line and make notes on relevant features
that you observe. The idea is to stop at regular intervals, say every 500 meters, or
every 10 minutes, or whenever a particularly interesting feature is observed.
2.Use the opportunity while you are there to get clarity about the issues and discuss
problems and opportunities to investigate.
3.After the walk, share the notes you have made with the rest of the group and
refine your ideas.
4.Involve everyone in the group in making the transect diagram. During this time
you will continue to discuss the issues and sharpen your ideas.
Reflect
Reflect on the transect walk and making the diagram:
1.What worked well?
2.What did you find most difficult?
3.What changes would you make to a transect walk activity in the future?
4.What have you learned from your experience?
Time: 5 hours
Ranking (preference and pair wise) and scoring (simple and matrix)
Ranking and scoring methods give participants an opportunity to assess the relative
importance of different items. It elicits people's own assessment of a situation, and
the importance of features, items and issues within this situation.
Through interviewing or questioning the assessment criteria used (the information or
opinions used to make the assessments/ judgements), a whole lot of information is
gleaned. This helps the facilitator and the local people to all deepen their
understanding of the situation. Our reasons for making choices are not always very
clear – not even to ourselves.
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If someone says for example “I prefer oranges to apples” and you then ask them
why, they may respond unexpectedly with an answer such as the one below:
World Vision participant, Bergville KZN.
(Photo: E. Kruger, 2007)
And you thought they would say oranges taste better than apples!!
There are many different ways in which ranking and scoring can be done. Here we
will look at a few different processes. Each process has a slightly different intention –
and way in which it needs to be facilitated. Once you start to feel confident with
ranking and scoring and you have facilitated these processes with a number of
groups, you can start to use your own variations – the process is flexible. For the
moment, let us look at the following ranking and scoring methods:
i.Preference ranking
ii.Pair wise ranking
iii.Simple scoring
iv.Matrix scoring
i. Preference Ranking
Ranking usually involves placing items in order of importance (1st, 2nd, 3rd, etc.).
Preference ranking is the simplest form of ranking where a list of needs, desired
outcomes, objects or features are arranged in order of priority or preference.
Each person basically votes yes/no or 1/0 (one or zero) for each item in the list.
Orange trees are hardier
than apple trees.
Birds do not eat oranges on
the trees.
Orange trees do not need
pollinators; so we only need
one tree in our garden.
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As an example, let us assume we did a water inventory with a small group of
community members, using a resource map and transect walk exercise. From these
two exercises, the following list of issues with water in the area was made:
A number of borehole pumps in the area are broken;
Borehole environments are dirty, muddy and unhygienic;
Spring sources have been trampled and fouled by cattle and people cannot use
them;
The wetland is not in a good condition and is eroding;
Flash floods coming down the dongas are washing away the fields; and
Water run-off on the roads does a lot of damage.
Now, we may want to prioritize the issues according to urgency for action.
For each item, each participant needs to give a yes or a no (a one or a zero). They
can do this by a show of hands, or by placing a stone or a seed or a tick or other
mark on a chart where the items are listed.
Let us assume our group consists of 10 people. We will ask them “Which is your most
critical issue?” and ask individuals to raise their hands if the issue you are calling out is
the most important. Then we will move on to the next issue and ask “Which is your
next critical issue or your 2nd most important issue?” and ask individuals to raise their
hands if the issue you are calling out is the next most important.
Now our list may look like this:
Table 5: Preference ranking example
Item to be ranked No of votes
for each item
Rank
A number of borehole pumps in the area are
broken
9 1
Borehole environments are dirty, muddy and
unhygienic
2 5
Spring sources have been trampled and fouled
by cattle and people cannot use them
5 4
The wetland is not in a good condition and is
eroding
1 6
Flash floods coming down the dongas are
washing away the fields
8 2
Water run-off on the roads do a lot of damage 6 3
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ii.Pair wise Ranking
This is a slightly more complicated version of preference ranking. Here, each
individual compares two items on a list at a time and decides which of the two
is preferable. This is done for each pair of items in turn. Remember that the
most interesting part of this exercise would be to unpack the reasons why
people have chosen specific items, in other words, their criteria for assessment
and the reasons for using these criteria.
Let us do an exercise in pair wise ranking:
Activity 6:
Do a pair wise ranking exercise
Aim
Practise as an individual or in a group of 3-5 people how to do a pair wise ranking
exercise.
Instructions
The key question for this exercise is:” What are your food source preferences?” (From
a livelihoods project in Niger (Catley et al., 2007). Answer the following questions and
fill in the pair wise ranking matrix (See Table 6) below.
If you are working in a group, allocate roles for the group members: one interviewer,
one recorder and a few informants.
Now, the interviewer asks the informants to suggest the sources of food in their
homesteads or village. Ask them to choose a maximum of six items for this exercise. If
there are too many items, then the exercise can become unwieldy.
The recorder may then make the list. Let us assume in this case the list is as follows:
-Millet (own farm production)
-Vegetables (own production)
-Purchased food (excluding cereal bank)
-Cereal bank (millet) purchases
-Livestock production (milk and meat)
Then the recorder sets up the pair wise ranking matrix as follows:
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Table 6: Pair wise ranking matrix
Food source Millet Vegetables Purchases Cereal bank Livestock
Millet - Millet
Vegetables -
Purchases -
Cereal bank -
Livestock -
The informants are then asked pair by pair which they prefer most. For example, the
interviewer may start by asking: “Which food source, between millet and vegetables
do you prefer most?” The answer may be “millet” and that is then written into the
appropriate block.
NOTE: It does not make sense to compare millet with millet, etc., and therefore the
blocks on the diagonal would be left open. Also, the blocks below the diagonal are
a repetition of those above the diagonal, and need not be filled.
Now continue to compare the items pair by pair until the table has been completed.
The recorder needs to write down all the reasons the informants gave for their
preferences.
At the end of the exercise you may want to ask the following reflection questions:
Did the criteria and preference lists vary greatly between the informants? Why was
this so?
-What worked well?
-What did you find most difficult?
-What changes would you make to a pair wise ranking exercise in the future?
-What have you learned from your experience?
Below are the actual outcomes for the pair wise ranking exercise that was carried
out in Niger. You can compare them with yours and check the accuracy of your
exercise. (See Table 7)
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Table 7: Pair-wise ranking showing food source preferences in Niger
Food source Millet Vegetables Purchases Cereal bank Livestock
Millet - Millet Millet Millet Millet
Vegetables - VegetablesVegetables Vegetables
Purchases - Cereal Bank Purchases
Cereal bank - Cereal Bank
Livestock -
(Burns et al., 2007)
An overall preference score can then be calculated by counting the number of
times each food source was ranked the highest.
See if you can work out what the overall ranking is and fill it in the table below: (The
answers are given in small print at the end of this activity)
Table 8: Preference score, based on pair wise ranking
Food Source Score
Millet
Vegetables
Purchases
Cereal bank
Livestock
Answer to preference ranking score: Millet (4), vegetables (3), cereal banks (2), purchases (1),
livestock (0).
Time: 3 hours
iii.Simple Scoring
Ranking involves placing items in order of importance, whereas scoring
methods assign a value (or a score) to a specific item. Scoring is usually done
by using numbers or counters such seeds, stones, nuts or beans to attribute a
specific score to each item or indicator.
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Example 1
In a food security project, which aims to establish homestead food gardens, you may
want to measure the impact of the gardens on household food security. A simple
scoring exercise could be done as follows:
1.Ask project participants to identify all the food sources that contribute to the
household food basket.
2.Use visual aids to represent each of the different food sources.
3.Then ask the participants to distribute the counters amongst the different
variables to illustrate the relative proportion of household food derived from each
source.
Now look at the diagram below (See Figure 5) that shows what the results may be of
such a scoring exercise (Catleyet al., 2007).
Figure 5: An example of scoring food sources using proportional piling
Top right shows the exercise as it was done with the group: picture cards of the food sources,
with the counters (in this case beans) piled on each picture card.
On the left is the matrix of food sources and the number of counters that had been piled on the
picture cards.
Bottom right is a pie chart with percentages that have been worked out from the piles of
counters for each food source.
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Questions:
1.What percentage of food comes from the project garden in the example given
above?
2.Which food source makes up the largest proportion of a household’s food? What
percentage can be allocated to this food source?
3.What percentage of food for the household comes from outside the community?
(HINT:This is a combination of two food sources mentioned in the example
above)
With simple scoring each participant's preferences can be scored, and then added
together to create the overall score. In the example above a joint pile of counters
was created. Look at the example below to see how the two exercises would differ.
A NOTE ON COUNTERS:
When doing scoring on a community level, we usually give people counters
such as beans, small stones, etc. It is sometimes difficult to know how many
of these counters to give each person that is involved and one does not want
to be doing a lot of counting of beans while doing your exercise. Many of
your participants may also not be literate enough to be doing lots of
counting themselves.
Proportional piling is a nice way around this difficulty. Here the participants
are asked to distribute 100 counters (that you have given them pre-counted
– their pile) amongst the different variables or indicators in the table/
matrix, with the largest number of counters (the largest pile) being assigned
to the most important indicator or item, and the smallestnumber of
counters (the smallest pile) being assigned to the least important indicator
or item.
Although using 100 counters makes it easier to automatically assign a
percentage score to the results of your scoring exercise, it is not essential that
you use this many. Often it is quicker to use fewer counters (say 20 for
example). As a general rule, you can use 10 counters for every two variables
that are being compared.
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Example 2:
The question asked here is: “What are the most serious constraints to agricultural
production in your area?”
Five participants make a list of constraints and agree on five constraints to compare
and score. Each participant then scores the constraints individually. They are given 5
counters (stones …) each. These 5 counters are divided among the five constraints
according to each participant's preference. See the Table 9 below for a possible
outcome of their scoring exercise.
Table 9: Table of individual participant scoring of agricultural constraints
Constraints
Participants Total
Score Ranking
A B C D E
Drought 2 3 5 1 2 13 1
Pests 0 2 0 3 1 6 2
Weeds 2 0 0 0 0 2 4
Costs of inputs 1 0 0 1 1 3 3
Labour shortage 0 0 0 0 1 1 5
(RUAF, March 2004)
iv Matrix scoring
In matrix scoring or ranking we are now comparing a number of items with a
number of criteria against which each item is scored. (In the previous ranking
and scoring exercises, the items were either scored against each other, or
against one criterion, such as importance.)
This exercise is often done after the issues of importance to a community or group
has been discussed and provides for a more in-depth analysis or investigation of the
issues.
Let us continue with our investigation of food sources that we started under the
heading of pair wise ranking (Burnset al., 2008).
From further discussions related to the pair wise ranking and scoring of preferred food
sources, it became clear that the overall preference for millet from own production
was largely attributed to the volume or quantity of food that is produced from this
source. The assessment team also asked the participants what sources provided the
most nutritious or healthy foods, as opposed to just largest quantities.
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Consensus:
Agreement.
Based on the discussion, the facilitation team and the participants agreed on the
following four broad categories of food preference indicators:
1.Availability (quantity/volume);
2.Income earning or savings potential;
3.Accessibility; and
4.Nutrition/health value.
Participants were then asked to score the five food sources against each of these
four food preference indicators.
This was done using visual aids to represent each food source (Remember from
Figure 5, picture cards of the food sources were used). A millet stem was used to
represent millet from own production, a broad green leaf was used to represent
vegetable production, a handful of coins was used to represent food purchases, a
small bag of ground nuts was used to represent cereal bank purchases and a bottle
top was used to represent livestock production (milk and meat).
After carefully explaining what each visual aid symbolised, the facilitation team
asked the participants to use fifty counters to score each of the food sources (millet,
vegetables, purchases, cereal bank and livestock) against the first food preference
indicator (availability).
The exercise was then repeated for each of the other three
food preference indicators. The physical distribution of counters
was done by one volunteer, but this was based on group
consensus.
Table 10 below shows the outcome of the matrix ranking exercise:
Table 10: Matrix scoring of different food sources against indicators of preference.
Millet Vegetables Purchases Cereal
Bank Livestock
Availability
(quantity/volume) 1512 5 13 5
Access
(easy to come by) 22 8 3 12 4
Income earning and
savings potential 12 13 0 8 17
Nutritional
value 6 17 6 6 15
TOTAL55 50 14 40 41
(Catley et al., 2007)
Note: Although livestock ranked the lowest during the pair wise ranking (See Figure 5 above),
against specific indicators such as income potential and nutritional value, it ranks much higher
than some of the other food sources.
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Transect:
A straight line that
cuts across a piece of
land or terrain.
Matrices:
Plural of matrix.
Questions:
1.What rank does livestock as a food source have in the matrix scoring exercise in
Table 10? (HINT: Compare the totals in the bottom row and rank them, giving 1 as
the highest rank and 5 as the lowest.)
2. Why do you think the ranking for livestock is different in the matrix ranking
exercise as compared with the pair wise ranking exercise?
Many different issues related to resources can be explored using resource matrices.
Some examples are:
Uses of different types of water sources (boreholes,
rives, springs) for different needs (drinking, cattle,
washing);
Types of natural vegetation and their uses;
Sources of income from natural resources and their uses (or importance);
Ranking the severity of diseases within the community, and where and how they
are treated;
Different assets in the community and how access is managed (who has access);
and
Different types of crops grown and different uses of these crops.
Activity 7:
Draw a matrix ranking diagram
Aim
To practise matrix ranking.
Instructions
Practise in a group of 3-5 people a matrix ranking activity
that focuses on a resource issue.
Here are suggestions to guide you through a process
consisting of the following steps:
Plan Do Reflect
Plan
1.Decide on the resource issue that you want to explore. It could be land use,
water use, erosion, and sources of income. Look at the above list for additional
ideas. Choose one that your group can do easily.
2.Where possible find a person (informant) who has local knowledge and is willing
to discuss the issues with your group
3.Then decide on the criteria you want to use to explore these issues. For example,
if you want to explore land-use then you might list the following criteria:
landownership and access, income generation, food production, wild foods,
fodder, firewood, problems.
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4.Agree on the scale you will use to score or rank the items. You can rank out of five
or more; where 1 is the least preferred option and 5 is the most preferred. You can
also use the proportional piling method that was described under the heading
simple scoring in the text above.
5.Collect the counters for ranking. You can use beans, small stones seeds, or any
other small objects that are easily available.
Do
1.Prepare your matrix diagram.
Along the top of your matrix, write the categories showing different types of land use.
Along the side of your matrix, write the criteria you have listed.
Here is an example of how a group started preparing their matrix and what it looked
like when they had completed it:
Figure 6: An example of a group busy with a matrix ranking exercise
(Pretty et al., 1995)
2.Each person uses the counters to show how they would score the items.
Discussion takes place until there is agreement in the group about the ranking of
each item. The agreed number of counters I then places in each block
3.The final results are now recorded and the diagram is completed.
Reflect
Reflect on the matrix ranking activity:
-What worked well?
-What did you find most difficult?
-What changes would you make to the matrix ranking activity in the future?
-What have you learned from your experience?
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Methods for assessing stakeholder involvement
Venn diagrams and institutional profiles help us to better understand the role and
nature of organisations in a village. We are now looking at participatory methods
that will help us with the stakeholders’ section of our Scoping report framework
(Table 2)
Venn diagrams
Venn diagramming is a method that is used to understand organisations (local and
others), their linkages and their relationships. It is often used in a situation analysis or
assessment to find out what the roles of the different organisations are, how they get
on and how this impacts on what happens in the community. It is often easy to see
from this exercise where the gaps or the major stumbling blocks are.
Venn diagrams can be used with individuals and small groups. If you are working
with a large group of people, you will have to divide them into smaller groups (5-8
people). You can organise separate focus groups of men and women. Be sure that
the poorest and most disadvantaged are included, or have their own groups, as
appropriate.
In this exercise, you will use circles of varying size, which you have cut out of paper or
carton beforehand.
With Venn diagramming, you can investigate two questions or criteria.
The two criteria are reflected by:
(i)The size of the circle; and
(ii)The relative distance of the circles from each other, or from a
central point on the chart where they will be placed.
For example the size of the circle could reflect the relative size of the organisation,
while its distance from a central point on the chart could represent its
impact/importance to daily life in the village.
Or the size of the circle could mean the relative importance/impact of this
organisation to village life, while the distance between the circles could show how
closely the various organisations work together.
FACILITATOR’S NOTE
You have to carefully think through which
two aspects you want to investigate otherwise
the exercise can become confusing and
frustrating for participants!
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Using the criteria from the last example, i.e. size – relative importance and distance =
how closely organisations work together the procedure is as follows:
1.First, participants are asked to name the various organisations that have an
influence on life in the village, and these are listed.
2.Next, participants are asked to choose a circle for each organisation, based on
the first criterion, e.g. showing the relative importance of each organisation to the
group. The more important the organisation, or the greater its impact on their
lives, the larger its circle.
3.These circles are then placed in relationship to each other, based on the second
criterion, e.g. how well they work together. Theycan overlap, be next to each
other, close to each other or far away from each other, depending on their
degree and type of contact in the real world.
This means for example if organisations are working together closely, their two
circles will overlap. If an organisation is important to a community,but they do
not have a good relationship, the organisation is given a large circle, which is
placed, far away from the central circle representing your group or community.
The Venn diagram can be traced on the ground, but it is especially clear (and fun) if
coloured paper circles are used on a large sheet of paper. As mentioned above, it is
helpful to cut out the circles of paper in different colours and sizes ahead of time.
Facilitation Tool 1:
Facilitation of a Venn diagram exercise
Facilitation of a Venn diagram exercise
1.Start by asking the participants to list the local groups and organisations, as well
as outside institutions, that are most important to them. Which organisations and
groups work with the community? Are they organised according to economic,
social, environmental, other issues? What is the relative importance of the
organisations?
2.Which groups assist households to overcome keyconstraints (e.g. related to land,
livestock, sickness, nutrition, domestic violence, lack of income)? What services
do they provide (information, training, projects, credit, and other kinds of
assistance)?
3.What groups are exclusively for women? For men? Youth? Are certain groups
excluded from some of the organisations (e.g. men, women, the landless, certain
ethnic groups)? If so, which ones and why? What are the implications of non-
participation?
4.Are there any groups that provide advice on HIV/AIDS prevention? Or on living
with HIV/AIDS? Or mitigation, e.g. are there support groups or programmes for
individuals or households affected by HIV/AIDS? Who has/does not have access
to such services? How can the extension services link up with these groups?
5.Then, ask the participants to decide whether each organisation deserves a small,
medium or large circle (to represent its relative importance). The name (or
symbol) of each organisation should be indicated on each circle. (Make sure
each organisation has a different colour, if possible.)
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6.What are the linkages between local groups and outside institutions? Ask which
institutions work together or have overlapping memberships. The circles should be
placed as follows:
-Separate circles = no contact
-Touching circles = information passes between institutions
-Small overlap = some co-operation in decision making
-Large overlap = a lot of co-operation in decision making
7.Discuss as many institutions as possible and ask the participants to position them in
relation to each other. There may be a lot of debate and repositioning of the
circles until consensus is reached.
Below is a diagram of what a completed Venn diagram might look like.
Figure 7: Venn diagram of institutions in a Santiago Island village.
(Wilde, 2001)
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Institutional profiles
Institutional Profiles are tools that help us to learn more about the nature of the
institutions/ organisations identified in the Venn Diagrams.A chart or table is created,
and each institution is added: We examine what they have accomplished, and
what they would further need to foster their development work.
Whereas the Venn Diagrams reveal the importance of local and other institutions
and the degree of interaction between them, the Institutional Profiles show details
about how these institutions function, and for what purposes. This information will be
very important when the community is planning development activities.
The following organisations or institutions are often active in the broader food security
environment, and some of them may also be active in your area:
Government Departments:
Department of Social Development (e.g. grants, soup kitchens, community
centres, pre-schools),
Department of Health (e.g. mobile clinics, school nurses, Community and
Home Based Carers),
Department of Education (e.g. National School Feeding Programme,
school gardens, local facilitators)
Department of Agriculture (e.g. support for community gardens and dip
tanks for cattle, food security projects, land care projects)
Local Municipality (provision of services such as water, in conjunction with the
Department of Water Affairs and Forestry), electricity, roads, support for some
projects in the community;
Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs); and
Community-Based Organisations (especially burial societies, churches, drama
groups, women’s groups, water committees, etc.).
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Below (Table 11) is an example of an institutional profile of a women’s group.
Table 11: Institutional Profiles of Jeded Village, Somalia: Women's Organization
Group Foundation and
Goals
Management Achievements Need
Women's
Organization
Founded in 1991 Chairwoman
Goals:
-Solve women's
problems
-Advocate rights
of women and
children
-Participate in
implementation of
development
projects.
-Solve problems
among
themselves.
-Serve as link
between women
of Jeded and aid
organizations
-Initiate income
generating
projects
-Care for
displaced families
-Elected in Congress
of women of Jeded
-Annual elections for
Chair and other
leaders
-Any woman 20
years or older may
be a member
-Membership fee is
1000 Somali Shillings
-Meets once a
month
-Links with women's
groups in other
villages
-Helped to
resettle families
coming from
the Civil War in
the South
-Sanitation
activities
-Created
income
generating
projects such
as weaving
mats
-Fund raising
for business
activities
-Training
-Space
-Equipment
-Income
generating
activities
(Wilde, 2001)
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Activity 8:
Create an institutional profile
Aim
To use an example of a known organisation or local institution and to develop an
institutional profile for this institution. Design a set of questions that you would need to
ask to get the required information.
Instructions
1. Think about a local or community based organisation that is WELL known to you. Fill
their details in the table below.
2. Then write down which questions you would need to ask this organisation to get
the required information.
Table 12: Institutional profile
Group Foundation and
Goals
Management Achievements Need
QUESTIONS TO ASK THE ORGANISATION
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.….
9.….
10.…. What are you planning to do to solve your issues?
Time: 2 hours
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Facilitation Tool 2:
Community action plan -
Ideas for running a planning workshop
Community action plan
This is a planning method or process. It can help communities, groups or even
individuals to formulate concrete and realistic plans for implementing development
activities and identify needs for other services. The action plan builds on the situation
analysis or scoping exercise, and should focus on the development activities most
likely to succeed.
Examples of questions to ask while facilitating an action plan:
1. Which plans include activities that will directly benefit women, men or both?
2. Which action plans include development activities that will directly benefit the
most disadvantaged (e.g. the landless), or most, or all of the community?
3. Which benefits/costs will the proposed activities implyfor households with
chronically ill members or households affected by HIV/AIDS?
4. Are there criteria or requirements that would exclude the poorer or vulnerable
households from participating? (See note below.)
5. Are the time lines, cost estimates and responsibilities well described and clarified in
the matrix? What needs to be added or clarified?
6. What are the next steps necessary for all role players to take in order to make this
happen?
- What are households themselves planning to do immediately?
- What ideas can they come up with to go as far as possible without assistance?
- What are community leaders planning to do next?
- What are the next steps that rural extension workers will take?
- What will other organisations need to do/ commit themselves to?
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NOTE: Including the poor:
Barnett & Grellier (2003) quote several examples of project conditions or
requirements that have tended to exclude the poorest households from
participating, saying:
“There are exciting stories of smallholder farmers across the region who are
now achieving improved production and market access, but we have
scrutinized those reports to see – do, and if not, then at least, could the
hungry also benefit from this? If we don’t ask this question rigorously – and
act on it right now – then what hope do we have of achieving the MDGs by
2015?”
Examples of project criteria that exclude the poorest households:
Typically assets are required for project participation in Uganda,
Tanzania, Malawi and Zambia:
Zero grazing: Access to grass and other fodder or land on which to
grow elephant grass before the arrival of livestock is required; as is
labour to cut grass; shelter and fencing for livestock and access to
water.
Conservation agriculture: Requirements include access to land, access
to labour, access to cash or credit for pesticides, equipment, etc.
Irrigation: requirements include access to land, access to water, access
to irrigation equipment, e.g. treadle pumps, drip irrigation system,
time for management and maintenance.
Micro-credit: Requires access to approx. $0.5 per week, access to
savings groups.
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Table 13: Community action plan – example format
Priority
problem Solutions Activities Beneficiaries Who will
do it?
Costs
(who/how)
Duration/
Start
Now, while facilitating an exercise like this is not too difficult, it will be much harder to
get people to commit themselves to actions and dates. You are likely to find that
most of the problems are likely to be deferred to an outsider or someone else to
solve.
In that case you can use the ‘river-crossing’ role-play below to help people consider
their own involvement. This is a simple and useful role-play to use during a community
meeting to explore the ideas of development and change and where it comes
from.
Facilitation Tool 3:
Local involvement in development -
Crossing the River Role-Play
Facilitation of Crossing the River Role-Play (Carter, I)
This is a simple and useful role-play to use during a community meeting to explore
the ideas of development and change and where it comes from.
Three people are needed for the role-play. One person acts as the outsider who
comes to a community and offers to help someone cross the river. The river has
several useful stepping-stones. The outsider quickly carries the person on his/her
back, but gets tired and leaves them in the middle of the river on a stepping-stone,
saying he/she will return later. The person cannot find their way across the river on
their own.
The outsider returns and offers to show a second person the way across the river.
They move slowly together with the outsider holding the person's hand or pointing to
where it is safe to step. They reach the other side safely. The other person is still stuck
in the middle of the river.
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Discuss the meaning of this role-play with the group. The following questions could
guide or assist you:
What types of outsiders come to our local area to offer help? Do people ever feel
like the first person who was left in the middle of the river? Have they begun to
take action on some initiative but have then been unable to continue on their
own? Why? How could it have been better?
What was different about the approach of the outsider during the second role-
play?
What knowledge did the outsider share, and how?
How can local people make sure that they remain in control of new knowledge
and ideas?
Discuss how sharing knowledge can help many people, while doing something
for people can help only a few. After sharing knowledge (of making bread for
example), you still have as much to share. After giving away loaves of bread,
there are no more left for sharing.
Crossing the river role play
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Adding local information into the Scoping Report
Remember that before you started your scoping exercise in the community, you
prepared a framework for your scoping report. By then, you had already:
1.Done your ‘homework’, by looking at external sources of information, documents,
maps, etc., and noted this information into your Scoping Report Framework.
2.Identified, in your report framework, which local information needed to be
collected and analysed in the participatory scoping processes with the
community, and which methods you were planning to use to get this information.
Then you presented the scoping report framework and your proposed Facilitation
Plan to the leadership and other relevant organisations, and undertook that the
information would be reported back to them.
Once you completed the scoping exercise with the community, you need to add
the new information into your reporting framework. At this point you need to use your
judgement to see whether the scoping exercise succeeded in the following key
aspects:
Did it generate enough information and analysis so that all participants have a
sufficient understanding of the food security situation in the village, and the
resources (natural, human, financial, social and physical) that people could use
to improve their situation?
Did the participatory process involve a representative cross-section of households
(especially the poorest households) and organisations in the village, so that a
wide range of viewpoints was considered?
Did this result in adequate interest among households to participate in the
proposed intervention?
If the scoping exercise achieved these objectives, the Scoping Report can now be
developed, and the necessary arrangements be made to report on the results of the
scoping.In the next section, we will look at this process in more detail.
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Participatory reporting: using the Sustainable
Livelihoods Framework
Where to report findings?
When you have concluded your scoping or situation analysis/ assessment, it is a
good idea to call a meeting of potential participants, local leadership and other
stakeholders to present to them the findings and outcomes, and discuss together the
validity of these findings and possible interventions. This is also the place where you
will suggest the intervention of intensive homestead food production and water
management, as a way of dealing with SOME of the constraints and issues raised in
your scoping exercise.
At this workshop/ meeting you can also make a call for initial homestead volunteers
who would be interested in participating in a learning and mentoring process. You
can augment this list later with other volunteers or interested homesteads suggested
by role players and stakeholders. Examples could be the home-based care group,
vulnerable families who are part of a feeding scheme or soup kitchen. Government
Departments (Social Development, Health), HIV/AIDS support groups, farmers'
organisations and the like could also help to identify homestead volunteers.
Who is reporting? Those ready to say: ‘I am/we are going to…’
The facilitator should be careful NOT to always be speaking on everyone’s behalf. In
participatory processes it is customary for the local people who do an analysis, to
also report back on it to the village meeting.
Where practical, this same principle should be carried through to reporting to
leadership structures (especially in their own village) and where possible, also with
official structures.
When village people do the reporting, they need to do so as fully mandated
representatives of those who participated in the analysis.
Reporting carries the most weight (and generates the most energy) when the
reporting is done by a person who is ready to say: “I am/ we are going to…” This
implies the following:
1.The speaker has the authority to speak on behalf of him/herself or on behalf of
the group he or she is representing; and
2.He/she/they are committing themselves to act on their decision.
The content of reporting should also be action-oriented:
First: what I/we are planning to do, and by when (i.e. without outside assistance);
Then: what we need “you” and “others” to do so that I/we can do more;
Encourage them to be as explicit as possible about timing (immediate and longer